- Electrophysiological characterization of drug response in hSC-derived cardiomyocytes using voltage-sensitive optical platforms. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2019 Jul 15; :106612
- CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, VSOs represent a powerful and appropriate method to assess the electrophysiological effects of drugs on iPSC-CMs for the evaluation of proarrhythmic risk. Protocol considerations and recommendations are provided toward standardizing conditions to reduce variability of baseline AP waveform characteristics and drug responses.
- Preparation and chromatographic performance of a multifunctional immobilized chiral stationary phase based on dialdehyde microcrystalline cellulose derivatives. [Journal Article]
- CChirality 2019 Jul 18
- A novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) multifunctional immobilized chiral stationary phase was prepared by bonding dialdehyde microcrystalline cellulose to aminosilica via Schiff base …
A novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) multifunctional immobilized chiral stationary phase was prepared by bonding dialdehyde microcrystalline cellulose to aminosilica via Schiff base reaction and then derivatized with 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate. The HPLC multifunctional immobilized chiral stationary phase could not only achieve chiral separation but also achieve achiral separation. Chiral separation evaluation showed that 1-(1-naphthyl)ethanol and mandelonitrile got separation in normal phase (NP) mode. Ranolazine, benzoin ethyl ether, metalaxyl, and diclofop were successfully separated in reversed phase (RP) mode. Aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), anilines, and aromatic acids were selected as analytes to investigate the achiral separation performance of the multifunctional immobilized chiral stationary phase in NP and RP modes. The achiral separation evaluation showed that six PAHs could get good separation within 10 minutes in NP mode. Four aromatic acids were well separated in RP mode. The retention mechanism of aromatic compounds on the stationary phase was discussed, founding that π-π interaction, π-π electron-donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction, and hydrogen bonding interaction played important roles during the achiral separation process. This multifunctional immobilized chiral stationary phase had the advantages of simple bonding steps, short reaction time, and no need for space arm.
- Effects of Exercise Training With and Without Ranolazine on Peak Oxygen Consumption, Daily Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Cardiol 2019 Jun 06
- Ranolazine reduces angina frequency and increases exercise capacity. We hypothesized that exercise training with ranolazine would allow subjects to train at greater intensities, resulting in greater …
Ranolazine reduces angina frequency and increases exercise capacity. We hypothesized that exercise training with ranolazine would allow subjects to train at greater intensities, resulting in greater improvements in exercise capacity, physical activity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). In a pilot study, subjects with chronic stable angina pectoris were randomized to ranolazine (n = 13) or placebo (n = 16). After a 2-week drug titration period, subjects participated in a 12-week exercise program. Peak VO2, physical activity (via accelerometer), and HRQOL were assessed before and after training. After exercise training, peak VO2increased twice as much with ranolazine (2.1 ± 3.4 ml/kg/min) as with placebo (0.9 ± 1.5) (both p <0.05). After exercise training, both groups significantly improved HRQOL score (p <0.05); however, the improvement with ranolazine (19 ± 21) was almost 50% greater than with placebo (13 ± 18). There was a significant decrease in maximal heart rate after training with ranolazine but not with placebo (group difference, p = 0.04). Oxygen pulse (peak VO2/peak HR) increased in both groups after training; but, the increase was 4 times greater with ranolazine - resulting in a significant difference between groups (p = 0.044). In conclusion, patients with angina, the addition of ranolazine to an exercise program may improve aerobic fitness, physical activity, and HRQOL beyond the results of an exercise training program alone. Exercise training with ranolazine led to significantly greater increases in oxygen pulse, which is significantly correlated with stroke volume and is an independent predictor of mortality.
- T vector velocity: A new ECG biomarker for identifying drug effects on cardiac ventricular repolarization. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0204712
- CONCLUSIONS: TVV analysis substantially improves assessment of drug effects on cardiac repolarization, providing a plausible and improved mechanistic link between drug effects on ionic currents and overall ventricular repolarization reflected in the body surface ECG. TVV contributes to an enhanced appraisal of the proarrhythmic risk of drugs beyond QTc prolongation and J-Tpeakc.
