- A polymorphism in intron I of the human angiotensinogen gene (hAGT) affects binding by HNF3 and hAGT expression and increases blood pressure in mice. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biol Chem 2019 Jun 14
- Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of one of the most potent vasoconstrictors, peptide angiotensin-II. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that two A/G polymorphisms (rs2493134 and …
Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of one of the most potent vasoconstrictors, peptide angiotensin-II. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that two A/G polymorphisms (rs2493134 and rs2004776) located at +507 and +1164 in intron I of human AGT (hAGT) gene are associated with hypertension. Polymorphisms of the AGT gene result in two main haplotypes. Hap-I contains the variants -217A, -6A, +507G, and +1164A and is pro-hypertensive, whereas Hap-II contains the variants -217G, -6G, +507A, and +1164G and does not affect blood pressure. The nucleotide sequence of intron I of the hAGT gene containing the +1164A variant has a stronger homology with hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF3)-binding site than does +1164G. Here, we found that (a) an oligonucleotide containing +1164A binds HNF3β more strongly than does +1164G, and (b) Hap I-containing reporter gene constructs have increased basal and HNF3- and glucocorticoid-induced promoter activity in transiently transfected liver and kidney cells. Using a knock-in approach at the HPRT locus, we generated transgenic mouse model containing the human renin (hREN) gene and either Hap-I or Hap-II. We show that transgenic animals containing Hap-I have increased blood pressure compared with those containing Hap-II. Moreover, the transcription factors glucocorticoid receptor (GR), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), and HNF3β bound more strongly to chromatin obtained from the liver of transgenic animals containing Hap-I than to liver chromatin from Hap-II-containing animals. These findings suggest that unlike Hap-II variants, Hap-I variants of the hAGT gene have increased transcription rates, resulting in elevated blood pressure.
- Obesity and aging affects skeletal muscle renin-angiotensin system and myosin heavy chain proportions in pre-diabetic Zucker rats. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Physiol Biochem 2019 Jun 13
- There is a gap in the knowledge regarding regulation of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in skeletal muscle during development of obesity and insulin resistance in vivo. This study evaluates the …
There is a gap in the knowledge regarding regulation of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in skeletal muscle during development of obesity and insulin resistance in vivo. This study evaluates the obesity- and age-related changes in the expression of local RAS components. Since RAS affects skeletal muscle remodelling, we also evaluated the muscle fibre type composition, defined by myosin heavy chain (MyHC) mRNAs and protein content. Gene expressions were determined by qPCR and/or Western blot analysis in musculus quadriceps of 3- and 8-month-old male obese Zucker rats and their lean controls. The enzymatic activity of aminopeptidase A (APA) was determined flourometrically. Activation of renin receptor (ReR)/promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) negative feedback mechanism was observed in obesity. The expression of angiotensinogen and AT1 was downregulated by obesity, while neutral endopeptidase and AT2 expressions were upregulated in obese rats with aging. Skeletal muscle APA activity was decreased by obesity, which negatively correlated with the increased plasma APA activity and plasma cholesterol. The expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) positively correlated with MyHC mRNAs characteristic for fast-twitch muscle fibres. The obesity- and age-related alterations in the expression of both classical and alternative RAS components suggest an onset of a new equilibrium between ACE/AngII/AT1 and ACE2/Ang1-7/Mas at lower level accompanied by increased renin/ReR/PLZF activation. Increased APA release from the skeletal muscle in obesity might contribute to increased plasma APA activity. There is a link between reduced ACE expression and altered muscle MyHC proportion in obesity and aging.
- Diagnostic Indicators of Superimposed Preeclampsia in Women With CKD. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int Rep 2019; 4(6):842-853
- CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that endothelial dysfunction contributes to the pathophysiology of superimposed preeclampsia and a diagnostic role for plasma hyaluronan and VCAM is hypothesized.
- Systemic Outcomes of (Pyr1)-Apelin-13 Infusion at Mid-Late Pregnancy in a Rat Model with Preeclamptic Features. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jun 12; 9(1):8579
- Preeclampsia is a syndrome with diverse clinical presentation that currently has no cure. The apelin receptor system is a pleiotropic pathway with a potential for therapeutic targeting in preeclampsi…
Preeclampsia is a syndrome with diverse clinical presentation that currently has no cure. The apelin receptor system is a pleiotropic pathway with a potential for therapeutic targeting in preeclampsia. We established the systemic outcomes of (Pyr1)-apelin-13 administration in rats with preeclamptic features (TGA-PE, female transgenic for human angiotensinogen mated to male transgenic for human renin). (Pyr1)-apelin-13 (2 mg/kg/day) or saline was infused in TGA-PE rats via osmotic minipumps starting at day 13 of gestation (GD). At GD20, TGA-PE rats had higher blood pressure, proteinuria, lower maternal and pup weights, lower pup number, renal injury, and a larger heart compared to a control group (pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered vehicle). (Pyr1)-apelin-13 did not affect maternal or fetal weights in TGA-PE. The administration of (Pyr1)-apelin-13 reduced blood pressure, and normalized heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in TGA-PE rats compared to controls. (Pyr1)-apelin-13 increased ejection fraction in TGA-PE rats. (Pyr1)-apelin-13 normalized proteinuria in association with lower renal cortical collagen deposition, improved renal pathology and lower immunostaining of oxidative stress markers (4-HNE and NOX-4) in TGA-PE. This study demonstrates improved hemodynamic responses and renal injury without fetal toxicity following apelin administration suggesting a role for apelin in the regulation of maternal outcomes in preeclampsia.
