- Stability of sunflower and rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions supplemented with ethanol-treated rapeseed meal protein isolate. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Food Sci Technol 2019; 56(6):3090-3098
- A protein isolate (ERPI) was prepared from ethanol-treated rapeseed meal and used as a stabilizing agent in sunflower and rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. The aim of the current study was to explore …
A protein isolate (ERPI) was prepared from ethanol-treated rapeseed meal and used as a stabilizing agent in sunflower and rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. The aim of the current study was to explore the influence of protein and oil concentrations on initial stability of sunflower and rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions by evaluating Gibbs free energy (ΔG) and particle size distribution. The 7-day dynamics of emulsion stability was investigated by turbidity measurement as well. A 32 factorial design was applied to assess the significance of oil (5%, 10% and 15% w/w) and ERPI protein (0.25%, 0.5% and 1.0% w/w) addition on stability of the emulsions. The results demonstrated that the increase of oil concentrations from 5 to 15% positively influenced the initial stability of sunflower and rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions. In both oil types, ERPI protein supplementation at all levels resulted in significant differences in the stability of 5% and 10% oil emulsions but did not alter the initial stability of the emulsions prepared with either 15% sunflower or rapeseed oil. With a few exceptions, there was a good agreement between Gibbs free energy data and microstructural profiles of the emulsions. Overall, emulsions with all sunflower oil concentrations and 1.0% ERPI protein exhibited better initial and a 7-day stability dynamics compared to all rapeseed oil-based emulsions. The study demonstrated the potential of ethanol-treated rapeseed meal protein isolate to serve as an emulsifying agent in sunflower and rapeseed oil containing emulsions.
- Augmentation of root gravitropism by hypocotyl curvature in Brassica rapa seedlings. [Journal Article]
- PSPlant Sci 2019; 285:214-223
- Main Conclusion Root gravitropism of primary roots is assisted by curvature of the hypocotyl base. Root gravitropism is typically described as the sequence of signal perception, signal processing, an…
Main Conclusion Root gravitropism of primary roots is assisted by curvature of the hypocotyl base. Root gravitropism is typically described as the sequence of signal perception, signal processing, and response that causes differential elongation and the establishment of a new gravitropic set-point angle. We describe two components of the graviresponse of Brassica seedlings that comprise a primary curvature of the root tip and a later onset but stronger curvature that occurs at the base of the hypocotyl. This second curvature is preceded by straightening of the tip region but leads to the completion of the alignment of the root axis. Curvature in both regions require a minimum displacement of 20 deg. The rate of tip curvature is a function of root length. After horizontal reorientation, tip curvature of five mm long roots curved twice as fast as 10 mm long roots (33.6 ± 3.3 vs. 14.3 ± 1.5 deg hr-1). The onset of curvature at the hypocotyl base is correlated with root length, but the rate of this curvature is independent of seedling length. Decapping of roots prevented tip curvature but the curvature at base of hypocotyl was unaffected. Endodermal cells at the root shoot junction show numerous, large and sedimenting amyloplasts, which likely serve as gravity sensors (statoliths). The amyloplasts at the hypocotyl were 3-4 μm in diameter, similar in size to those in the root cap, and twice the size of starch grains in the cortical layers of hypocotyl or elsewhere in the root. These data indicate that the root shoot reorientation of young seedlings is not limited to the root tip but includes more than one gravitropically responsive region.
