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5,990 results
  • L-serine synthesis via the phosphorylated pathway in humans. [Review]
    Cell Mol Life Sci. 2020 Jun 27 [Online ahead of print]Murtas G, Marcone GL, … Pollegioni L
  • L-serine is a nonessential amino acid in eukaryotic cells, used for protein synthesis and in producing phosphoglycerides, glycerides, sphingolipids, phosphatidylserine, and methylenetetrahydrofolate. Moreover, L-serine is the precursor of two relevant coagonists of NMDA receptors: glycine (through the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase), which preferentially acts on extrasynaptic receptors an…
  • Controlling the Growth of the Skin Commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis Using d-Alanine Auxotrophy. [Journal Article]
    mSphere. 2020 Jun 10; 5(3)Dodds D, Bose JL, … Whitfill T
  • Using live microbes as therapeutic candidates is a strategy that has gained traction across multiple therapeutic areas. In the skin, commensal microorganisms play a crucial role in maintaining skin barrier function, homeostasis, and cutaneous immunity. Alterations of the homeostatic skin microbiome are associated with a number of skin diseases. Here, we present the design of an engineered commens…
  • Auditory cognitive training improves prepulse inhibition in serine racemase mutant mice. [Journal Article]
    Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2020 Jun 01 [Online ahead of print]Guercio GD, Anjos-Travassos Y, … Panizzutti R
  • Evidence indicates that neuroplasticity-based cognitive training can improve cognition in patients with schizophrenia, but the individual response to training varies greatly between subjects. Hence, there is a need to understand the neurological underpinnings of cognitive training to reveal predictors of treatment response. D-serine is a crucial modulator of neuroplasticity, and decreased levels …
  • Enzymatic properties and physiological function of glutamate racemase from Thermus thermophilus. [Journal Article]
    Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2020 May 28; 1868(9):140461.Miyamoto T, Moriya T, … Oshima T
  • d-Amino acids are physiologically important components of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall, maintaining cell structure and aiding adaptation to environmental changes through peptidoglycan remodelling. Therefore, the biosynthesis of d-amino acids is essential for bacteria to adapt to different environmental conditions. The peptidoglycan of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus therm…
  • Mechanism of eukaryotic serine racemase-catalyzed serine dehydration. [Journal Article]
    Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2020 May 29; 1868(9):140460.Ito T, Matsuoka M, … Yoshimura T
  • Eukaryotic serine racemase (SR) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzyme belonging to the Fold-type II group, which catalyzes serine racemization and is responsible for the synthesis of D-Ser, a co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. In addition to racemization, SR catalyzes the dehydration of D- and L-Ser to pyruvate and ammonia. The bifuctionality of SR is thought to be important for D-Ser …
  • CK20 versus AMACR and p53 immunostains in evaluation of Urothelial Carcinoma in Situ and Reactive Atypia. [Letter]
    Diagn Pathol. 2020 May 26; 15(1):61.Neal DJ, Amin MB, Smith SC
  • Ancillary testing with immunohistochemistry has shown recent promise in the workup of equivocal bladder lesions. We read with interest the recent findings of Alston et al., who assessed the diagnostic utility of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) in comparison to cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in evaluation of atypia in challenging flat urothelial lesions in the differential between carcinoma in situ (…
  • Serine Racemase Expression by Striatal Neurons. [Journal Article]
    Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2020 May 22 [Online ahead of print]Takagi S, Puhl MD, … Coyle JT
  • D-serine is synthesized by serine racemase (SR) and is a co-agonist at forebrain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). D-serine and SR are expressed primarily in neurons, but not in quiescent astrocytes. In this study, we examined the localization of D-serine and SR in the mouse striatum and the effects of genetically silencing SR expression in GABAergic interneurons (iSR-/-). iSR-/- mice had …
  • TGFβ1-Smad3 signaling mediates the formation of a stable serine racemase dimer in microglia. [Journal Article]
    Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2020 May 20; 1868(9):140447.Beltrán-Castillo S, Triviño JJ, … von Bernhardi R
  • d-serine is synthesized by serine racemase (SR), a fold type II class of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. Whereas X-ray crystallography reveals that SR can be monomeric, reversible dimers having the highest racemase activity, or stable SR dimers resistant to both denaturation and reductive treatment, showing reduced racemase activity have been detected in microglia and astrocytes; t…
  • d-glutamate and Gut Microbiota in Alzheimer's Disease. [Review]
    Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Apr 11; 21(8)Chang CH, Lin CH, Lane HY
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiota and glutamate are potential novel interventions to be developed for dementia. Exploring comprehensive cognitive functions in animal and human trials with glutamate-related NMDAR enhancers are warranted to examine d-glutamate signaling efficacy in gut microbiota in patients with AD and other neurodegenerative dementias.
  • D-Cycloserine destruction by alanine racemase and the limit of irreversible inhibition. [Journal Article]
    Nat Chem Biol. 2020 Jun; 16(6) Chiara C, Homšak M, … de Carvalho LPS
  • The broad-spectrum antibiotic D-cycloserine (DCS) is a key component of regimens used to treat multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. DCS, a structural analog of D-alanine, binds to and inactivates two essential enzymes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, alanine racemase (Alr) and D-Ala:D-Ala ligase. Inactivation of Alr is thought to proceed via a mechanism-based irreversible ro…
  • D-Serine, the Shape-Shifting NMDA Receptor Co-agonist. [Review]
    Neurochem Res. 2020 Jun; 45(6):1344-1353.Coyle JT, Balu D, Wolosker H
  • Shape-shifting, a phenomenon wide-spread in folklore, refers to the ability to physically change from one identity to another, typically from an innocuous entity to a destructive one. The amino acid D-serine over the last 25 years has "shape-shifted" into several identities: a purported glial transmitter activating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a co-transmitter concentrated in excitato…
  • C-Terminal 1-Aminoethyltetrazole-Containing Oligopeptides as Novel Alanine Racemase Inhibitors. [Journal Article]
    Molecules. 2020 Mar 13; 25(6)Kondacs LA, Orenga S, … Gray M
  • In clinical culture media inoculated with patient samples, selective inhibition of commensal bacteria is essential for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment, as they can mask the presence of pathogenic bacteria. The alanine analogue, 1-aminoethyltetrazole was investigated as a potential alanine racemase inhibitor. For effective uptake and enhanced and selective antibacterial activity, a libr…
  • Accelerated identification of serine racemase inhibitor from Centella asiatica. [Journal Article]
    Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 13; 10(1):4640.Rani K, Tyagi M, … Srinivasan A
  • Serine racemase (SR) converts the free form of L-serine into D-serine (DS) in the mammalian brain. The DS functions as a co-agonist of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. The over- activation of NMDA receptor leads to many neurological disorders like stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and an effective inhibitor of SR could be a corrective method for the receptor over-act…
  • Comprehensive Immunoprofiles of Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes. [Journal Article]
    Cancers (Basel). 2020 Mar 05; 12(3)Kim M, Joo JW, … Cho NH
  • In recent years, renal epithelial tumors have been among the fastest reclassifying tumors, requiring updates to the tumor classification system. Nonetheless, immunohistochemistry (IHC) remains the most widely used tool for renal epithelial tumors. In this proposal, we aimed to create the most efficient IHC panel for categorizing the diverse subtypes of renal tumors, and to find out more specific …
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