- Metabolic signatures of germination triggered by kinetin in Medicago truncatula. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 18; 9(1):10466
- In the present work, non-targeted metabolomics was used to investigate the seed response to kinetin, a phytohormone with potential roles in seed germination, still poorly explored. The aim of this st…
In the present work, non-targeted metabolomics was used to investigate the seed response to kinetin, a phytohormone with potential roles in seed germination, still poorly explored. The aim of this study was to elucidate the metabolic signatures of germination triggered by kinetin and explore changes in metabolome to identify novel vigor/stress hallmarks in Medicago truncatula. Exposure to 0.5 mM kinetin accelerated seed germination but impaired seedling growth. Metabolite composition was investigated in seeds imbibed with water or with 0.5 mM kinetin collected at 2 h and 8 h of imbibition, and at the radicle protrusion stage. According to Principal Component Analysis, inositol pentakisphosphate, agmatine, digalactosylglycerol, inositol hexakisphosphate, and oleoylcholine were the metabolites that mostly contributed to the separation between 2 h, 8 h and radicle protrusion stage, irrespective of the treatment applied. Overall, only 27 metabolites showed significant changes in mean relative contents triggered by kinetin, exclusively at the radicle protrusion stage. The observed metabolite depletion might associate with faster germination or regarded as a stress signature. Results from alkaline comet assay, highlighting the occurrence of DNA damage at this stage of germination, are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to kinetin induces stress conditions leading to genotoxic injury.
- Phytochrome Regulation of Seed Germination. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2019; 2026:149-156
- Seed germination assays consist of counting the number of germinated seeds, defined as seeds in which the radicle has ruptured the endosperm and emerged from the seed coat. In Arabidopsis seed germin…
Seed germination assays consist of counting the number of germinated seeds, defined as seeds in which the radicle has ruptured the endosperm and emerged from the seed coat. In Arabidopsis seed germination assays, Arabidopsis seeds are surface-sterilized, plated on agar plates containing test compounds, and incubated at specific temperatures under specific light conditions, after which the germinated seeds are counted, either with the naked eye or under a microscope. This chapter describes step-by-step protocols for Arabidopsis seed germination assays under phytochrome-dependent conditions.
- Antimicrobial and Phytotoxic Activity of Origanum heracleoticum and O. majorana Essential Oils Growing in Cilento (Southern Italy). [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jul 16; 24(14)
- There is a growing interest in a potential use of essential oils (EOs) as a replacement for traditional pesticides and herbicides. The aims of this study were to: (i) Identify the chemical compositio…
There is a growing interest in a potential use of essential oils (EOs) as a replacement for traditional pesticides and herbicides. The aims of this study were to: (i) Identify the chemical composition of the two EOs derived from Origanum heracleoticum L. and O. majorana L., (ii) evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of the EOs against some postharvest phytopathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Monilinia fructicola), (iii) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium, Clavibacter michiganensis, Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, (iv) evaluate the effect of both studied EOs on the spore germination percentage and their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against M. fructicola, and (v) study the possible phytotoxicity of the two EOs and their major constituents, carvacrol for O. heracleoticum and terpinen-4-ol for O. majorana, against tha germination and initial radicle growth of radish, lettuce, garden cress and tomato. The two EOs demonstrated promising in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activities against all tested microorganisms. EOs showed high inhibition of spore germination percentage at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 500 and 2000 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, both germination and radical elongation of selected plant species were sensitive to the oils.
- Role of redox iron towards an increase in mortality among patients: a systemic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- BRBlood Res 2019; 54(2):87-101
- An increase in biochemical concentrations of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) within the patients with an increase in serum iron concentration was evaluated with the following objectives: (a) Iron o…
An increase in biochemical concentrations of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) within the patients with an increase in serum iron concentration was evaluated with the following objectives: (a) Iron overloading diseases/conditions with free radicle form of 'iron containing' reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its imbalance mediated mortality, and (b) Intervention with iron containing drugs in context to increased redox iron concentration and treatment induced mortality. Literature search was done within Pubmed and cochrane review articles. The Redox iron levels are increased during dys-erythropoiesis and among transfusion recipient population and are responsive to iron-chelation therapy. Near expiry 'stored blood units' show a significant rise in the ROS level. Iron mediated ROS damage may be estimated by the serum antioxidant level, and show reduction in toxicity with high antioxidant, low pro-oxidant levels. Iron drug therapy causes a significant increase in NTBI and labile iron levels. Hospitalized patients on iron therapy however show a lower mortality rate. Serum ferritin is a mortality indicator among the high-dose iron therapy and transfusion dependent population. The cumulative difference of pre-chelation to post chelation ROS iron level was 0.97 (0.62; 1.32; N=261) among the transfusion dependent subjects and 2.89 (1.81-3.98; N=130) in the post iron therapy 'iron ROS' group. In conclusion, iron mediated mortality may not be mediated by redox iron among multi-transfused and iron overloaded patients.
