- Accuracy of a Smartphone-based Autorefractor Compared with Criterion-standard Refraction. [Journal Article]
- OVOptom Vis Sci 2018; 95(12):1135-1141
- CONCLUSIONS: Uncorrected refractive error is a prevalent problem throughout the world especially among the low-income population who have limited access to professional eye care and cannot afford eyeglasses.The portable autorefractor had small but clinically significant differences from subjective refraction. The device's scores on the usability scale indicate good overall patient acceptance. The device may be valuable for use where there is limited access to a trained refractionist.
- Self-refraction, ready-made glasses and quality of life among rural myopic Chinese children: a non-inferiority randomized trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- AOActa Ophthalmol 2017; 95(6):567-575
- CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life wearing ready-mades or glasses based on self-refraction did not differ from that with cycloplegic refraction by an experienced optometrist in this non-inferiority trial.
- The Capacity of Eye Care Services for Patients with Glaucoma in Botswana. [Multicenter Study]
- OEOphthalmic Epidemiol 2015; 22(6):403-8
- CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the challenges faced in caring for glaucoma patients in Botswana; in particular, lack of professional human resources, equipment and availability of effective treatments.
- Human resources for refraction services in Central Nepal. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Optom 2015; 98(4):335-41
- CONCLUSIONS: The study findings demand a major effort to develop appropriately trained personnel when planning refraction services in the Central Region and in Nepal as a whole. The equitable distribution of the refractionists, their community-outreach services and awareness raising activities should be emphasised.
- Anthropometry and Prevalence of Common Health Problems among School Going Children in Surathkal, Karnataka. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Diagn Res 2014; 8(12):PC01-5
- CONCLUSIONS: Weight and height were below the CDC centile charts. Under nutrition was more prevalent than overweight and obesity. Majority were normotensive. High prevalence of undetected refractory error and caries teeth were noted. Prevalence of skin disease was low.
- Trends and implications for achieving VISION 2020 human resources for eye health targets in 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020. [Journal Article]
- HRHum Resour Health 2014 Aug 15; 12:45
- CONCLUSIONS: The HReH workforce is not growing fast enough to achieve global eye health targets in most of the sub-Saharan countries we surveyed by 2020. Countries seeking to make rapid progress to improve CSR could prioritise investment in training new cataract surgeons over ophthalmologists and improving surgical output efficiency.
- Accuracy of rural refractionists in western China. [Multicenter Study]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014 Jan 07; 55(1):154-61
- CONCLUSIONS: Rural refractionists in western China have little formal training and frequently fail to optimize VA among children, even when autorefractors are used. Training is needed emphasizing better use of automated refraction, particularly in children with astigmatism and hyperopia.
- Subjective refraction: the mechanism underlying the routine. [Journal Article]
- OPOphthalmic Physiol Opt 2007; 27(6):594-602
- The routine of subjective refraction is usually understood, explained and taught in terms of the relative positions of line or point foci and the retina. This paper argues that such an approach makes…
The routine of subjective refraction is usually understood, explained and taught in terms of the relative positions of line or point foci and the retina. This paper argues that such an approach makes unnecessary and sometimes invalid assumptions about what is actually happening inside the eye. The only assumption necessary in fact is that the subject is able to guide the refractionist to (or close to) the optimum power for refractive compensation. The routine works even in eyes in which the interval of Sturm does not behave as supposed; it would work, in fact, regardless of the structure of the eye. The idealized subjective refraction routine consists of two steps: the first finds the best sphere (the stigmatic component) and the second finds the remaining Jackson cross-cylinder (the antistigmatic component). The model makes use of the concept of symmetric dioptric power space. The second part of the refraction routine can be performed with Jackson cross-cylinders alone. However, it is usually taught and practiced using spheres, cylinders and Jackson cross-cylinders in a procedure that is not easy to understand and learn. Recognizing that this part of the routine is equivalent to one involving Jackson cross-cylinders only allows one to teach and understand the procedure more naturally and easily.
- A guide to performing basic manifest refractometry. [Review]
- JOJ Ophthalmic Nurs Technol 2000 Mar-Apr; 19(2):84-93; quiz 94-5
- Refractometry provides the ophthalmologist with the prescription that has the most plus power with the best vision. This eliminates the need for the patient accommodating to achieve clear vision at d…
Refractometry provides the ophthalmologist with the prescription that has the most plus power with the best vision. This eliminates the need for the patient accommodating to achieve clear vision at distance. Flowcharts, of the refractometry process, help the refractionist use standard procedures to accurately arrive at the correct baseline prescription for the patient's refractive state. By using the patient's history of subjective complaints, past refractive corrections, and present visual needs, the ophthalmologist then can prescribe the final prescription.
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- A fully automated remote refraction system. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Telemed Telecare 2000; 6 Suppl 2:S16-8
- Traditional methods of performing refractions depend on a trained refractionist being present with the subject and conducting an interactive form of subjective testing. A fully automated refraction s…
Traditional methods of performing refractions depend on a trained refractionist being present with the subject and conducting an interactive form of subjective testing. A fully automated refraction system was installed in 13 optical dispensaries and after 15 months the patient and statistical information was gathered. The data from all operators were consistent and suggested a lack of operator effect on the refraction results. The mean of the SD of subjective sphere measurements was 0.2, or slightly less than a quarter dioptre, which would be an acceptable level of accuracy for ordering corrective lenses. The present study suggests an absence of operator influence on the results of the refractions and a degree of consistency and accuracy compatible with the prescription of lenses.