- Meta-Analysis of Regorafenib-Associated Adverse Events and Their Management in Colorectal and Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancers. [Journal Article]
- ATAdv Ther 2019 Jun 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Regorafenib-associated AEs are more common at an initiating dose of 160 mg. Considering that the efficacy depends on the dosage, 120 mg might be a better choice for mCRC and GIST patients; further studies are needed to validate the results of our analysis. Further prompt identification and management of AEs are required to help the patients continue with drug therapy.
- The Impact of Primary Tumor Sidedness on the Effect of Regorafenib in Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer 2019; 10(7):1611-1615
- Recently, the sidedness of the primary tumor (right versus left) has been investigated for its ability to prognosticate and predict outcomes. We evaluated the effect of regorafenib based on KRAS muta…
Recently, the sidedness of the primary tumor (right versus left) has been investigated for its ability to prognosticate and predict outcomes. We evaluated the effect of regorafenib based on KRAS mutation status and the sidedness of the primary tumor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We analyzed 135 patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) being treated with regorafenib at Samsung Medical Center, between January 2014 and January 2018. Primary tumors originating in the splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, or proximal third of the transverse colon were defined as left-sided CRC (LC). Primary tumors originating in the appendix, cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, or distal two-thirds of the transverse colon were defined as right-sided CRC (RC). Among all 135 patients, 100 (74.1%) had left sided colon cancer and 35 (25.9%) had right-sided colon cancer. No patients achieved a complete response, but four achieved a partial response, revealing a response rate (RR) of 3.0%. Thirty-seven patients had stable disease, yielding a disease control rate (DCR) of 30.4%. There was no difference in RR or DCR according to the location of the primary tumor (LC vs. RC). A significant difference in progression free survival (PFS) with regorafenib was observed between the LC and RC groups (2.6 months; 95% CI, 2.0 to 3.1 vs. 1.9 months; 95% CI, 1.6 to 2.3; P = 0.04, respectively). In a subpopulation with wild type KRAS, PFS with regorafenib was also significantly different between the LC and RC groups (2.9 months; 95% CI, 1.5 to 4.3 vs. 2.1 months; 95% CI, 0.6 to 3.6; P = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, the sidedness of the primary tumor (LC vs. RC) and the number of metastatic sites (≤1 vs. 2>) had a prognostic effect on PFS (P = 0.01 and P = 0.01, respectively). Regorafenib is a current standard treatment for CRC, but treatment outcomes may be improved if regorafenib is administered based on the appropriate biomarker.
- Axitinib overcomes multiple imatinib resistant cKIT mutations including the gatekeeper mutation T670I in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. [Journal Article]
- TATher Adv Med Oncol 2019; 11:1758835919849757
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the basis for extending the application of axitinib to GISTs patients who are unresponsive or intolerant to the current therapies.
- New frontiers in the medical management of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. [Review]
- TATher Adv Med Oncol 2019; 11:1758835919841946
- The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has radically changed the natural history of KIT-driven gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Approved second-line and third-line medical therapies ar…
The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib has radically changed the natural history of KIT-driven gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Approved second-line and third-line medical therapies are represented by the TKIs sunitinib and regorafenib, respectively. While imatinib remains the cardinal drug for patients with GISTs, novel therapies are being developed and clinically tested to overcome the mechanisms of resistance after treatments with the approved TKI, or to treat subsets of GISTs driven by rarer molecular events. Here, we review the therapy of GISTs, with a particular focus on the newest drugs in advanced phases of clinical testing that might soon change the current therapeutic algorithm.
- Cabozantinib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma failing previous treatment with sorafenib. [Journal Article]
- FOFuture Oncol 2019 Jun 17
- Over the past 10 years, sorafenib has been the only systemic agent approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, lenvatinib was demonstrated noninferior…
Over the past 10 years, sorafenib has been the only systemic agent approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, lenvatinib was demonstrated noninferior to sorafenib, and regorafenib and ramucirumab were demonstrated superior to placebo in patients progressing on sorafenib and in patients with elevated α-fetoprotein-failing sorafenib, respectively. Phase I-II trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors reported promising efficacy signals. Recently, the randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III CELESTIAL trial demonstrated statistically and clinically significant increase in overall survival from 8 months with placebo to 10.2 months with cabozantinib in patients failing sorafenib. Furthermore, the study showed a significant improvement in all the efficacy end points. Main adverse events were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, hypertension, increased aspartate aminotransferase, fatigue and diarrhea.