- Specific Therapy Based on the Genotype in a Malignant Form of Long QT3, Carrying the V411M Mutation. [Journal Article]
- IHInt Heart J 2019 Jun 28
- Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac channelopathy that leads to the prolongation of the QT interval. This prolongation can lead to ventricular tachyarrhythmia, syncope, and sudden cardiac…
Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac channelopathy that leads to the prolongation of the QT interval. This prolongation can lead to ventricular tachyarrhythmia, syncope, and sudden cardiac death. There are various types of LQTS. Treatment of LQT1 and LQT2 is mainly based on antiadrenergic therapy. LQT3, on the other hand, is a result of a mutation of the SCN5A gene, which encodes the sodium channels. In this type, patients are sensitive to vagal stimuli and episodes tend to occur at rest. Sodium channel blocking compounds, such as ranolazine, mexiletine, and flecainide, have been found to be effective in selective mutations.In this case report, we report the case of a child with congenital LQT3 (V411M) who presented first with sudden cardiac death and three weeks later with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator storm. Knowing the specific mutation and understanding the mechanism at the molecular level through an in vitro study yielded a clinically meaningful result. The patient's arrhythmia burden was totally eliminated following successful treatment with flecainide.
- Drug potency on inhibiting late Na+ current is sensitive to gating modifier and current region where drug effects were measured. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2019 Jun 27; :106605
- CONCLUSIONS: INaL pharmacology can be impacted by all experimental factors examined in this study. The effect of gating modifier and current region used to quantify drug inhibition alone led to 30× difference in half inhibitory concentration (IC50) for ritonavir, demonstrating that substantial difference in drug inhibition can be produced. Drug potencies on inhibiting INaL derived from different patch clamp studies may thus not be generalizable. For INaL pharmacology to be useful for in silico modeling or interpreting drug-induced changes in cardiac action potentials or ECG, standardizing INaL experimental procedures including data analysis methods is necessary to minimize data variability.
- Dose-Dependent Effects of Ranolazine on Reentrant Ventricular Arrhythmias Induced After Subacute Myocardial Infarction in Rabbits. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jun 26; :1074248419858113
- Ranolazine has been found to prevent ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to investigate its efficacy on VAs induced several days post-MI. For this…
Ranolazine has been found to prevent ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to investigate its efficacy on VAs induced several days post-MI. For this purpose, 13 anesthetized rabbits underwent coronary artery ligation. Ten of these animals that survived AMI were reanesthetized 3 to 7 days later for electrophysiologic testing. An endocardial monophasic action potential combination catheter was placed in the right ventricle for simultaneous pacing and recording. Monophasic action potential duration, ventricular effective refractory period (VERP), and VAs induced by programmed stimulation were assessed. Measurements were performed during control pacing, and following an intravenous infusion of either a low-dose ranolazine (2.4 mg/kg, R1) or a higher dose ranolazine (4.8 mg/kg cumulative dose, R2). During control stimulation, 2 animals developed primary ventricular fibrillation (VF), 6 sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT), and 2 nonsustained VT (nsVT). R1 did not prevent the appearance of VAs in any of the experiments; in contrast, it aggravated nsVT into sVT and complicated sVT termination in 2 of 6 animals. Sustained ventricular tachycardia cycle length and VERP were only slightly decreased after R1 (112 ± 5 vs 110 ± 6 ms and 101 ± 11 vs 98 ± 10 ms, respectively). R2 suppressed inducibility of control nsVT, VF, and sVT in 2 animals. In 4 animals with still inducible sVT, R2 significantly prolonged VT cycle length by 150 ± 23 ms (P < .01), and VERP by 120 ± 7 ms (P < .001) versus control. In conclusion, R2 exerted antiarrhythmic efficacy against subacute-MI VAs, whereas R1 rather aggravated than prevented these arrhythmias. Ventricular effective refractory period prolongation could partially explain the antiarrhythmic action of R2 in this rabbit model.
