- Clinical Review Report: Crisaborole Ointment, 2% (Eucrisa): (Pfizer Canada Inc.): Indication: For topical treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in patients 2 years of age and older [BOOK]
- BOOKCanadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health: Ottawa (ON)
- Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, and inflammatory skin condition, characterized by eczematous lesions, pruritus, and dry skin. Pruritus of the skin causes frequent scratching and may r…
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, and inflammatory skin condition, characterized by eczematous lesions, pruritus, and dry skin. Pruritus of the skin causes frequent scratching and may result in lichenification (thickening of the skin) and secondary skin infections. The symptoms of AD wax and wane and disease severity can range from mild to severe disease. AD begins in early childhood with the majority of cases beginning before the age of five years. Although childhood symptoms resolve by adolescence, some patients’ AD symptoms will persist or develop in adulthood. The Canadian Dermatology Association reported that the lifetime prevalence of AD is up to 17%, and there is evidence to suggest that the prevalence has increased over the past 30 years. The goal of AD management is to prevent and manage flare-ups, which are recurrent episodes of worsening of symptoms that require an escalation of treatment. Although there is no cure for AD, there are several therapeutic options available to patients. The majority of patients treat AD using general skin care methods and topical anti-inflammatory therapies. However, if these practices fail to improve AD symptoms, patients may use off-label systemic immune-modulating agents or other therapies, such as phototherapy. The most commonly pharmaceutical topical therapies for patients with AD include topical corticosteroids (TCS) and topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCI). TCS are anti-inflammatory agents that act to control flare-ups and they are considered a first-line therapy for patients with AD. Side effects associated with long-term use of TCS include striae (stretch marks), petechiae (small red or purple spots), telangiectasia (small, dilated blood vessels on the surface of the skin), skin thinning, atrophy, and acne. On the other hand, TCI are steroid-free, anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant agents. In Canada, TCIs are used in the second-line setting for patients who exhibit steroid phobia or where the use of steroids is not advisable. The most common adverse event associated with TCI therapy is application site–specific burning and irritation. Crisaborole is a low-molecular-weight benzoxaborole, nonsteroidal, topical ointment. Crisaborole inhibits phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), which regulates inflammatory cytokine production. It is applied in a thin layer to the affected area, twice daily. The current CADTH Common Drug Review (CDR) submission for crisaborole is for the treatment of patients two years of age and older with mild-to-moderate AD.
- The general practice nurse workforce: Estimating future supply [Journal Article]
- AJAust J Gen Pract 2018; 47(11):788-795
- General practice nurses (GPNs) form an important component of the general practice workforce in Australia. Despite this, there is limited research on estimating their future supply. This study aims t…
General practice nurses (GPNs) form an important component of the general practice workforce in Australia. Despite this, there is limited research on estimating their future supply. This study aims to estimate the future GPN supply and the impact of a range ofpolicy and non-policy changes on workforce balances.
- The Association Between Osteocalcin and C-Reactive Protein; A Relation of Bone with Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]
- HMHorm Metab Res 2019; 51(6):353-361
- A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the evidence from observational studies regarding the association between serum osteocalcin (OC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A systemic research of the li…
A meta-analysis was performed to summarize the evidence from observational studies regarding the association between serum osteocalcin (OC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A systemic research of the literature databases including PubMed, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar was performed to identify the relevant studies up to March 2018. We used the random-effects model by the method of DerSimonian and Laird to calculate the overall effect size. Q-test and I2-statistics were used to assess between-study heterogeneity. In addition, we did subgroup analysis to detect possible sources of heterogeneity based on BMI range, gender, type of study population and age. We identified 21studies of association between serum osteocalcin and CRP eligible for the meta-analysis. The overall effect size showed a significant inverse association between OC and CRP (Fisher's z=-0.127; 95% CI: -0.166, -0.088, p<0.0001). However, the significant chi-squared statistic result, indicates a heterogeneity of effect sizes (I2=61.6, df=20, p<0.0001). The subgroup analysis found BMI range, type of study population, and age were the potential sources of heterogeneity. In addition, the strongest correlation was observed in the subgroup of obese subjects (Fisher's z=-0.264, p=0.002), less than 40 years old (Fisher's z=-0.115, p<0.0001) and healthy subjects (Fisher's z=-0.115, p<0.0001). These findings suggest that there is a significant inverse association between serum OC and CRP levels in the adult population.
- Modeling ultrasound attenuation in porous structures with mono-disperse random pore distributions using the independent scattering approximation: A 2D simulation study. [Journal Article]
- PMPhys Med Biol 2019 Jun 17
- The validity of the Independent Scattering Approximation (ISA) to predict the frequency dependent attenuation in 2D models of simplified cortical bone is studied. Attenuation of plane waves at centra…
The validity of the Independent Scattering Approximation (ISA) to predict the frequency dependent attenuation in 2D models of simplified cortical bone is studied. Attenuation of plane waves at central frequencies ranging from 1 to 8 MHz propagating in geometries with mono-disperse random pore distributions having pore diameter and pore density in the range of those of cortical bone are evaluated by Finite Difference Time Domain numerical simulations. An approach to assess the multiple scattering of waves in random media is discussed to determine the pore diameter ranges at which the ISA is applicable. A modified version of ISA is proposed to more accurately predict the attenuation in porosity ranges where it would traditionally fail. The results show that the modified ISA can model the frequency-dependent attenuation of ultrasonic wave with pore diameter and density ranges comparable to those of cortical bone with less than 10% error.