- Identification of sinapine-derived choline from rapeseed diet as a source of serum trimethylamine N-oxide in pigs. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2019 Jun 16
- Choline and its metabolites have diverse and important functions in many physiological processes, especially for anabolic metabolism in growth and reproduction. Besides endogenous biosynthesis and di…
Choline and its metabolites have diverse and important functions in many physiological processes, especially for anabolic metabolism in growth and reproduction. Besides endogenous biosynthesis and direct choline supplement, choline esters in diet is another source of choline in the body. Phenolic choline esters are a group of unique dietary choline esters rich in the seeds of Brassicaceae plants, among which sinapine is a choline ester of sinapic acid abundant in rapeseed. In this study, 40 nursery pigs were fed with rapeseed-derived feed ingredients (RSF) or soybean meal (SBM) for 3 weeks (20 pigs/diet). The metabolic fate of sinapine-derived choline in RSF was examined by comparing the distribution of choline and its metabolites in digesta, liver, and serum samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that choline was released from extensive hydrolysis of sinapine in the small intestine. However, sinapine-derived choline did not increase the levels of choline and its major metabolites, including betaine, phosphocholine (PC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC), in the liver and serum. Instead, RSF feeding increased trimethylamine (TMA), the microbial metabolite of choline, in the large intestine, and further increased trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), the oxidation metabolite of TMA, in the liver and serum. Overall, these results suggested that sinapine-derived choline from rapeseed feeding had limited influences on the post-absorption choline pool due to its low bioavailability, but may serve as a major source of TMAO through microbial metabolism in nursery pigs. Improving the bioavailability of sinapine-derived choline might have the potential to modify the nutritional values and functionalities of rapeseed meal in swine feeding.
- Comprehensive analysis of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility-related genes in turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera) using RNA sequencing analysis and bioinformatics. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(6):e0218029
- Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for cruciferous vegetables. Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera) is one of the most important lo…
Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for cruciferous vegetables. Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapifera) is one of the most important local cruciferous vegetables in China, cultivated for its fleshy root as a flat disc. Here, morphological characteristics of an Ogura-CMS line 'BY10-2A' and its maintainer fertile (MF) line 'BY10-2B' of turnip were investigated. Ogura-CMS turnip showed a reduction in the size of the fleshy root, and had distinct defects in microspore development and tapetum degeneration during the transition from microspore mother cells to tetrads. Defective microspore production and premature tapetum degeneration during microgametogenesis resulted in short filaments and withered white anthers, leading to complete male sterility of the Ogura-CMS line. Additionally, the mechanism regulating Ogura-CMS in turnip was investigated using inflorescence transcriptome analyses of the Ogura-CMS and MF lines. The de novo assembly resulted in a total of 84,132 unigenes. Among them, 5,117 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 1,339 up- and 3,778 down-regulated genes in the Ogura-CMS line compared to the MF line. A number of functionally known members involved in anther development and microspore formation were addressed in our DEG pool, particularly genes regulating tapetum programmed cell death (PCD), and associated with pollen wall formation. Additionally, 185 novel genes were proposed to function in male organ development based on GO analyses, of which 26 DEGs were genotype-specifically expressed. Our research provides a comprehensive foundation for understanding anther development and the CMS mechanism in turnip.
- Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in Response to Freezing Stress, Reveal Potentially Connected Events to Freezing Stress. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jun 05; 20(11)
- Winter rapeseed is not only an important oilseed crop, but also a winter cover crop in Northern China, where its production was severely limited by freezing stress. As an overwinter crop, the product…
Winter rapeseed is not only an important oilseed crop, but also a winter cover crop in Northern China, where its production was severely limited by freezing stress. As an overwinter crop, the production is severely limited by freezing stress. Therefore, understanding the physiological and molecular mechanism of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in freezing stress responses becomes essential for the improvement and development of freezing-tolerant varieties of Brassica napus. In this study, morphological, physiological, ultrastructure and transcriptome changes in the Brassica napus line "2016TS(G)10" (freezing-tolerance line) that was exposed to -2 °C for 0 h, 1 h, 3 h and 24 h were characterized. The results showed that freezing stress caused seedling dehydration, and chloroplast dilation and degradation. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, soluble protein and soluble sugars were increased, as well as the relative electrolyte leakage (REL) which was significantly increased at frozen 24 h. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis revealed a total of 98,672 UniGenes that were annotated in Brassica napus and 3905 UniGenes were identified as differentially expressed genes after being exposed to freezing stress. Among these genes, 2312 (59.21%) were up-regulated and 1593 (40.79%) were down-regulated. Most of these DEGs were significantly annotated in the carbohydrates and energy metabolism, signal transduction, amino acid metabolism and translation. Most of the up-regulated DEGs were especially enriched in plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism pathways. Transcription factor enrichment analysis showed that the AP2/ERF, WRKY and MYB families were also significantly changed. Furthermore, 20 DEGs were selected to validate the transcriptome profiles via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In conclusion, the results provide an overall view of the dynamic changes in physiology and insights into the molecular regulation mechanisms of winter Brassica napus in response to freezing treatment, expanding our understanding on the complex molecular mechanism in plant response to freezing stress.