- Heterologous expression, purification and functional characterization of recombinant ovine angiotensinogen in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. [Journal Article]
- BPBiotechnol Prog 2019 Jun 12; :e2866
- Angiotensinogen (AGT), a glycosylated plasma non-inhibitory serpin, serves as a precursor for angiotensin peptides which regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance. AGT is specifically cleaved b…
Angiotensinogen (AGT), a glycosylated plasma non-inhibitory serpin, serves as a precursor for angiotensin peptides which regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance. AGT is specifically cleaved by renin to produce angiotensin-I, the first product of the angiotensin-processing cascade. Ovine angiotensinogen (oAGT) is considered an effective substrate for human renin and consequently finds application in clinical renin assays. In the present study, oAGT was cloned into the genome of Pichia pastoris and expressed under the control of alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter for high-level production. Compared to the shake flask study, the high cell density cultivation in bioreactor resulted in multifold increase in oAGT titer (420 ± 9.26 mg/L), which is its highest reported titer to date. We purified recombinant oAGT to homogeneity using two chromatography steps. The characterization studies revealed oAGT underwent a two-state transition during thermal denaturation process as assessed by differential scanning fluorimetry, and the melting temperature (Tm) of the purified oAGT from P. pastoris was 48.3°C. Renin reactivity with recombinant oAGT from P. pastoris (0.51 nM angiotensin-I/min) was slightly lower than the renin reactivity for recombinant oAGT from E. coli (0.67nM angiotensin-I/min), possibly because of its mannosylated N-glycan content. Enhanced production of functionally active recombinant oAGT using P. pastoris expression system reported in this present study envisage the effective utilization of oAGT in clinical studies related to renin in near future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Angiotensin II Increases Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jun 11; 9(1):8481
- The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), a key regulator of blood pressure has been linked to metabolic disorders. We have previously reported that adipose overexpression of angiotensinogen in mice (Agt-T…
The Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), a key regulator of blood pressure has been linked to metabolic disorders. We have previously reported that adipose overexpression of angiotensinogen in mice (Agt-Tg) induces obesity, in part mediated by adipose tissue inflammation, through yet unidentified mechanisms. Hence, we hypothesize that adipose tissue enrichment of angiotensinogen leads to activation of inflammatory cascades and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby, contributing to obesity. We used wild type (Wt), Agt-Tg and Agt-knockout (KO) mice along with 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes treated with RAS, ER stress and inflammation inhibitors. ER stress and pro-inflammation markers were significantly higher in Agt-Tg compared to Wt mice and captopril significantly reduced their expression. Furthermore, in vitro treatment with Ang II significantly induced ER stress and inflammation, whereas angiotensin II receptor inhibitor, telmisartan reduced RAS effects. Moreover, miR-30 family had significantly lower expression in Agt-Tg group. MiR-708-5p and -143-3p were upregulated when RAS was overexpressed, and RAS antagonists reduced miR-143-3p and -708-5p in both mouse adipose tissue and adipocytes. Activation of RAS by Ang II treatment, increased inflammation and ER stress in adipocytes mainly via AT1 receptor, possibly mediated by miR-30 family, -708-5p and/or -143-3p. Hence, RAS and mediating microRNAs could be used as potential targets to reduce RAS induced obesity and related comorbid diseases.
