- Silicon attenuates sodium toxicity by improving nutritional efficiency in sorghum and sunflower plants. [Journal Article]
- PPPlant Physiol Biochem 2019 Jul 09; 142:224-233
- Salt stress is known to negatively affect the fundamental processes in plants, reducing their growth and yield. The role of Silicon (Si) to protect the sorghum and sunflower plants against salinity s…
Salt stress is known to negatively affect the fundamental processes in plants, reducing their growth and yield. The role of Silicon (Si) to protect the sorghum and sunflower plants against salinity stress was assessed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different forms of Si application on the uptake and use efficiency of macronutrients and micronutrients in sorghum and sunflower plants under salinity stress under greenhouse conditions. Two experiments were conducted using sorghum and sunflower under greenhouse conditions. Four Si levels were applied to plants: no Si application; foliar application of 28.6 mmol.L-1; root application of 2.0 mmol.L-1; and combined Si application with both via nutrient solution and foliar spraying. Each Si treatment was applied in the absence and presence of NaCl (100 mM). Thirty days after treatments, sodium (Na+) and Si accumulation, nutrient uptake and use efficiency, and the roots and total plant dry weight were measured. Salinity stress induced nutritional imbalance and decreased dry weight production in both plant species. Our results showed that Si application alleviated the salinity stress by decreased Na+ uptake and increased nutritional efficiency, thereby favoring the total plant dry weight in sorghum by 27% and sunflower by 41%. This occurred when Si was applied either via root or in combination via root and foliar application, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate that Si application can attenuate the deleterious effects of salt stress and increase yield in sorghum and sunflower plants in a sustainable manner.
- A comprehensive expression analysis of the expansin gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum) discloses stress-responsive expansin-like B genes for drought and heat tolerances. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219837
- Expansin is a type of cell wall elongation and stress relaxation protein involved in various developmental processes and stress resistances in plant. In this study, we identified 36 potato (Solanum t…
Expansin is a type of cell wall elongation and stress relaxation protein involved in various developmental processes and stress resistances in plant. In this study, we identified 36 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genes belonging to the expansin (StEXP) gene family from the genome reference. These genes included 24 α-expansins (StEXPAs), five β-expansins (StEXPBs), one expansin-like A (StEXLA) and six expansin-like B (StEXLBs). The RNA-Seq analysis conducted from a variety of tissue types showed 34 expansins differentially expressed among tissues, some of which only expressed in specific tissues. Most of the StEXPAs and StEXPB2 transcripts were more abundant in young tuber compared with other tissues, suggesting they likely play a role in tuber development. There were 31 genes, especially StEXLB6, showed differential expression under the treatments of ABA, IAA and GA3, as well as under the drought and heat stresses, indicating they were likely involved in potato stress resistance. In addition, the gene co-expression analysis indicated the StEXLBs likely contribute to a wider range of stress resistances compared with other genes. We found the StEXLA and six StEXLBs expressed differently under a range of abiotic stresses (salt, alkaline, heavy metals, drought, heat, and cold stresses), which likely participated in the associated signaling pathways. Comparing with the control group, potato growing under the drought or heat stresses exhibited up-regulation of the all six StEXLB genes in leaves, whereas, the StEXLB3, StEXLB4, StEXLB5 and StEXLB6 showed relatively higher expression levels in roots. This suggested these genes likely played a role in the drought and heat tolerance. Overall, this study has shown the potential role of the StEXP genes in potato growth and stress tolerance, and provided fundamental resources for the future studies in potato breeding.