- Green Accelerated Synthesis, Antimicrobial Activity and Seed Germination Test of Quaternary Ammonium Salts of 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jul 01; 24(13)
- A family of fifteen quaternary ammonium salts (QAs), bearing the 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane core, were obtained using for the first time two different green methods, such as microwave (MW) and ultrasou…
A family of fifteen quaternary ammonium salts (QAs), bearing the 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane core, were obtained using for the first time two different green methods, such as microwave (MW) and ultrasounds (US) irradiation, with very good yields and in much shorter times compared to the classical method, and an assay on their antimicrobial action against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was carried out. While 12 to 24 hours were required for complete alkylation of 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane by reactive halogenated derivatives in anhydrous solvent under reflux conditions, MW and US irradiation reduced the reaction time and the desired products were achieved in a few min. One of the aims of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the synthesized QAs against pathogenic bacteria, along with their impact on germination activity of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L.). The antibacterial activity of the QAs against Escherichia coli was explored by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC values varied from 0.312 to 2.5 mg/mL, highlighting the lowest values attained for the derivatives containing methoxy, chlorine and benzofurane functional groups. The viability of aerobic bacteria was determined with the Tetrazolium/Formazan Test, a method that was found to be the best alternative approach with respect to the difuzimetric method. Seeds of Triticum aestivum L. were used for the evaluation of the germination indicators, such as seed germination (SG), the relative seed germination (RSG), the relative radicle growth (RRG), and the seed germination index (GI). The toxicity studies of QAs 1, 4 and 7, at two different concentrations, showed no inhibitory effect on seed germination.
- Sorbicillinoids From the Fungus Ustilaginoidea virens and Their Phytotoxic, Cytotoxic, and Antimicrobial Activities. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Chem 2019; 7:435
- Ustilaginoidea virens, the causal fungus of rice false smut, was found in previous studies to produce two types of metabolites, ustiloxins and ustilaginoidins. However, genome sequencing of U. virens…
Ustilaginoidea virens, the causal fungus of rice false smut, was found in previous studies to produce two types of metabolites, ustiloxins and ustilaginoidins. However, genome sequencing of U. virens revealed a plethora of secondary-metabolites-biosynthetic core genes that were capable to biosynthesize unreported metabolites. A large-scale fermentation of U. virens was thus performed, and the fungal extract was chemically re-investigated. After removing the known metabolites, we found a fraction containing unknown phytotoxic substances. Fractionation of this part has led to the isolation of six new sorbicillinoids, namely ustisorbicillinols A~F (1~6), and two new sorbicillinoid-related pyrones, named ustilopyrones A (7) and B (8), together with nine known cogeners (9~17). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their NMR, HRMS, and CD spectra, while ECD, 13C NMR and optical rotation calculations were additionally used for configurational assignments. Plausible biosynthetic pathways for the new compounds were proposed. Phytotoxicity assays revealed that the major sorbicillinoids (12~14, and 16) showed strong inhibition against the radicle and germ elongation of rice and lettuce seeds, with compound 12 displaying the strongest inhibition. The isolated compounds were also evaluated for their cytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Compounds 10, and 12~14 showed moderate cytotoxicities against the tested cell lines with IC50s of 8.83~74.7 μM. Compounds 2, and 10~13 were active against the tested bacteria (MICs 4~128 μg/mL), while compounds 11~13 displayed moderate antifungal activities.
- Genome wide identification and comparative analysis of glutathione transferases (GST) family genes in Brassica napus. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jun 24; 9(1):9196
- Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, a systematic analysis of GST family mem…
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in plant development and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. However, a systematic analysis of GST family members in Brassica napus has not yet been reported. In this study, we identified 179 full-length GST genes in B. napus, 44.2% of which are clustered on various chromosomes. In addition, we identified 141 duplicated GST gene pairs in B. napus. Molecular evolutionary analysis showed that speciation and whole-genome triplication played important roles in the divergence of the B. napus GST duplicated genes. Transcriptome analysis of 21 tissues at different developmental stages showed that 47.6% of duplicated GST gene pairs have divergent expression patterns, perhaps due to structural divergence. We constructed a GST gene coexpression network with genes encoding various transcription factors (NAC, MYB, WRKY and bZIP) and identified six modules, including genes expressed during late seed development (after 40 days; BnGSTU19, BnGSTU20 and BnGSTZ1) and in the seed coat (BnGSTF6 and BnGSTF12), stamen and anther (BnGSTF8), root and stem (BnGSTU21), leaves and funiculus, as well as during the late stage of pericarp development (after 40 days; BnGSTU12 and BnGSTF2) and in the radicle during seed germination (BnGSTF14, BnGSTU1, BnGSTU28, and BnGSTZ1). These findings lay the foundation for elucidating the roles of GSTs in B. napus.