- Corrigendum: Strain-stress relationship and dislocation evolution of W-Cu bilayers from a constructed n-body W-Cu potential (2019 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 31 305002). [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Condens Matter 2019 Jun 17
- An n-body W-Cu potential is constructed under the framework of the embedded-atom method by means of a proposed function of the cross potential. This W-Cu potential is realistic to reproduce mechanica…
An n-body W-Cu potential is constructed under the framework of the embedded-atom method by means of a proposed function of the cross potential. This W-Cu potential is realistic to reproduce mechanical property and structural stability of WCu solid solutions within the entire composition range, and has better performances than the three W-Cu potentials already published in the literature. Based on this W-Cu potential, molecular dynamics simulation is conducted to reveal the mechanical property and dislocation evolution of the bilayer structure between pure W and W0.7Cu0.3 solid solution. It is found that the formation of the interface improves the strength of the W0.7Cu0.3 solid solutions along tensile loading perpendicular to the interface, as the interface impedes the evolution of the dislocation lines from the W0.7Cu0.3 solid solutions to the W part. Simulation also reveals that the interface has an important effect to significantly reduce the tensile strength and critical strain of W along the tensile loading parallel to the interface, which is intrinsically due to the slip of the edge or screw dislocations at low strains as a result of the lattice mismatch.
- Highly in-plane anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors β-AuSe with multiple superior properties: a first-principles investigation. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Condens Matter 2019 Jun 17
- Discovering highly in-plane anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with multiple superior properties (good stability, widely tunable bandgap and high mobility) are of great interest for fund…
Discovering highly in-plane anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors with multiple superior properties (good stability, widely tunable bandgap and high mobility) are of great interest for fundamental studies and for developments of novel (opto)electronic devices. By means of state-of-the-art first-principles calculations, herein we present a thorough investigation on the stability, electronic properties and promising applications of previously unexplored 2D semiconductors -- gold-selenium (β-AuSe) with strong in-plane anisotropy, whose layered bulk counterpart was synthesized fifty years ago. We show that they have stable structures, widely tunable bandgap varying from 1.66 eV in monolayer to 0.70 eV in five-layer, strong light absorption coefficient (~10&lt;sup&gt;5&lt;/sup&gt; cm&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;) within the whole visible light range, and high/ultrahigh carrier mobility (10&lt;sup&gt;3&lt;/sup&gt;-10&lt;sup&gt;5&lt;/sup&gt; cm&lt;sup&gt;2&lt;/sup&gt;V&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;s&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;). More importantly, they show highly in-pane anisotropic behaviors in absorption coefficients, photoconductance and carrier mobility. Especially, the anisotropic ratio of carrier mobility is much higher than the literature reported ones. The above findings show that the in-plane anisotropic 2D β-AuSe are promising candidates for developing polarization-sensitive photodetectors, synaptic devices and micro digital inverters based on multiple superior properties and highly anisotropic behaviors. Besides, few-layer β-AuSe systems can serve as channel materials in field-effect transistors with high mobility or be applied in solar cells with strong light absorption. Our findings demonstrate that few-layer 2D β-AuSe have great potential for multifunctional applications and thus stimulate immediately experimental interests.
- High selective reduction of nitrate into nitrogen by novel Fe-Cu/D407 composite with excellent stability and activity. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 May 23; 252(Pt A):888-896
- In this study, we develop a new composite material of Fe-Cu/D407 composite via using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with copper deposited on chelating resin (D407) to remove nitrate from the water…
In this study, we develop a new composite material of Fe-Cu/D407 composite via using nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) with copper deposited on chelating resin (D407) to remove nitrate from the water. The experimental results show that a remarkable nitrate removal and the selectivity of N2 are 99.9% and 89.7%, respectively, under the anaerobic conditions of Cu/Fe molar ratio of 1:2, pH = 3.0. Even without of inert gas and adjusting the initial pH of the solution, the removal rate of nitrate by Fe-Cu/D407 reached to 85% and the selectivity of nitrogen reached to 55%. Meanwhile, the Fe-Cu/D407 maintained preferable removal efficiency of nitrate (100% - 92%) over a wide pH range of 3-11. In addition, the removal rate of the drinking water, lake water and wastewater from the Fe-Cu/D407 is still very high and the reactivity of Fe-Cu/D407 was relatively unaffected by the presence of dissolved ions in the waters tested. Moreover, the synergetic effect of Fe, Cu and D407 in the composite Fe-Cu/D407 were well investigated for the first time according to the analyses of TPR, XPS and EIS. The catalytic mechanism and denitrification routes were also proposed.