- Impact of plant growth regulators and soil properties on Miscanthus x giganteus biomass parameters and uptake of metals in military soils. [Journal Article]
- RERev Environ Health 2019 Jul 18
- The impact of plant growth regulators (PGRs) "Stimpo" and "Regoplant" on Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg) biomass parameters was investigated when the plant was grown in military soils with different pro…
The impact of plant growth regulators (PGRs) "Stimpo" and "Regoplant" on Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg) biomass parameters was investigated when the plant was grown in military soils with different properties from Dolyna, Ukraine and Hradcany, Czech Republic. The results showed that PGRs positively influenced the biomass parameters when the plant was grown in soil in Dolyna with good agricultural characteristics, the influence of "Regoplant" was higher and the best results were obtained with combined treatment: application to rhizomes before planting and spraying on the biomass during vegetation. Using of PGRs did not improve the biomass parameters when the plant was grown in poor soil in Hradcany. In parallel the peculiarities of the metals uptake process were studied for the following metals: chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb). The uptake behavior of the monitored elements differed based on the soil quality. According to the bioconcentration factor uptake of the abiogenic elements, Cr and Pb, was dominant in the plant roots in both soils, whereas Ni was not detected in any plant tissues. The behavior of biogenic elements (Mn, Cu, Zn) and their analogs (Sr) was different. Those elements were more intensively taken up in shoot tissues in low-nutrient sandy Hradcany soils, while they were mainly taken up in plant roots in fertile Dolyna soils. The unusual behavior of biogenic elements in the low-nutrient soils may be explained by the effect of stress. However, more research is needed focused mainly on soil properties and nutrient availability in order to confirm or disprove this hypothesis and to explore the cause of the stress. The summarized results here show that soil properties influenced Mxg biomass parameters, affected the uptake behavior of metals significantly and tested PGRs cannot be utilized universally in the production of Mxg in the poor military soils.
- Effects of Animal Strain, Dose, and Cotreatment with Saikosaponin b2 on the Pharmacokinetics of Saikosaponin a in Rats. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacokinetic data for SSa obtained in this study will play an important role in attempts to better understand the fate of SSa in rats and to explore how these saikosaponins are likely to exert their pharmacological effects in vivo. In addition, further research is needed to elucidate the interactions of saikosaponins with metabolic enzymes and transporters in order to account for the phenomena observed in this study.
- Antioxidant Potential, Phytochemicals Composition, and Metal Contents of Datura alba. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2019; 2019:2403718
- This study investigated the phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity in leaves, roots, stem, flower, and seed parts of Datura alba (D. alba). The study also assessed the heavy metal (Cr…
This study investigated the phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity in leaves, roots, stem, flower, and seed parts of Datura alba (D. alba). The study also assessed the heavy metal (Cr, Mn, Zn, and Cu) accumulation in each part of the plant. Among the phytochemicals, alkaloids were found only in leaves while tannins, flavonoids, and phenols were present in all parts of the plant. For antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging assay for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was performed using ascorbic acid as the standard. Higher activity was shown by stem extract in methanol and leaf extract in n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Furthermore, all the target heavy metals were detected in all plant sections with the highest concentration of Zn in leaves and Cu in stem, root, flower, and seed. Due to stronger antioxidant potential and phytochemical composition, D. alba could prove as valuable prospect in pharmaceutical formulations by taking part in the antioxidant defense system against generation of free radicals.
- An Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, Jujuba Fructus, and Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens Stimulates the Browning Conversion of White Adipocyte in Cultured 3T3-L1 Cells. [Journal Article]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019; 2019:3648685
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that the herbal mixture DBT1155 could potentiate the antiobesity functions of ginger, which might have potential therapeutic implications.
- Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Modulates Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Cultured Cardiomyoblasts. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2019; 10:614
- Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is an ancient herbal mixture containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, and which are commonly consumed for "qi-invigorating" (i.e., stimulating vital energy/en…
Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT) is an ancient herbal mixture containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, and which are commonly consumed for "qi-invigorating" (i.e., stimulating vital energy/energy metabolism) as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The pharmacological activities of DBT in anti-oxidation, estrogenic, hematopoietic, and immunogenic have been reported; however, the role of DBT in cellular energy metabolism has not been determined. Here, we employed an extracellular flux analyzer to evaluate the mitochondrial respiration of cultured H9C2 cardiomyoblasts in present of DBT. The herbal extract of DBT was qualified chemically for the major ingredients, i.e. astragaloside, calycosin, formononetin, Z-ligustilide, and ferulic acid. The anti-oxidant activities of DBT, as well as its major ingredients, were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and protective effect in tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-treated cultured cardiomyoblasts. In addition, a real-time oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in herbal extract-treated cultured cardiomyoblasts was revealed by using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. In addition, the transcript expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PCG-1α) and other genes relating to mitochondria biogenesis were determined in cardiomyoblasts under different herbal treatments. DBT possessed the strongest anti-oxidant activity and protective effects on the oxidatively stressed cardiomyoblasts. By revealing the OCR in mitochondria, the health state of cultured cardiomyoblasts under DBT was improved via increase of basal respiration, proton leak, non-mitochondria, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Furthermore, the transcriptional activities of genes responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis and DNA replication were stimulated by application of DBT in cultures.
- Transcriptome profiling of Puccinellia tenuiflora during seed germination under a long-term saline-alkali stress. [Journal Article]
- BGBMC Genomics 2019 Jul 17; 20(1):589
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply that the survival of P. tenuiflora in saline-alkali soils is due to a combination of at least two regulatory mechanisms and the high nutrient uptake capacity of P. tenuiflora plays a pivotal role in its adaptation to those stress. Taken together, our results highlight the role of nutrition uptake in saline-alkali stress tolerance in plants.
- Characterization of the Hippophae rhamnoides WRKY gene family and functional analysis of the role of the HrWRKY 21 gene in resistance to abiotic stresses. [Journal Article]
- GGenome 2019 Jul 17
- Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a plant with economic and ecological value. It is uniquely capable of growing well under salt and drought stress. WRKY transcription factors play important r…
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is a plant with economic and ecological value. It is uniquely capable of growing well under salt and drought stress. WRKY transcription factors play important roles in the ability of plants to resist stress. In this study, 48 HrWRKY genes were identified based on RNA sequencing of H. rhamnoides. Evaluation of expression pattern of HrWRKY 1, HrWRKY 17, HrWRKY 18, HrWRKY 21, HrWRKY 33-2, HrWRKY 40-2, HrWRKY 41 and HrWRKY 71 suggested that they were involved in abiotic stress. Interestingly, HrWRKY 21, one of eight HrWRKY genes, was a positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance in H. rhamnoides. In addition, most morphological attributes of roots in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum lines (overexpressing HrWRKY 21) were also markedly increased compared with the wild-type (WT), including total lengths, specific root lengths and surface areas. Stress tolerance of transgenic lines was also correlated with higher antioxidant activity (SOD and POD), lower percentage of relative conductivity (REC) and lower activity of malondialdehyde (MDA) under stress conditions. These findings represent a foundation of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms driving resistance to adverse conditions in plants; they are a promising step towards development of tree cultivars with improved tolerance to abiotic stress.
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- Land use is a determinant of plant pathogen alpha- but not beta-diversity. [Journal Article]
- MEMol Ecol 2019 Jul 17
- Little is known about the diversity patterns of plant pathogens and how they change with land use at a broad scale. We employed DNA metabarcoding to describe the diversity and composition of putative…
Little is known about the diversity patterns of plant pathogens and how they change with land use at a broad scale. We employed DNA metabarcoding to describe the diversity and composition of putative plant pathogen communities in three substrates (soil, roots, and leaves) across five major land uses at a national scale. Almost all plant pathogen communities (fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria) showed strong responses to land use and substrate type. Land use category could explain up to 24% of the variance in composition between communities. Alpha-diversity (richness) of plant pathogens was consistently lower in natural forests than in agricultural systems. In planted forests, there was also generally low pathogen alpha-diversity in soil and roots, but alpha-diversity in leaves was high compared with most other land uses. In contrast to alpha-diversity, differences in within-land use beta-diversity of plant pathogens (the predictability of plant pathogen communities within land use) were subtle. Our results show that large-scale patterns and distributions of putative plant pathogens can be determined using metabarcoding, allowing some of the first landscape level insights into these critically important communities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.