- Activation of retinal Müller cells in response to glucose variability. [Journal Article]
- EEndocrine 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight Müller cells activation in response to glucose variability and a different susceptibility depending on the basal glucose conditions.
- Deciphering the role of circulating lncRNAs: RNCR2, NEAT2, CDKN2B-AS1, and PVT1 and the possible prediction of anti-VEGF treatment outcomes in diabetic retinopathy patients. [Journal Article]
- GAGraefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Though circulating levels of the analyzed lncRNAs did not show an association with DR progression or aflibercept therapy response, the expression pattern demonstrated good diagnostic performance in differentiating DM from controls and DR.
- Association of small for gestational age with retinopathy of prematurity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- ADArch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: SGA was associated with increased odds of any stage of ROP, severe ROP and treated ROP in preterm infants. Neonatologists should incorporate SGA into the risk assessment during ROP evaluation and while providing counselling to the families of preterm SGA infants. ROP screening guidelines should look into the frequency of follow-up examination in SGA infants in aim to offer early detection and treatment.
- Impact of Immune System Activation and Vascular Impairment on Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction. [Review]
- SMSex Med Rev 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Several conditions appear to play a role in SD. In the present review, we have identified a role for the immune system in generating vascular and tissue impairments contributing to erectile dysfunction and female SD. Calmasini F, Klee N, Webb C, et al. Impact of Immune System Activation and Vascular Impairment on Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction. Sex Med Rev 2019; XX:XXX-XXX.
- Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with diabetic retinopathy in younger than 70 years patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Journal Article]
- DRDiabetes Res Clin Pract 2019 Jul 17; :107793
- CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that CAVI is significantly higher in younger patients with DR than in those without, with a relationship between the stages of DR and CAVI in the same subgroup. Physicians should pay attention to sub-clinical macroangiopathy in younger T2DM patients who have DR.
- Protective Effects of Curcumin Ester Prodrug, Curcumin Diethyl Disuccinate against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Potential Therapeutic Avenues for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 09; 20(13)
- Oxidative stress-induced damage to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a specialised post-mitotic monolayer that maintains retinal homeostasis, contributes to the development of age-related macul…
Oxidative stress-induced damage to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a specialised post-mitotic monolayer that maintains retinal homeostasis, contributes to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Curcumin (Cur), a naturally occurring antioxidant, was previously shown to have the ability to protect RPE cells from oxidative stress. However, poor solubility and bioavailability makes Cur a poor therapeutic agent. As prodrug approaches can mitigate these limitations, we compared the protective properties of the Cur prodrug curcumin diethyl disuccinate (CurDD) against Cur in relation to oxidative stress induced in human ARPE-19 cells. Both CurDD and Cur significantly decreased H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and protected RPE cells from oxidative stress-induced death. Both drugs exerted their protective effects through the modulation of p44/42 (ERK) and the involvement of downstream molecules Bax and Bcl-2. Additionally, the expression of antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 was also enhanced in cells treated with CurDD and Cur. In all cases, CurDD was more effective than its parent drug against oxidative stress-induced damage to ARPE-19 cells. These findings highlight CurDD as a more potent drug compared to Cur against oxidative stress and indicate that its protective effects are exerted through modulation of key apoptotic and antioxidant molecular pathways.
- Identification of Retinal Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optical Coherence Tomography: Recent Insights, Challenges, and Opportunities. [Review]
- JCJ Clin Med 2019 Jul 09; 8(7)
- This review will highlight recent insights into measuring retinal structure in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of evidence indicates that disturbances in retinal blood flow and structure are…
This review will highlight recent insights into measuring retinal structure in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of evidence indicates that disturbances in retinal blood flow and structure are related to cognitive function, which can severely impair vision. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technology that may allow researchers and physicians to gain deeper insights into retinal morphology and clarify the impact of AD on retinal health and function. Direct and noninvasive measurement of retinal morphology using OCT has provided useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in several central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including AD, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease. Despite several limitations, morphology assessment in the retinal layers is a significant advancement in the understanding of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, additional studies are required to validate the use of OCT in AD and its complications in the eye.
- Determining Possible Shared Genetic Architecture Between Myopia and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Jul 01; 60(8):3142-3149
- CONCLUSIONS: Using two complementary approaches we found no evidence to support a genetic overlap between myopia and POAG; our results suggest that the comorbidity of these diseases is not influenced by common variants. The association between myopia and optic disc size is well known and validates this methodology.
- Arginine and Carnitine Metabolites Are Altered in Diabetic Retinopathy. [Journal Article]
- IOInvest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019 Jul 01; 60(8):3119-3126
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that arginine and citrulline-related pathways are dysregulated in DR, and fatty acid metabolism is altered in PDR patients compared with NPDR patients.
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- Ferroportin-mediated iron export from vascular endothelial cells in retina and brain. [Journal Article]
- EEExp Eye Res 2019 Jul 16; :107728
- Retinal iron accumulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. The retina and the brain are protected from the syste…
Retinal iron accumulation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. The retina and the brain are protected from the systemic circulation by the blood retinal barrier (BRB) and blood brain barrier (BBB), respectively. Iron levels within the retina and brain need to be tightly regulated to prevent oxidative injury. The method of iron entry through the retina and brain vascular endothelial cells (r&bVECs), an essential component of the BRB and BBB, is not fully understood. However, localization of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin (Fpn), to the abluminal membrane of these cells, leads to the hypothesis that Fpn may play an important role in the import of iron across the BRB and BBB. To test this hypothesis, a mouse model with deletion of Fpn within the VECs in both the retina and the brain was developed through tail vein injection of AAV9-Ple261(CLDN5)-icre to both experimental Fpnf/f, and control Fpn+/+ mice at P21. Mice were aged to 9 mo and changes in retinal and brain iron distribution were observed. In vivo fundus imaging and quantitative serum iron detection were used for model validation. Eyes and brains were collected for immunofluorescence. Deletion of Fpn from the retinal and brain VECs leads to ferritin-L accumulation, an indicator of elevated iron levels, in the retinal and brain VECs. This occurred despite lower serum iron levels in the experimental mice. This result suggests that Fpn normally transfers iron from retinal and brain VECs into the retina and brain. These results help to better define the method of retina and brain iron import and will increase understanding of neurodegenerative diseases involving iron accumulation.