- Management of adverse events associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Improving outcomes for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. [Review]
- CTCancer Treat Rev 2019 May 15; 77:20-28
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer. Sorafenib, regorafenib, lenvatinib and cabozantinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target, in part, vascula…
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer. Sorafenib, regorafenib, lenvatinib and cabozantinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target, in part, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and are approved in various regions of the world for the treatment of advanced HCC. All these agents are associated with a range of adverse events (AEs) that can have a substantial impact on patients' health-related quality of life. Fatigue, diarrhoea, hand-foot skin reaction, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, hypertension and weight loss are among the most common AEs experienced with these four TKIs. In this review, we discuss strategies for the management of these AEs in patients with advanced HCC, with the aim of maximizing treatment benefits and minimizing the need for TKI treatment discontinuation. We also consider potential TKI-drug interactions and discuss the use of TKIs in patients with liver dysfunction or who have experienced tumour recurrence after liver transplantation. Use of appropriate AE management strategies and avoidance of contraindicated drugs should help patients with advanced HCC to achieve optimal outcomes with TKIs.
- Long term response on Regorafenib in non-V600E BRAF mutated colon cancer: a case report. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2019 Jun 11; 19(1):567
- CONCLUSIONS: Little is known about therapies that can be effective in the rare non-V600E BRAF mutated CRCs. We present a patient who had a definite response to treatment with Regorafenib. There are no predictive markers that define a subset of CRC patients who benefit most from Regorafenib. The specific features of this non-V600E BRAF mutated CRC may be relevant in the exploration of predictive biomarkers for the efficacy of Regorafenib.
- Phase II trial of levocetirizine with capecitabine and bevacizumab to overcome the resistance of antiangiogenic therapies in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastrointest Oncol 2019; 10(3):412-420
- CONCLUSIONS: Median PFS in the trial was comparable to and appeared to be better than other regimens used in the refractory setting (e.g., median PFS of 1.9 months for regorafenib). Cytokine measurement with IL-8 levels did not show any correlation with progression free survival but patients with stable disease showed overall lower levels of IL-8 as compared to patients with progressive disease in the cytokine analysis.
- Ramucirumab and GSK1838705A Enhance the Inhibitory Effects of Low Concentration Sorafenib and Regorafenib Combination on HCC Cell Growth and Motility. [Journal Article]
- CCancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 07; 11(6)
- Several new multikinase inhibitors have recently been introduced into clinical practice for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Small increases in survival were reported as well as considerable t…
Several new multikinase inhibitors have recently been introduced into clinical practice for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Small increases in survival were reported as well as considerable toxicity. There is thus a need for effective therapies with lower toxicities. We examined whether a combination of sorafenib and regorafenib might also be effective at very low concentrations, with resulting potential for lessened clinical toxicity. MTT test, clonogenic assay, Ki67 staining and cell cycle analysis were assessed for cell proliferation and Annexin V and western blotting analysis relative to the expression of cleaved Caspase-3 and BID for cell apoptosis. In these experimental conditions cell growth and migration were potently inhibited and apoptosis induced even in HCC cells producing high alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels (clinically worse prognosis). The combination also inhibited levels of the two HCC biomarkers, AFP and des gamma carboxy prothrombin (DCP). Additional inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR) or Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) enhanced effects on AFP and DCP levels, cell growth inhibition and MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling inhibition due to sorafenib/regorafenib combination. These combinations have the potential for decreased toxicity while simultaneously enhancing therapeutic effects. This potential decrease in toxicity is being explored in ongoing studies.
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- Regorafenib in Patients with Antiangiogenic-Naïve and Chemotherapy-Refractory Advanced Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Phase 2b Trial. [Journal Article]
- OOncologist 2019 Jun 07
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the antitumor activity of regorafenib in antiangiogenic-naïve patients with chemotherapy-refractory mCRC.The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib improved overall survival in the phase 3 CORRECT and CONCUR trials in heavily pretreated patients with treatment-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Exploratory subgroup analysis from CONCUR suggested that regorafenib treatment prior to targeted therapy (including bevacizumab) may improve outcomes. In this single-center, single-arm phase 2b study, regorafenib demonstrated antitumor activity in 59 antiangiogenic-naïve patients with chemotherapy-refractory mCRC. Further studies should assess the efficacy of regorafenib in this patient population, as well as explore the reasons behind improved outcomes among patients who had a metabolic response and those who developed hand-foot skin reaction.