- Atomic matching catalysis to realize a highly selective and sensitive biomimetic uric acid sensor. [Journal Article]
- BBBiosens Bioelectron 2019 Jun 07; 141:111421
- A main challenge for biomimetic non-enzyme biosensors is to achieve high selectivity. Herein, an innovative biomimetic non-enzyme sensor for electrochemical detection of uric acid (UA) with high sele…
A main challenge for biomimetic non-enzyme biosensors is to achieve high selectivity. Herein, an innovative biomimetic non-enzyme sensor for electrochemical detection of uric acid (UA) with high selectivity and sensitivity is realized by growing Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-doped CNTs). The enhancement mechanism of the biomimetic UA sensor is proposed to be atomically matched active sites between two reaction sites (oxygen atoms of 2, 8-trione, 6.9 Å) of UA molecule and two redox centers (FeII on the diagonal, 7.2 Å) of PB. Such an atomically matching manner not only promotes strong adsorption of UA on PB but also selectively enhances electron transfer between reaction sites of UA and active FeII centers of PB. This biomimetic UA sensor can offer great selectivity to avoid interferences from other oxidative and reductive species, showing excellent selectivity. An electrochemical biomimetic sensor based on PB/N-doped CNTs was applied to in situ detect UA in human serum, delivering a wide dynamic detection range (0.001-1 mM) and a low detection limit (0.26 μM). This work provides a high-performance UA sensor while shedding a scientific light on using atomic matching catalysis to fabricate highly sensitive and selective biomimetic sensors.
- Assessment of temporal variations of natural radionuclides Beryllium-7 and Lead-212 in surface air in Tanay, Philippines. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Radioact 2019 Jun 14; 208-209:105989
- Detection of radionuclides in surface air allows researchers to gain further insight on the behavior of radionuclides that may affect human radiation exposure especially in the event of a nuclear eme…
Detection of radionuclides in surface air allows researchers to gain further insight on the behavior of radionuclides that may affect human radiation exposure especially in the event of a nuclear emergency. In this study, activity concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides Beryllium-7 (7Be) and Lead-212 (212Pb) in surface air and meteorological data collected in Tanay, Philippines from January 2012 to December 2017 were evaluated to determine the impact of atmospheric conditions and processes to airborne radioactivity. Surface air concentrations of 7Be and 212Pb were found to range from 0.00779 ± 0.00188 to 11.2 ± 0.116 mBq/m3 and from 1.371 ± 0.036 to 106.6 ± 1.075 mBq/m3, respectively. 7Be and 212Pb show distinct annual trends, suggesting that atmospheric conditions affect both radionuclides differently and independently. 7Be shows two peak concentrations annually, with the first peak occurring between January to April and the second lower peak occurring between October and November. 212Pb, on the other hand, shows annual peak concentrations occurring between April and June. Ambient temperature showed strong positive correlation with 212Pb concentration in surface air and a weak negative correlation with 7Be; relative humidity and precipitation showed varying degrees of negative correlation with radionuclide concentrations in surface air. Source locations for the unusually high 212Pb activity concentrations detected on 11-13 May 2013 and 19-31 May 2015 determined using WEB-GRAPE and HYSPLIT atmospheric transport models are presented as a case study. The data and findings of this study shall serve as basis for further studies on local and regional atmospheric transport and radiological impact assessment for the implementation of an effective nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response system in the country.
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- Quantitative determination of talatisamine and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability in mouse plasma by UPLC-MS/MS. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 Jun 08; 1124:180-187
- Talatisamine, as the efficacy ingredient of Aconitum, was known as a novel specific blocker for the delayed rectifier K+ channels in rat hippocampal neurons. In this study, a rapid, selective and rep…
Talatisamine, as the efficacy ingredient of Aconitum, was known as a novel specific blocker for the delayed rectifier K+ channels in rat hippocampal neurons. In this study, a rapid, selective and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS separation method was established and fully validated for the quantitative determination of talatisamine levels in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mouse blood. A total of 24 healthy male ICR mice were divided into four groups that was administered talatisamine via intravenous at a dose of 1 mg/kg and oral administration of three doses (2, 4, 8 mg/kg). All blood samples were protein precipitate by using acetonitrile with an internal standard (IS) deltaline. The effective chromatographic separation was carried out through an UPLC BEH C18 analytical column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with an initial mobile phase that consisted of acetonitrile and 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution (containing 0.1% formic acid) with a gradient elution pumped at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Also, an electrospray ionization (ESI) was applied to quantify the talatisamine in the positive ions mode. The method validation demonstrated good linearity over the range of 1-1000 ng/mL (r2 ≥ 0.9993) for talatisamine in mouse blood with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 1 ng/mL. The accuracy values of the method were within 89.4% to 113.3%, and the matrix effects were between 103.2% and 106.3%. The mean extraction recoveries for talatisamine obtained from four concentrations of QC blood samples were exceeded 71.7%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) both of intra- and inter-day precision values for replicate quality control samples did not exceed 15% respectively for all analytes during the assay validation. This method was successfully applied to the evaluation of the pharmacokinetic of talatisamine, regardless of intragastric or intravenous administration in mice. Based on the pharmacokinetics data, the bioavailability of talatisamine in mice was >65.0% after oral administration, exhibiting an excellent oral absorption.