- Temperament in Adults Who Stutter and Its Association With Stuttering Frequency and Quality-of-Life Impacts. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 Jul 17; :1-12
- Purpose The study aim was to determine whether self-reported temperament traits differentiate adults who stutter (AWS) from adults who do not stutter (AWNS). Additionally, associations between temper…
Purpose The study aim was to determine whether self-reported temperament traits differentiate adults who stutter (AWS) from adults who do not stutter (AWNS). Additionally, associations between temperament and stuttering frequency, and between temperament and quality of life impacts of stuttering, were investigated in AWS. Method Self-reported temperament traits were documented for 33 AWS and 43 AWNS using the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ; Evans & Rothbart, 2007). Quality-of-life impacts of stuttering were assessed using the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering (Yaruss & Quesal, 2010). Stuttering frequency was calculated from 100-word monologue and reading samples. Results A between-groups difference in scores on the ATQ Positive Affect subscale was nominally significant (i.e., before correcting for multiple tests) and also approached statistical significance after Bonferroni correction. Positive Affect scores were lower for AWS, and the size of this trending effect was moderate. Within AWS, a statistically significant positive correlation was found between impact scores on the General Information section of the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering and ATQ Frustration subscale scores after Bonferroni correction. No associations were detected between temperament traits and stuttering frequency. Conclusions Results reveal a nontrivial tendency for AWS to experience decreased positive affect compared to AWNS. In addition, increased frustration was found to be associated with reduced general knowledge about stuttering in AWS. Neither effect has been previously reported for adults or children who stutter. Finally, self-reported temperament traits were not found to vary with stuttering frequency in adults, consistent with previous results for AWS.
- Speech Production Accuracy and Variability in Monolingual and Bilingual Children With Cochlear Implants: A Comparison to Their Peers With Normal Hearing. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 Jul 17; :1-16
- Purpose This study investigates consonant and vowel accuracy and whole-word variability (also called token-to-token variability or token-to-token inconsistency) in bilingual Spanish-English and monol…
Purpose This study investigates consonant and vowel accuracy and whole-word variability (also called token-to-token variability or token-to-token inconsistency) in bilingual Spanish-English and monolingual English-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) compared to their bilingual and monolingual peers with normal hearing (NH). Method Participants were 40 children between 4;6 and 7;11 (years;months; M age = 6;2), n = 10 each in 4 participant groups: bilingual Spanish-English with CIs, monolingual English with CIs, bilingual Spanish-English with NH, and monolingual English with NH. Spanish and English word lists consisting of 20 words of varying length were generated, and 3 productions of each word were analyzed for percent consonants correct, percent vowels correct, and the presence of any consonant and/or vowel variability. Results Children with CIs demonstrated lower accuracy and more whole-word variability than their peers with NH. There were no differences in rates of accuracy or whole-word variability between bilingual and monolingual children matched on hearing status, and bilingual children had lower accuracy and greater whole-word variability in English than in Spanish. Conclusions High rates of whole-word variability are prevalent in the speech of children with CIs even after many years of CI experience, and bilingual language exposure does not appear to negatively impact phonological development in children with CIs. Contributions to our understanding of underlying sources of speech production variability and clinical implications are discussed.
- The audiologic profile of patients with Charcot-Marie Tooth neuropathy can be characterised by both cochlear and neural deficits. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Audiol 2019 Jul 18; :1-11
- CONCLUSIONS: The hearing abilities of people with CMT are highly variable. While there were strong neural hearing loss components, speech perception abilities were not disproportionately affected in most participants. Therefore, a hearing aid trial is recommended. ABR responses may be a useful tool for monitoring the progression of CMT over time.
- [Speech disorders in children with cerebral palsy: diagnostics and correction]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019; 119(5):112-119
- This lecture presents general information about children cerebral palsy concerning current views on its causes and pathogenesis as well as the data on different classifications of speech disorders (l…
This lecture presents general information about children cerebral palsy concerning current views on its causes and pathogenesis as well as the data on different classifications of speech disorders (localization of lesions, clinical presentations) and their prevalence, which are important for general practitioners. Special attention is drawn to the principles and tasks of diagnostics of speech disorders, organization of treatment-correction measures considering all possible approaches to the care of patients.
- Impaired auditory processing and neural representation of speech in noise among symptomatic post-concussion adults. [Journal Article]
- BIBrain Inj 2019 Jul 18; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: AERPs revealed differences between healthy controls and those with chronic post-concussion symptoms following mTBI at a later stage of auditory processing (P300). Neural processing at the earlier stage (P1-N1-P2) was more affected by noise in the mTBI group. Preliminary evidence suggested that it may be only the proportion of individuals with functional evidence of central auditory dysfunction with changes in AERPs at earlier stages of processing.
- Association of Neck Range of Motion and Skin Caliper Measures on Dysphagia Outcomes in Head and Neck Cancer and Effects of Neck Stretches and Swallowing Exercises. [Journal Article]
- DDysphagia 2019 Jul 17
- To date, there is a paucity of information in the literature regarding the association between cervical range of motion (CROM) and skin caliper measures (SCM) and swallowing outcomes in post-RT indiv…
To date, there is a paucity of information in the literature regarding the association between cervical range of motion (CROM) and skin caliper measures (SCM) and swallowing outcomes in post-RT individuals with head and neck cancer. Also lacking in the literature are reports of the effect of swallowing exercises and neck stretches on changes in CROM and SCM and their associations with swallowing outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between CROM and SCM before initiation of a neck stretching and swallowing exercise program and to determine if 12 weeks of twice daily practice changes in CROM and SCM were associated with changes in swallowing outcomes in a cohort of 119 head and neck cancer survivors. Primary results revealed that at baseline, greater right and left CROM were associated with lower penetration aspiration scale (PAS) scores (r = - 0.321, p = < 0.001; r = - 0.203, p = 0.026, respectively). Improved skin pliability revealed lower PAS scores (r = - 0.210, p = 0.022). After 12 weeks, there were no significant correlations between changes in CROM and SCM and PAS scores. Changes in left CROM and CROM extension had positive associations with the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory eating score (r = 0.210, p = 0.026; r = 0.245, p = 0.009, respectively). Findings appear to indicate that any improvement was not associated with changes in swallowing outcomes. Head and neck cancer survivors may perceive improved diet and swallowing skills through exercise, with respect to improved CROM extension.