- Stachydrine Ameliorates Cardiac Fibrosis Through Inhibition of Angiotensin II/Transformation Growth Factor β1 Fibrogenic Axis. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Pharmacol 2019; 10:538
- Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide, are tightly associated with the pathological myocardial fibrosis. Stachydrine (Sta), a major active compound in Chinese motherwort Leonu…
Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide, are tightly associated with the pathological myocardial fibrosis. Stachydrine (Sta), a major active compound in Chinese motherwort Leonurus heterophyllus, was reported to effectively attenuate cardiac fibrosis, but the cellular and molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the anti-fibrotic effect of Sta and mechanism underlying were explored in a mouse model of pressure overload and AngII stimulated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). Mice were randomly divided into sham, transverse aorta constriction with saline (TAC+Sal), TAC with telmisartan (TAC+Tel), and TAC with Sta (TAC+Sta) groups. Cardiac morphological and functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods, and the molecular alterations were detected by western blotting. Primary cultured neonatal mouse CFs were treated with or without angiotensin II (AngII, 10-7 M), transformation growth factor β1 (TGFβ1, 10 ng/mL), and different dosage of Sta (10-6-10-4 M) for up to 96 h, and cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, morphology and related signals were also detected. The in vivo results revealed that TAC prominently induced cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular dilation, myocardial hypertrophy, and elevated myocardial collagen deposition, accompanied with increased fibrotic markers including α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and periostin. However, Sta treatment partially reversed cardiac morphological and functional deteriorations, and significantly blunted cardiac fibrosis as well as Tel. Increments of myocardial angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), AngII type 1 receptor (AT1R), and TGFβ1 transcripts, together with increased protein levels of ACE and AngII, after TAC were dramatically down-regulated by Sta treatment. Coincidently, in vitro experiments demonstrated that AngII stimulation in CFs led to up-regulation of AT1R and TGFβ1, and therefore promoted CFs trans-differentiating into hyper-activated myocardial fibroblasts (MFs) as evidenced by increased cell proliferation, collagen and fibrotic makers. On the contrary, Sta potently down-regulated but not directly inhibited AT1R, suppressed TGFβ1 production, and the pro-fibrotic effect of AngII in CFs. Moreover, activation of TGFβ1/Smads signal in the fibrotic process were observed both TAC model and in AngII stimulated CFs, which were also notably blunted by Sta. However, Sta failed to abolish the activation of CFs triggered by TGFβ1. Taken together, it was demonstrated in this study that Sta suppressed ACE/AngII/AT1R-TGFβ1 profibrotic axis, especially on the de novo production of AngII via down-regulating AGT/ACE and AT1R, and therefore inactivated CFs and blunted MFs transition, which ultimately prevented cardiac fibrosis.
- Interacting cogs in the machinery of the renin angiotensin system. [Review]
- BRBiophys Rev 2019 Jun 08
- Somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) is well-known for its role in blood pressure regulation and consequently, ACE inhibitors are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. More tha…
Somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) is well-known for its role in blood pressure regulation and consequently, ACE inhibitors are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. More than 60 years after the discovery of sACE, however, the molecular details of its substrate hydrolysis and inhibition are still poorly understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry, molecular dynamics simulations and fine epitope mapping suggest that substrate or inhibitor binding triggers a hinging motion between the two subdomains of each domain. Ligand binding to one domain further induces a conformational change in sACE to negatively affect the second domain's function and can also cause dimerization between sACE molecules. This has been linked to an increase in sACE expression via intracellular signalling. Inhibitor-induced dimerization could thus decrease the efficacy of hypertension treatment. At present, the only structural information available for sACE are crystal structures of the truncated domains in the closed conformation due to the presence of ligands. These structures do not provide any information regarding the open active site conformation prior to ligand binding, the relative orientation of the two domains in full-length sACE, or the dimerization interface. To guarantee effective therapeutic intervention, further research is required to investigate the hinging, negative cooperativity and dimerization of sACE. This review describes our current understanding of these interactions and proposes how recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy could enable structural elucidation of their mechanisms.
- Retinal vein occlusion in child with rare mutations in genes for thrombophilia. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Ter 2019 May-Jun; 170(3):e163-e167
- CONCLUSIONS: In addition to traditional factors with procoagulant activity, factor XII deficiency plays an important role in thrombosis's mechanism. Its deficiency causes a marked prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time in the laboratory examination. Moreover also MTHFR, ACE and AGT could have been involved in this case, so it is important to evaluate these parameters in the differential diagnosis of RVOs.
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- High glucose promotes breast cancer proliferation and metastasis by impairing angiotensinogen expression. [Journal Article]
- BRBiosci Rep 2019 Jun 28; 39(6)
- A number of investigations have addressed the importance of high glucose in breast cancer, however, the involvement of angiotensinogen (AGT) in this scenario is yet to be defined. Here we set out to …
A number of investigations have addressed the importance of high glucose in breast cancer, however, the involvement of angiotensinogen (AGT) in this scenario is yet to be defined. Here we set out to analyze the potential pro-tumor effects of high glucose in breast cancer, and understand the underlying molecular mechanism. We demonstrated that high glucose promoted cell proliferation, viability, and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells. In addition, the migrative and invasive capacities were significantly enhanced by high glucose medium. Mechanistically, AGT expression was inhibited by high glucose at both transcriptional and translational levels. High AGT remarkably suppressed proliferation, inhibited viability, and compromised migration/invasion of breast cancer cells. Most importantly, ectopic introduction of AGT almost completely abrogated pro-tumor effects of high glucose. Our study has characterized the pro-tumor properties of high glucose in breast cancer cells, which is predominantly attributed to the suppression of AGT.