- Scent lineups compared across eleven countries: Looking for the future of a controversial forensic technique. [Journal Article]Forensic Sci Int 2019; 302:109895FS
- A scent lineup is generally a procedure whereby a dog's alerting behavior is used to establish that the dog detects two scents, one from a crime scene and one from a suspect, as deriving from the same person. The aim of this article is to compare methodologies of using dogs in scent lineups as a means of identifying perpetrators of crimes. It is hoped that this comparative approach, looking at co…
A scent lineup is generally a procedure whereby a dog's alerting behavior is used to establish that the dog detects two scents, one from a crime scene and one from a suspect, as deriving from the same person. The aim of this article is to compare methodologies of using dogs in scent lineups as a means of identifying perpetrators of crimes. It is hoped that this comparative approach, looking at countries where the method is currently or has in the past been used, will help determine what issues should be addressed in order to assure that the scent lineup will have a future as a forensic technique. Participants from eleven countries-Belgium, The Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, and the U.S.-completed a survey questionnaire regarding key aspects of the scent lineup procedures used by the police in their countries. Although there was broad overlap on certain matters, such as the use of control and zero trials, collection of decoy scents from individuals of similar gender and race as the suspect, materials for holding scent, frequency of cleaning and changing stations, and use and timing of rewards, there were significant differences in the degree of blindness required, who calls an alert (handler or experimenter), and whether handlers can work with more than one dog. The gap between recommendations and results available from the scientific literature and procedures used in police practice was greater for some countries than others, even taking into account that some scientific methodologies might be expensive or impractical given agency resources. The authors make recommendations about how to go forward if scent lineups are to remain a valid forensic technique.
- Modelling progress towards elimination of hepatitis B in Australia. [Journal Article]Hepatology 2019Hep
- CONCLUSIONS: Australia is not on track to meet local and global targets regarding CHB. Comprehensive and regularly updated modelling approaches accounting for diversity within the population are a useful tool to measure progress and impact of interventions, and quantify further improvements required to meet elimination goals.
- Pediatric codeine prescriptions in outpatient and inpatient settings in Korea. [Journal Article]Am J Manag Care 2019; 25(8):e224-e229AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Codeine was frequently prescribed for pediatric outpatients in Korea, especially in primary care clinics. Efforts to limit codeine use in children are required to prevent the occurrence of codeine-related adverse events.
- Mental health and offending in older people: Future directions for research. [Review]Crim Behav Ment Health 2019CB
- CONCLUSIONS: The older population in prisons and secure settings is growing, and there is much concern as to how far facilities and services have been able to identify and meet the mental health needs of those of older age. Cooperation between researchers and services and between disciplines will be essential if we are to secure a more robust evidence base in this respect. Engaging service users in such research and considering the whole criminal justice pathway including diversion remains a priority.
- Decreased warfarin sensitivity among patients treated with elbasvir and grazoprevir for hepatitis C infection. [Journal Article]Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019; 76(17):1273-1280AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: When elbasvir-grazoprevir was added to stable warfarin anticoagulation, warfarin sensitivity decreased significantly during treatment and returned to baseline after treatment.
- Analysis of the medical response to November 2015 Paris terrorist attacks: resource utilization according to the cause of injury. [Journal Article]Intensive Care Med 2019IC
- CONCLUSIONS: The resources required to deal with a terrorist attack vary according to the mechanism of trauma. Our study provides a template to estimate the proportion of various types of surgical resources needed overall, as well as their time frame in a terrorist multisite and multitype attack.
