- Antioxidant potentials and effects on the hematology and osmotic fragility scores of a polyherbal formulation used in Southeast Nigeria. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Jul 17
- Background In this study, the hematological and antioxidant potential as well as the osmotic fragility effects of a Nigerian polyherbal formulation were evaluated. Materials and methods A total of 40…
Background In this study, the hematological and antioxidant potential as well as the osmotic fragility effects of a Nigerian polyherbal formulation were evaluated. Materials and methods A total of 40 fats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as the control group, and the rest were assigned increasing daily oral administration of the extract for 28 days. At the end of treatment, blood was collected for hematological and osmotic fragility studies. The free radical scavenging effect of the extract was investigated via different in vitro models as well. Results Results showed that the nitric oxide scavenging and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activities of the extract were significant (p < 0.05) and compared favorably with that of vitamin C. At 200 and 400 μg/mL, the nitric oxide scavenging activities for Ajumbise Polyherbal Extract (APE) were 60.71 ± 0.25% and 59.49 ± 0.98%, respectively, whereas for the same concentrations of vitamin C, 74.60 ± 0.25% and 85.24 ± 0.14 scavenging activities were obtained. The (DPPH) activity at 100 μg/mL was 81.24 ± 0.02% for the extract and 96.22 ± 0.18% for vitamin C. However, at all concentrations, the extract had significantly lower Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity than vitamin C. Red blood cell counts (RBCC), hemoglobin and packed cell volume values (PCV) were significantly lowered only in groups treated with 400 and 800 mg/kg of the extract (p < 0.05), whereas other RBCC parameters and white blood cell counts (WBCC) were not significantly affected (p < 0.05). Platelet (PLT) count was also significantly lowered in all extract-treated groups. The extract also significantly reduced RBCC percentage hemolysis (p < 0.05). Conclusions Ajumbise polyherbal may be free of hematoxicity and may improve the integrity of the RBC membrane due to its appreciable antioxidant activity.
- Phytochemical/Antioxidant Properties and Individual/Synergistic Actions of Salvia officinalis L. Aqueous Extract and Loperamide on Gastrointestinal Altering Motor Function. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Food 2019 Jul 16
- Medicinal plants are known by pharmacological relevance and were used for long time to prevent/treat numerous gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The current study focuses on the phytochemical/antioxida…
Medicinal plants are known by pharmacological relevance and were used for long time to prevent/treat numerous gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The current study focuses on the phytochemical/antioxidant characteristics of sage aqueous extract (SAE), as well as its pharmacological actions on altering motor function in the intestine and related disruptions. In vitro phytochemical/antioxidant properties were investigated by colorimetric/biochemical methods. Male rats were divided into seven groups of six animals in each: control (C), castor oil (CO), CO + loperamide (LOP, 10 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.), CO + various doses of SAE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, b.w., p.o.), and the mixture (MIX: SAE, 50 mg/kg, b.w., p.o. + LOP, 5 mg/kg, b.w., i.p.) group. In vivo GI/physiological/pharmacological actions of SAE were explored based on the watery/frequent stools, enteropooling, and GI transit time, as well as their associated disturbances. The aqueous extract of S. officinalis contains high tannins/flavonols/anthocyanin contents and a strong, free radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 48.56 ± 0.34 μg/mL). SAE/MIX significantly reduced CO-induced diarrhea in a dose-dependent manner. SAE/MIX decreased also the gastric and intestinal mucosal malondialdehyde/hydrogen peroxide levels and preserved the normal activities/levels of enzymatic/nonenzymatic antioxidants. Added to that, we showed that SAE/MIX pretreatment provided stability of lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), hepatic transaminases, renal injury indicators, and C-reactive protein/alkaline phosphatase levels changed by CO intoxication. These findings suggested that SAE/MIX exerted benefic individual/synergistic effects confirming their use as a strategy in the treatment of GI physiological disorders.
- Significant Suppression of S. aureus Colonization on Intramedullary Ti6Al4V Implants Surface-grafted with Vancomycin-bearing Polymer Brushes. [Journal Article]
- AAACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jul 17
- Orthopedic implant associated bacterial infection presents a major health threat due to tendency for periprosthetic bacteria colonization/biofilm formation which protects bacteria from host immune re…
Orthopedic implant associated bacterial infection presents a major health threat due to tendency for periprosthetic bacteria colonization/biofilm formation which protects bacteria from host immune response and conventional antibiotic treatment. Using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), alkynylated vancomycin is conjugated to azido-functionalized side chains of polymethacrylates grafted from Ti6Al4V. High-efficiency CuAAC across the substrate is confirmed by complete surface conversion of azides by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elemental mapping of changing characteristic elements. The vancomycin-modified surface (Ti-pVAN) significantly reduces in vitro adhesion and colonization of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), a main bacterial pathogen responsible for periprosthetic infection and osteomyelitis, compared to untreated Ti6Al4V, supporting retained antibacterial properties of the covalently conjugated antibiotics. When the surface-modified intramedullary Ti-pVAN pins are inserted into mouse femoral canals infected by bioluminescent Xen-29 S. aureus, significantly reduced local bioluminescence along with mitigated blood markers for infection are detected compared to untreated Ti6Al4V pins over 21 days. Ti-pVAN pins retrieved after 21 days are confirmed with ~20-fold reduction in adherent bacteria counts compared to untreated control, supporting the ability of surface-conjugated vancomycin in inhibiting periprosthetic S. aureus adhesion and colonization.
