- Perceptions of agrodiversity and seed-saving practices in the northern Andes of Ecuador. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2019 Jul 15; 15(1):35
- CONCLUSIONS: Based on the timeline-mapping tool, we found that participants perceive an intergenerational loss of agrodiversity. Data derived from free listing determined that salient crops differ in each location of the study area, mostly due to geographic (altitude, climate), market factors, and crop management limitations. Responses from open-ended interview questions revealed that farmers discriminate conventional from non-conventional seeds using yield, adaptation to local conditions, pest tolerance, taste, and crop management as criteria. Analysis of free listing data determined that the most salient reported practices related to seed saving were soil fertility management, seed selection, safe seed storage, tilling and rowing, and weeding.This study contributes to raising awareness of intergenerational agrodiversity loss and replacement with modern crops. We found the relevance of crops and practices is subject to cultural and environmental context, and few agricultural practices are exclusively used for seed saving. Further, farmers clearly discriminate conventional from non-conventional seeds based on advantages and disadvantages, cultural motivation, and produce destination. The community-based participatory approach resulted in positive engagement from participants and promoted commitment from farmers to preserve agrodiversity and support practices at the community level.
- Semen and male genital tract characteristics of patients with Fabry disease: the FERTIFABRY multicentre observational study. [Journal Article]
- BCBasic Clin Androl 2019; 29:7
- CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, while FD might have a detrimental effect on the semen characteristics, the reproductive function diminished only slightly. Further studies are warranted to assess the impact of the disease and of sperm abnormalities in the fertility of male patients with FD.
- Tool of economic development, metric of global health: Promoting planned families and economized life in Nepal. [Journal Article]
- SSSoc Sci Med 2019 May 08
- In contemporary global health and development discourses, contraception is cast in multiple roles: an antipoverty tool at the household level, a tool of economic development at the national level, a …
In contemporary global health and development discourses, contraception is cast in multiple roles: an antipoverty tool at the household level, a tool of economic development at the national level, a smart investment with net gains, a means of empowering women, a way of lowering maternal mortality ratios. In order to examine such discursive uses of contraception - and their implications for women - in a concrete way, I use a compelling case of the history of the promotion of planned families in Nepal and a recent social and behavior change communication contraception campaign designed in the US. Using social text analysis to examine this multi-year, multi-platform campaign in Nepal, I found that the advertisements present idealized images of "smart couples:" progressive, middle-class families engaged in rationalistic family planning to delay and space their offspring. A major theme identified, aspirations to be middle class, links these specific family planning behaviors to upward economic mobility. The small-family ideal previously promoted in the global South had outlived its relevance as Nepal and other countries reached near replacement-level fertility rates. The gradual historical refashioning in Nepal of a discourse that promotes the "small family" to one that promotes the modern "smart couple" is an illustrative example of the global trend in which a message of replacement-level fertility is repackaged as a message of delaying and spacing births under the guise of health, as funding agencies promote contraceptive adoption as a women's health issue. Underlying this discursive repackaging, however, is a continued economization of life and health.
- The Effects of Conflict on Fertility: Evidence From the Genocide in Rwanda. [Journal Article]
- DDemography 2019; 56(3):935-968
- Our study analyzes the fertility effects of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. We study the effects of violence on both the duration time to the first birth in the early post-genocide period and on the tot…
Our study analyzes the fertility effects of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. We study the effects of violence on both the duration time to the first birth in the early post-genocide period and on the total number of post-genocide births per woman up to 15 years following the conflict. We use individual-level data from Demographic and Health Surveys, estimating survival and count data models. This article contributes to the literature on the demographic effects of violent conflict by testing two channels through which conflict influences fertility: (1) the type of violence exposure as measured by the death of a child or sibling, and (2) the conflict-induced change in local demographic conditions as captured by the change in the district-level sex ratio. Results indicate the genocide had heterogeneous effects on fertility, depending on the type of violence experienced by the woman, her age cohort, parity, and the time horizon (5, 10, and 15 years after the genocide). There is strong evidence of a child replacement effect. Having experienced the death of a child during the genocide increases both the hazard of having a child in the five years following the genocide and the total number of post-genocide births. Experiencing sibling death during the genocide significantly lowers post-genocide fertility in both the short-run and the long-run. Finally, a reduction in the local sex ratio negatively impacts the hazard of having a child in the five years following the genocide, especially for older women.
- Fertility and hormone preservation and restoration for female children and adolescents receiving gonadotoxic cancer treatments: A systematic review. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Surg 2019 Jan 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Clinically accepted and experimental fertility preservation options such as OTC, oocyte cryopreservation, and ovarian transposition are available to females aged 20 years and younger who are at risk for premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility due to gonadotoxic treatments. There is a large cohort of pediatric-aged patients, with a wide variety of diagnoses and treatments, who have undergone fertility preservation. Currently, fertility and hormone restoration experience for patients who were 20- years of age or younger at the time of fertility preservation remains limited.