- Personalized Health Systems-Past, Present, and Future of Research Development and Implementation in Real-Life Environment. [Review]Front Med (Lausanne) 2019; 6:149FM
- Personal health systems (PHS) are designed to provide the individual with tailored care while enabling the healthcare system to deliver high-quality care to large populations and maintain a sustainable system. Solutions using electronic health records (EHRs) that include predictive models for the risk of disease onset and deterioration enable the care provider to better identify and treat patient…
Personal health systems (PHS) are designed to provide the individual with tailored care while enabling the healthcare system to deliver high-quality care to large populations and maintain a sustainable system. Solutions using electronic health records (EHRs) that include predictive models for the risk of disease onset and deterioration enable the care provider to better identify and treat patients with chronic disease and provide personalized prevention. These tools are well-accepted by doctors and have been proven to improve health outcomes and reduce costs. Integrated telecare programs were implemented for comorbid patients showing improved clinical outcomes self-management and quality of life (QoL). However, different patient populations benefit in different ways from these care plans, and thus, continuous evaluation, service adaptation in a real-life environment set with clear outcome measures, is required for best results. The challenge of the PHS today is to acquire patient-generated data (PGD) and behavioral and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for PHS development that can be combined with existing clinical data. Some initiatives of healthcare organizations [health maintenance organizations (HMOs)] in Israel demonstrate how this goal can be achieved with relatively small efforts by using a stepwise and agile approach to service implementation that improve service by enabling adoption and adaptation of the service in the short term while collecting data for advanced PHS development in the long term. This approach, combined with programs and incentive payments at the national level, creates an environment and infrastructure for collaboration between healthcare, academia, and industry for research, development, and implementation of future PHS. This article presents examples of PHS development and implementation from the Israeli healthcare system. We discuss the lessons learned and suggest new approaches for research, development implementation, and evaluation of PHS that will address the needs of future healthcare.
- Enabling Global Clinical Collaborations on Identifiable Patient Data: The Minerva Initiative. [Journal Article]Front Genet 2019; 10:611FG
- The clinical utility of computational phenotyping for both genetic and rare diseases is increasingly appreciated; however, its true potential is yet to be fully realized. Alongside the growing clinical and research availability of sequencing technologies, precise deep and scalable phenotyping is required to serve unmet need in genetic and rare diseases. To improve the lives of individuals affecte…
The clinical utility of computational phenotyping for both genetic and rare diseases is increasingly appreciated; however, its true potential is yet to be fully realized. Alongside the growing clinical and research availability of sequencing technologies, precise deep and scalable phenotyping is required to serve unmet need in genetic and rare diseases. To improve the lives of individuals affected with rare diseases through deep phenotyping, global big data interrogation is necessary to aid our understanding of disease biology, assist diagnosis, and develop targeted treatment strategies. This includes the application of cutting-edge machine learning methods to image data. As with most digital tools employed in health care, there are ethical and data governance challenges associated with using identifiable personal image data. There are also risks with failing to deliver on the patient benefits of these new technologies, the biggest of which is posed by data siloing. The Minerva Initiative has been designed to enable the public good of deep phenotyping while mitigating these ethical risks. Its open structure, enabling collaboration and data sharing between individuals, clinicians, researchers and private enterprise, is key for delivering precision public health.
- Recognizing intrapancreatic accessory spleen via EUS: Interobserver variability. [Journal Article]Endosc Ultrasound 2019EU
- CONCLUSIONS: There is a moderate-to-substantial interobserver agreement in describing the sonographic characteristics of the pancreatic lesions, such as the shape, echogenicity compared to spleen, echotexture, and border of the lesions. However, the interobserver agreement is only fair when deciding if the pancreatic lesion is an IPAS. The similar profile of IPAS and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor could confound the diagnosis of IPAS, thus contributing to the decreased interobserver agreement. This study demonstrates that EUS criteria alone are not accurate for IPAS diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be required for a confirmatory diagnosis.
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- Development of a required longitudinal residency experience focused on deprescribing. [Journal Article]Am J Health Syst Pharm 2019; 76(4):236-241AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: A required longitudinal deprescribing-focused experience can provide PGY2 geriatric pharmacy residents with opportunities to practice empathy, critical thinking, and communication beyond those typically offered in a residency program.