- Hashimoto's encephalopathy in children: different manifestations of five cases. [Journal Article]
- ANActa Neurol Belg 2019 Jul 16
- Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare, poorly understood, progressive and relapsing, steroid-responsive multiform disease. HE presents with subacute cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, s…
Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare, poorly understood, progressive and relapsing, steroid-responsive multiform disease. HE presents with subacute cognitive dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, and movement disorders. The disorder is usually related to thyroid disease and the most frequent feature is the presence of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies. Patients are generally euthyroid or mildly hypothyroid. The clinical features of two patients at presentation included refractory seizures and confusion, another patient had behavioral problems and altered cognitive status, one patient presented with right-sided weakness and numbness especially in his leg and tongue, dysphagia, speech disorder, aggressiveness, nightmares and nocturnal enuresis and last patient had focal seizures with altered mental status. All patients manifested increased anti-thyroid antibodies. Four patients improved with steroid treatment, and one of the patients responded to plasmapheresis instead of corticosteroid treatment. Physicians' awareness of this complication is of great importance because HE is a highly treatable condition among children and adolescents.
- Neuropsychological, clinical and environmental predictors of severe mental disorders in offspring of patients with schizophrenia. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2019 Jul 16
- Offspring of individuals with schizophrenia (SZCOff) are at an increased risk for this disorder. Neuropsychological decline is a core feature of the disorder and researchers have reported increasing …
Offspring of individuals with schizophrenia (SZCOff) are at an increased risk for this disorder. Neuropsychological decline is a core feature of the disorder and researchers have reported increasing impairments in cognition during the prodromal phase in high-risk adolescents. Additionally, factors like the presence of prodromal symptoms or specific behavioral patterns could predict, together with neurocognitive functioning, the risk of conversion to severe mental disorders in SCZOff. This study aims to compare the neuropsychological functioning of a sample of 41 SCZOff children and adolescents and 105 community control offspring (CCOff) and to develop a prediction model to examine whether neuropsychological functioning, clinical and behavioral factors predict subsequent risk of severe mental disorders. We collected demographic, clinical and neuropsychological data. We found significant differences between groups in working memory, speed of processing, verbal memory and learning, visual memory and intelligence quotient (IQ). The socioeconomic status, verbal memory, working memory and positive prodromal symptoms predicted a significant proportion of the dependent variable variance. In conclusion, SCZOff showed neurocognitive impairments in several neuropsychological domains compared to CCOff. Neuropsychological functioning, environmental factors and positive prodromal symptoms could predict the risk of onset of severe mental disorders in SCZOff.
- Eliciting ERP Components for Morphosyntactic Agreement Mismatches in Perfectly Grammatical Sentences. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2019; 10:1152
- The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study investigates mechanisms underlying the processing of morphosyntactic information during real-time auditory sentence comprehension in French. Empl…
The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study investigates mechanisms underlying the processing of morphosyntactic information during real-time auditory sentence comprehension in French. Employing an auditory-visual sentence-picture matching paradigm, we investigated two types of anomalies using entirely grammatical auditory stimuli: (i) semantic mismatches between visually presented actions and spoken verbs, and (ii) number mismatches between visually presented agents and corresponding morphosyntactic number markers in the spoken sentences (determiners, pronouns in liaison contexts, and verb-final "inflection"). We varied the type and amount of number cues available in each sentence using two manipulations. First, we manipulated the verb type, by using verbs whose number cue was audible through subject (clitic) pronoun liaison (liaison verbs) as well as verbs whose number cue was audible on the verb ending (consonant-final verbs). Second, we manipulated the pre-verbal context: each sentence was preceded either by a neutral context providing no number cue, or by a subject noun phrase containing a subject number cue on the determiner. Twenty-two French-speaking adults participated in the experiment. While sentence judgment accuracy was high, participants' ERP responses were modulated by the type of mismatch encountered. Lexico-semantic mismatches on the verb elicited the expected N400 and additional negativities. Determiner number mismatches elicited early anterior negativities, N400s and P600s. Verb number mismatches elicited biphasic N400-P600 patterns. However, pronoun + verb liaison mismatches yielded this pattern only in the plural, while consonant-final changes did so in the singular and the plural. Furthermore, an additional sustained frontal negativity was observed in two of the four verb mismatch conditions: plural liaison and singular consonant-final forms. This study highlights the different contributions of number cues in oral language processing and is the first to investigate whether auditory-visual mismatches can elicit errors reminiscent of outright grammatical errors. Our results emphasize that neurocognitive mechanisms underlying number agreement in French are modulated by the type of cue that is used to identify auditory-visual mismatches.
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- Stages in the Development and Validation of a Belgian Dutch Outcome Tool for the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech in Patients With Cleft Palate. [Journal Article]
- CPCleft Palate Craniofac J 2019 Jul 16; :1055665619862726
- CONCLUSIONS: The 2-phase evaluation indicated varying validity and reliability results. Future studies will aim to optimize validity and reliability of the developed tool based on adaptations to the listening protocol, the addition of speech variables, and the inclusion of a more elaborate training.