- Cytoplasmic incompatibility management to support Incompatible Insect Technique against Aedes albopictus. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2018 Dec 24; 11(Suppl 2):649
- CONCLUSIONS: In the case of bidirectional incompatibility patterns, the repeated release of incompatible males with small percentages of contaminant females could lead to population replacement in confined environments while it could be managed to target high efficiency and sustainability in wild-type suppression when systems are open to migration. This possibility is discussed based on various contexts and taking into consideration the possibility of integration with other control methods such as SIT and the use of larvicides.
- Socioeconomic determinants of rural women's desired fertility: A survey in rural Shaanxi, China. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0202968
- There has been evidence demonstrating that China has had a persistently low and below-replacement level fertility since early 1990s, causing concerns of a rapidly aging population and sustainability …
There has been evidence demonstrating that China has had a persistently low and below-replacement level fertility since early 1990s, causing concerns of a rapidly aging population and sustainability of the Chinese economy. To avoid adverse effects of excessively low fertility, the Chinese government has recently changed its family planning policy from "one-child policy" to "two-child policy." Nonetheless, the effectiveness of the newly initiated two-child policy is questionable if women's average desired number of children or desired fertility for their lifetime is below the threshold fertility allowed by the two-child policy. Therefore, this study argues that it would be interesting and pertinent to know women's fertility desires under the circumstances of no policy restrictions and understand major factors that may affect their desired fertility. Based on a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling survey with 2,516 women respondents in rural Shaanxi, this study tries to estimate desired fertility of rural women and evaluate the impact of important socioeconomic factors on their desired fertility. The results of this study reveal that the average lifetime desired fertility for rural women of childbearing age in Shaanxi is about 1.71, below the total fertility rate at the replacement level. The findings of this study suggest that women's marriage age, the pecuniary costs of having children, women's income forgone for having children, and social security benefits available for rural residents at retirement age, are significantly and negatively related to desired fertility. However, rural women's cultural views towards fertility are significantly but positively related to their desired fertility. This study further confirms that China has entered an era of low fertility, and thus, any policy restrictions on fertility may no longer be necessary. Instead, government programs which support childbearing and childrearing are needed to prevent excessive low fertility and rapid aging of the population.
- Improving wellbeing and reducing future world population. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(9):e0202851
- Almost 80% of the 4 billion projected increase in world population by 2100 comes from 37 Mid-African Countries (MACs), caused mostly by slow declines in Total Fertility Rate (TFR). Historically, TFR …
Almost 80% of the 4 billion projected increase in world population by 2100 comes from 37 Mid-African Countries (MACs), caused mostly by slow declines in Total Fertility Rate (TFR). Historically, TFR has declined in response to increases in wellbeing associated with economic development. We show that, when Infant Survival Rate (ISR, a proxy for wellbeing) has increased, MAC fertility has declined at the same rate, in relation to ISR, as it did in 61 comparable Other Developing Countries (ODCs) whose average fertility is close to replacement level. If MAC ISR were to increase at the historic rate of these ODCs, and TFR declined correspondingly, then the projected world population in 2100 would be decreasing and 1.1 billion lower than currently projected. Such rates of ISR increase, and TFR decrease, are quite feasible and have occurred in comparable ODCs. Increased efforts to improve the wellbeing of poor MAC populations are key.
- Sixty years of change in Tibetan fertility: An assessment. [Journal Article]
- PSPopul Stud (Camb) 2019; 73(2):277-285
- Existing knowledge of Tibetan historical population development is mostly based on 'best-guess' estimates and is heavily politicized. Using census data, I reconstruct the development of Tibetan ferti…
Existing knowledge of Tibetan historical population development is mostly based on 'best-guess' estimates and is heavily politicized. Using census data, I reconstruct the development of Tibetan fertility in China since the 1940s, with the objective of providing an independent assessment that can be used as benchmark for future studies and debates on Tibetan demography. Following major social and economic transformations starting in the 1950s, Tibetan fertility unexpectedly increased from the late 1950s to the late 1960s. As noted in several existing studies, Tibetan fertility in China then declined swiftly from the early 1980s onwards and has now reached values close to replacement level. Focusing on the 1950-70 period, I examine factors that contributed to shaping the Tibetan fertility increase in more detail. This confirms that changes in nuptiality and disease-related infertility both played a role in pushing up fertility rates among Tibetan women in China.
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- Assessing mitochondrial heteroplasmy using next generation sequencing: A note of caution. [Journal Article]
- MMitochondrion 2019; 46:302-306
- The mitochondrial genome has recently become the focus of several high-impact next-generation sequencing studies investigating the effect of mutations in disease and assessing the efficacy of mitocho…
The mitochondrial genome has recently become the focus of several high-impact next-generation sequencing studies investigating the effect of mutations in disease and assessing the efficacy of mitochondrial replacement therapies. However, these studies have failed to take into consideration the capture of recurring translocations of mitochondrial DNA to the nuclear genome, known as nuclear mitochondrial sequences (NUMTs), continuing to align sequence data to the revised Cambridge reference sequence alone. Here, using different mtDNA enrichment techniques and a variety of tissues, we demonstrate that NUMTs are present in sequence data and that, dependent upon downstream analysis, are at a level which affects variant calling.