- Agrobacterium-mediated vacuum infiltration and floral dip transformation of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Plant Biol 2019 Jun 10; 19(1):246
- CONCLUSIONS: A genetic transformation system for RCBr was established in this study. This will promote development of new biology teaching tools as well as basic biology research on Brassica rapa.
- Nondestructive detection of rape leaf chlorophyll level based on Vis-NIR spectroscopy. [Journal Article]
- SASpectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 May 27; 222:117202
- Chlorophyll is an important factor for measuring the normal growth and development status of plants, and it is also of great significance for the management and utilization of agricultural water and …
Chlorophyll is an important factor for measuring the normal growth and development status of plants, and it is also of great significance for the management and utilization of agricultural water and fertilizers. In this study, the chlorophyll content of rapeseed leaves was taken as the research object, and the effect of spectral data pretreatment method on the spectral feature extraction and chlorophyll content prediction model was quantitatively studied. ASD FieldSpec Pro (350-2500 nm) spectrometer was used to measure the spectral reflectance of rape leaf samples, and the spectral reflectance characteristics of different chlorophyll contents were analyzed. The Savitzky-Golay nine-point smoothing of the reflectance spectrum was performed, and the first derivation (FD), second derivation (SD), and reciprocal logarithm (LOG)transformation of the reflectance were performed after MSC and SNV preprocessing respectively. The optimal spectral estimation model for chlorophyll was established by PLSR. The results show that: (1) This study was mainly to monitor the chlorophyll content in rape joints during jointing stage, using the correlation between chlorophyll content and hyperspectral characteristics, using MSC, NOR and SNV to pretreat the reflectance spectra and combining different derivations transformations to extract chlorophyll characteristics. (2) Quantitative model of chlorophyll content was established based PLSR, the best preprocessing was R + SG + SNV + LOG+FD, the calibration results was: LVs = 14, Rc2 = 0.97, RMSEC = 4.18, SEC = 4.21, Slope = 0.92, Offset = 2.63; the validation results was: Rv2 = 0.98, RPD = 7.52, RMSEP = 2.94, SEP = 2.98, Slope = 0.98, Offset = 1.43; (3) The optimal estimation model established by different treatment methods has better stability and higher precision, and can rapidly monitor the chlorophyll content of rapeseed in the region.