- Gender differences in oncologic and functional outcomes in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. [Journal Article]
- COCurr Opin Urol 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Future research (clinical trials, assessment of functional outcomes using gender-specific measures) must include women with bladder cancer and raise awareness regarding the gaps in knowledge and care for these patients.
- Trends in Regionalization of Care and Mortality For Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy. [Journal Article]
- MCMed Care 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Regionalization of RC to HVH was observed from 2004 to 2013. Treatment at LVH was associated with 66% and 33% relative increases in hazard of death at 30 and 90 days, respectively. These findings support the selective referral of complex cases to higher volume centers.
- Prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with insufficient radical dose to the primary site in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy era. [Journal Article]
- HNHead Neck 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving ≥54 Gy but <66 Gy with IC achieved good local control and long-term survival.
- Effects of Pristine C60 Fullerenes on Liver and Pancreas in α-Naphthylisothiocyanate-Induced Cholangitis. [Journal Article]
- DDDig Dis Sci 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Pristine C60 fullerene inhibits liver inflammation and fibrogenesis and partially improved liver and pancreas state under acute and chronic cholangitis.
- Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Review of the Current Trend in Africa. [Review]
- WJWorld J Oncol 2019; 10(3):123-131
- Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the 11th most common cancer in woman accounting for 6.6% of all cancer cases. Approximately 70-75% bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive b…
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the 11th most common cancer in woman accounting for 6.6% of all cancer cases. Approximately 70-75% bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A few African studies have provided considerable rates of NMIBC as compared to western settings 70% to 85%. Critical step in the management of NMIBC is to prevent tumor recurrence which include transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) for staging and histological diagnosis. A second TURBT for high grade tumor, T1 tumors and intravesical adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy are essential to reduce recurrence rate. Nevertheless, variant histology, multiple, progressive and recurrent high-grade tumors are best treated with early radical cystectomy. The African literature is scanty on the management of NMIBC. Most of the histological types are squamous cell bladder cancer and may not conform to transurethral resection only but rather radical cystectomy. Most of these patients are not suitable for any form of treatment as they present with advanced disease. However, there is an increasing incidence of urothelial cancer in Africa over the years due to urbanization. It is best that major investment is made in uro-oncological care to address the growing challenge of these subtypes.
- Treatment Options and Outcomes in Nonmetastatic Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. [Review]
- TCTrends Cancer 2019; 5(7):426-439
- Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) represents 25% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer. MIBC is aggressive and requires timely management. The current standard of care is neoadjuvant chemotherapy fol…
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) represents 25% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer. MIBC is aggressive and requires timely management. The current standard of care is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy, an approach that could result in significant morbidities. Modifications in the chemotherapy regimens, as well as in perioperative care and surgical approach, have resulted in better overall toxicity profile and faster recovery. However, bladder-preservation in carefully selected patients can lead to acceptable oncological outcomes and better quality of life. Optimization of bladder-preservation protocols and proper identification of patients who tolerate and respond to various treatment modalities will significantly impact patient survival in the coming future.
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- Bioprocessed Production of Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Wine: Simultaneous Rice Wine Fermentation, Extraction, and Transformation of Piceid to Resveratrol from Polygonum cuspidatum Roots. [Journal Article]
- FFoods 2019 Jul 15; 8(7)
- A new bioprocess to produce resveratrol-enriched rice wine was established and the effects of adding Polygonum cuspidatum root powder to rice wine fermentation were investigated. In this new process,…
A new bioprocess to produce resveratrol-enriched rice wine was established and the effects of adding Polygonum cuspidatum root powder to rice wine fermentation were investigated. In this new process, piceid and resveratrol were extracted from P. cuspidatum roots to rice wine and piceid was converted to resveratrol by β-glucosidase during fermentation. After 10 days co-fermentation, rice wine with high levels of resveratrol was obtained, which contained ~14% (v/v) ethanol, 122 mg/L piceid, and 86 mg/L resveratrol. The resveratrol-enriched rice wine had enhanced antioxidant activity with significantly stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing power, and ferrous ion chelating capability. Ultrafiltration (UF) was employed in this study using hollow fibers to clarify the end product, increase shelf life without heat treatment, and maintain the quality of the phenolic compounds. The boiled and UF-treated rice wine were evaluated for ethanol, piceid, resveratrol, clarity, aerobic plate count, total acidity, pH, reducing sugars, and amino acids. The quality of the resveratrol-enriched rice wine was maintained after four weeks storage at normal refrigeration temperatures.