- Propranolol inhibits neonatal Nav1.5 activity and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells: Effects of combination with ranolazine. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Physiol 2019 Jun 21
- The MDA-MB-231 cell line was used as a model of triple negative breast cancer to investigate the interaction of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) and voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). There was signifi…
The MDA-MB-231 cell line was used as a model of triple negative breast cancer to investigate the interaction of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) and voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC). There was significant (86%) overlap in their expression. Short-term (acute) application of the β-AR antagonist propranolol (25 μM) led to reduction of peak current and quickening of current inactivation (the latter occurred only in 5% fetal bovine serum). Long-term (48 hr) incubation with propranolol (25 μM) resulted in several changes in VGSC characteristics: shifts in (a) current-voltage relationship and (b) steady-state inactivation, both to more negative potentials and (c) the slowing of recovery from inactivation. We then investigated the effects of propranolol and ranolazine, a blocker of VGSC activity, alone and in combination, on lateral motility and Matrigel invasion. These assays were carried out under hypoxic conditions more representative of tumor progression. Propranolol (2.5 and 25 μM) and ranolazine (5 μM), and their combination inhibited lateral motility. Also, propranolol (25 μM) and ranolazine (5 μM), and their combination inhibited invasion. However, no synergy was observed in the pharmacological combinations for both assays. Propranolol also significantly decreased total neonatal Nav1.5 protein expression, the predominant VGSC subtype expressed in these cells. We conclude (a) that β-AR and VGSC are functionally coupled in MDA-MB-231 cells; (b) that propranolol has direct blocking action on the VGSC; (c) that the action of propranolol is modulated by serum; and (d) that the antimetastatic cellular effects of propranolol and ranolazine are not additive.
- Estimation of changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance caused by renal transporter inhibition in healthy subjects. [Journal Article]
- DMDrug Metab Pharmacokinet 2019 Mar 02
- Creatinine is excreted into urine by glomerular filtration and renal tubular secretion through drug transporters such as organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), OCT3,…
Creatinine is excreted into urine by glomerular filtration and renal tubular secretion through drug transporters such as organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), OCT3, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1), and MATE2-K. We aimed to investigate whether our method for estimating percentage changes in serum creatinine concentration (SCr) and creatinine clearance (CLcre) from the baseline is applicable for studying renal transporter inhibitors. We tested 14 compounds (cimetidine, cobicistat, dolutegravir, dronedarone, DX-619, famotidine, INCB039110, nizatidine, ondansetron, pyrimethamine, rabeprazole, ranolazine, trimethoprim, and vandetanib), which were reported to cause reversible changes in SCr and/or CLcre in healthy subjects excluding elderly. Percentage changes were estimated from the relative contributions of the forementioned transporters to CLcre and competitive inhibition by these compounds at their maximum plasma unbound concentrations. For 7 and 9 out of these compounds, changes in SCr and/or CLcre were estimated within 2- and 3-fold of observed values, respectively. Less than 10% changes in SCr and/or CLcre caused by cobicistat, dolutegravir, and rabeprazole were reproduced as such by our method. These findings suggest that our method can be used to estimate changes in SCr and CLcre caused by competitive inhibitions of renal drug transporters.
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- Cardioprotective effect of ranolazine in nondiabetic and diabetic male rats subjected to isoprenaline-induced acute myocardial infarction involves modulation of AMPK and inhibition of apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Physiol Pharmacol 2019; 97(7):661-674
- Diabetes increases the sensitivity of myocardium to ischemic damage and impairs response of the myocardium to cardioprotective interventions. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential cardio…
Diabetes increases the sensitivity of myocardium to ischemic damage and impairs response of the myocardium to cardioprotective interventions. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential cardioprotective effect provided by ranolazine during myocardial infarction in nondiabetic and diabetic male rats. As AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been shown to be involved in the cellular response to ischemic injury, in this context, the present animal study evaluated the modulating role of ranolazine in the AMPK expression in isoprenaline-induced myocardial ischemic rat model. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (nondiabetic and diabetic rats) and assigned to normal control, saline control for isoprenaline, isoprenaline control, and ranolazine-treated groups. Ranolazine administration revealed effectiveness in attenuating the severity of isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in both nondiabetic and diabetic rats as revealed by ECG signs, histopathological score, and apoptotic markers via abrogating the increments in the inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and modulating AMPK expression. Therefore, the current cardioprotective effect of ranolazine was, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of apoptosis and modulation of AMPK expression, encouraging considering the utility of ranolazine in protection from acute myocardial infarction.