- Effects of crop straw and its derived biochar on the mobility and bioavailability in Cd and Zn in two smelter-contaminated alkaline soils. [Journal Article]
- EEEcotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Jun 07; 181:155-163
- In this study, comparative investigations on the effects of crop straw and its derived biochars on soil Cd and Zn mobility and availability were conducted. Crop straws (i.e. maize straw, rapeseed str…
In this study, comparative investigations on the effects of crop straw and its derived biochars on soil Cd and Zn mobility and availability were conducted. Crop straws (i.e. maize straw, rapeseed straw, and wheat straw) and their derived biochars were incubated with two contaminated alkaline soils (FX and TG soils) at 2.5% (w/w). The changes of soil properties like pH, EC, organic matter content, and dissolved organic matter content were investigated along with metal mobility, speciation distribution, and accumulation in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Results indicated biochar, especially those were high in pH, enhanced soil pH (>0.2 units, p < 0.05), whereas a continuous reduction of soil pH was observed among treatments with crop straws. Both soil EC and the organic matter content increased with the application of both crop straws and biochars. In term of metals, Cd and Zn mobility were reduced with 6-14%/1-5% and 6-27%/7-15% reduction in the DTPA extractable Cd and Zn contents in TG and FX soil treatments, respectively. Moreover, distinct changes of metals in different fractions were also observed (acid soluble and reducible fraction → oxidizable fraction in straw treatments; acid soluble fraction → reducible soluble fraction in biochar amendments). Furthermore, the biological analysis revealed that the growth of ryegrass was promoted, but the accumulation of metals in ryegrass shoots was reduced, especially in MS700 treatment. Apart from the amendments, metal immobilization efficiencies were negatively correlated with the contamination status. Despite that, a higher rate of biochar application (>10%) could dramatically reduce the amount of available metal in soil extracts, except for Zn in FX soil treatments. This present work demonstrated that biochars, especially those produced at a higher temperature, are superior to crop straws to immobilize metals in soils. However, the remediation efficiencies were strongly restricted by soil pH and contamination status.
- Extraction of male steroids and progesterone from water by vegetable oil gels and their determination by partial filling capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sep Sci 2019 Jun 10
- Microemulsion gels were synthetized from macadamia, linseed, olive, walnut, rapeseed, sesame, and coconut oils and frying oil made from sunflower, palm, and rapeseed oils. The gels were similar as po…
Microemulsion gels were synthetized from macadamia, linseed, olive, walnut, rapeseed, sesame, and coconut oils and frying oil made from sunflower, palm, and rapeseed oils. The gels were similar as polyacrylamide-based gels with exception of replacing dodecyl sulfate with vegetable oils. The gels were modified with celluloses, cotton, or lignin to make the emulsions sustainable for water purification. They were used to compare sorption properties when they were used as solid phase adsorbents in isolation of steroids from water. Hydrophobicity features of the gels were compared by detecting adsorption and extraction efficiency of nonpolar androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone, which exist in wastewater and drinking water. Quantification was done with partial filling - micellar electrokinetic chromatography with 29.5 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate - 3.4 mM sodium taurocholate as the micelle and 20 mM ammonium acetate (pH 9.68) as the electrolyte. UV-detection was used. Methanol was the best eluent for extraction of steroids from gels. The highest recoveries were from frying oil and rapeseed oil gels modified with celluloses. They also possessed the best floating properties on water surface. Lignin modified gels were too hydrophilic, when in touch with water they filled up with water. They also had the lowest capacity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- Brassica-enriched wheat bread: Unraveling the impact of ontogeny and breadmaking on bioactive secondary plant metabolites of pak choi and kale. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2019 Oct 15; 295:412-422
- Consumption of Brassica vegetables is linked to health benefits, as they contain high concentrations of the following secondary plant metabolites (SPMs): glucosinolate breakdown products, carotenoids…
Consumption of Brassica vegetables is linked to health benefits, as they contain high concentrations of the following secondary plant metabolites (SPMs): glucosinolate breakdown products, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds. Especially Brassica vegetables are consumed as microgreens (developed cotyledons). It was investigated how different ontogenetic stages (microgreens or leaves) of pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) differ in their SPM concentration. The impact of breadmaking on SPMs in microgreens (7 days) and leaves (14 days) in pak choi and kale as a supplement in mixed wheat bread was assessed. In leaves, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were higher compared to those of microgreens. Breadmaking caused a decrease of SPMs. Chlorophyll degradation was observed, leading to pheophytin and pyropheophytin formation. In kale, sinapoylgentiobiose, a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative, concentration increased. Thus, leaves of Brassica species are suitable as natural ingredients for enhancing bioactive SPM concentrations in bread.