- Seeds and the Art of Genome Maintenance. [Review]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2019; 10:706
- Successful germination represents a crucial developmental transition in the plant lifecycle and is important both for crop yields and plant survival in natural ecosystems. However, germination potent…
Successful germination represents a crucial developmental transition in the plant lifecycle and is important both for crop yields and plant survival in natural ecosystems. However, germination potential decreases during storage and seed longevity is a key determinant of crop production. Decline in germination vigor is initially manifest as an increasing delay to radicle emergence and the completion of germination and eventually culminating in loss of seed viability. The molecular mechanisms that determine seed germination vigor and viability remain obscure, although deterioration in seed quality is associated with the accumulation of damage to cellular structures and macromolecules including lipids, protein, and nucleic acids. In desiccation tolerant seeds, desiccation/rehydration cycles and prolonged periods in the dry quiescent state are associated with remarkable levels of stress to the embryo genome which can result in mutagenesis of the genetic material, inhibition of transcription and replication and delayed growth and development. An increasing number of studies are revealing DNA damage accumulated in the embryo genome, and the repair capacity of the seed to reverse this damage, as major factors that determine seed vigor and viability. Recent findings are now establishing important roles for the DNA damage response in regulating germination, imposing a delay to germination in aged seed to minimize the deleterious consequences of DNA damage accumulated in the dry quiescent state. Understanding the mechanistic basis of seed longevity will underpin the directed improvement of crop varieties and support preservation of plant genetic resources in seed banks.
- Tissue level distribution of toxic and essential elements during the germination stage of corn seeds (Zea mays, L.) using LA-ICP-MS. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 May 28; 252(Pt A):657-665
- Both essential and toxic metal contaminants impact agricultural crops by bioaccumulation in plants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the tissue-level spatial distribution of metal(loids) in cor…
Both essential and toxic metal contaminants impact agricultural crops by bioaccumulation in plants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the tissue-level spatial distribution of metal(loids) in corn seeds (Zea mays, L.) from contaminated corn fields near the Xikuangshan (XKS) antimony mine in Hunan, China, and compared them with corn (Zea mays everta L., popcorn) grown in a farm in Amherst, MA that practices sustainable farming as a control. How toxic and essential metals translocate through the roots and shoots during early stages of germination was also investigated. The cleaned corn seed samples were mounted in resin blocks and longitudinally dissected into thin sections. The laser ablation parameters were optimized, and the instrument was calibrated using tomato leaf standard reference material (NIST SRM 1573a) in a pellet form. Tissue level distributions of metal(loid)s As, Cd, Hg, Sb and Zn in corn seeds collected were determined using (LA-ICP-MS). Seeds from the control farm were germinated and their roots and shoots were analyzed to determine tissue level concentrations and their spatial distributions. It was found that seeds from the XKS mine region in China had higher overall concentration of all elements analyzed due to metal(loids) absorbed from contaminated mine soils. Metal(loids) concentrations were highest in the embryo (∼360 mg/kg) and pericarp (∼0.48 mg/kg) compared with the endosperm of corn seeds. Essential element Zn was found in the embryo and emerging coleoptile and radicle. Finally, in both roots and shoots, element concentrations were highest proximally to the tip cap compared to distal concentrations and later translocated to distal tissue regions. This study offers unique insights of metal(loid) bioaccumulation and translocation in corn and thus is better able to track metal(loids) contaminants trafficking in our food systems.
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- New nitrogen-containing metabolites from cultures of rice false smut pathogen Villosiclava virens. [Journal Article]
- NPNat Prod Res 2019 Jun 10; :1-10
- Two new nitrogen-containing metabolites methyl N-acetyl-O-(4-acetylphenyl)-L-homoserinate (1), dimethyl (1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-D-glutamate (2), and two new natural products, 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-ma…
Two new nitrogen-containing metabolites methyl N-acetyl-O-(4-acetylphenyl)-L-homoserinate (1), dimethyl (1H-indole-3-carbonyl)-D-glutamate (2), and two new natural products, 1,2-O-isopropylidene-D-mannitol (3), N-acetyl-β-methyl-L-phenylalanine (4), along with five known compounds (5-9) were isolated from the rice false smut pathogen Villosiclava virens UV-8b cultured in the solid rice medium. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with the literature. These metabolites were evaluated for their antibacterial and phytotoxic activities. Compounds 5-7 showed weak inhibition against the tested bacteria, while compounds 4-6 and 9 displayed inhibitory activity against the radicle elongation of rice seeds.