- Right arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus abnormalities in primary insomnia. [Journal Article]
- BIBrain Imaging Behav 2019 Jul 20
- Primary insomnia (PI) is a very common phenomenon and associated with functional impairments of attention, memory and mood regulation. However, its neurobiology is poorly understood. To date, the stu…
Primary insomnia (PI) is a very common phenomenon and associated with functional impairments of attention, memory and mood regulation. However, its neurobiology is poorly understood. To date, the studies about integrity of white matter (WM) tracts in PI patients have been still rare. In the present study, we used Automated Fiber Quantification (AFQ), which reliably and efficiently quantified diffusion measurements at multiple locations along the WM trajectory based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to assess WM diffusion properties differences between 23 PI patients and 32 matched healthy controls in 18 tracts. The relationships between neuroimaging differences and sleep behaviors were explored, including Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index Scale (ISI). Compared with healthy control group, right arcuate fasciculus (Arc) and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) showed significant higher fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) along tract length in PI patients (FWE corrected, p < 0.01). Axial diffusivity (AD) for PI patients was higher in right Arc and lower in right SLF. Correlation analyses revealed that FA of right Arc and MD of right SLF were negatively correlated with PSQI score in PI patients, and AD of right Arc and FA of right SLF were positively correlated with PSQI score. Negative correlation was observed between FA of right Arc and AD of right SLF and ISI score in PI patients. Our findings can help us to improve the understanding of the neural mechanisms of primary insomnia at abnormalities in WM microstructure.
- Health-Related Quality of Life evaluation in "left" versus "right" access for percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage using EORTC QLQBIL-21 questionnaire: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- ARAbdom Radiol (NY) 2019 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, the use of the questionnaires showed the right access is associated with intercostal pain and respiratory difficulties. Left access for PTBD provides a better Quality of Life for patients who underwent PTBD as palliative treatment for the management of malignant obstructive jaundice and could be considered as the approach of choice in case of distal obstruction.
- Mental representation of the body in action in Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- EBExp Brain Res 2019 Jul 20
- Mixed findings characterize studies in Parkinson's disease (PD): some studies indicate a relationship between physical impairments and the ability to mentally represent the body, while others suggest…
Mixed findings characterize studies in Parkinson's disease (PD): some studies indicate a relationship between physical impairments and the ability to mentally represent the body, while others suggest spared abilities for this cognitive function. To clarify the matter, in the present study we explored the mental representations of the body in action in the same PD patients, taking also into account lateralization of symptoms and visual imagery skills. 10 PD patients with left- (lPD), 10 with right (rPD) lateralized symptoms (lPD), and 20 matched healthy controls have been recruited for the study. All patients were screened for neuropsychological impairments. To explore a more implicit component we used the hand laterality task (HLT), while the mental motor chronometry (MMC) was used to explore a more explicit one. Two control tasks, with objects instead of body parts, were administered to control for visual imagery skills. In the HLT, we detected the effects of biomechanical constraints effects in both controls and PD patients. In the latter group, importantly, this was true independently from lateralization of symptoms. In the MMC, we found the expected positive correlation between executed and imagined movements for both hands in controls only, while all PD patients, again independently form lateralization, only showed this effect for the left hand. In terms of visual imagery, only rPD patients differed from controls when asked to implicitly rotate letters, and in terms of accuracy only. However, this difference is explained by executive functions measured through the neuropsychological assessment rather than by a "pure" visual imagery impairment. In summary, our findings suggest that two different aspects of the mental representations of the body in action, one more implicit and the other more explicit, can be differently affected by PD. These impairments are unlikely explained by a basic visual imagery deficit. When present, impairments concern a higher dimension, related to motor functions and awareness, and not driven by sensory impairments, as shown by the independence of effects from physical laterality of symptoms.
- Less invasive left ventricular assist device implantation may reduce right ventricular failure. [Journal Article]
- ICInteract Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2019 Jul 21
- CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, less invasive LVAD implantation appears to be associated with reduced postoperative RV failure, and equivalent or improved survival compared to conventional LVAD implantation.
- Changes in Event-Related Potentials Underlying Coma Recovery in Patients with Large Left Hemispheric Infarction. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2019 Jul 10; 25:5098-5113
- CONCLUSIONS: </strong> P2 may be a central index of coma recovery and a component of the arousal system. Changes in time-frequency information could provide more information during coma recovery, perhaps including some cognitive processing of the sensory stimulus.
- Capgras' Delusion: A Systematic Review of 255 Published Cases. [Review]
- PPsychopathology 2019 Jul 19; :1-13
- CONCLUSIONS: Specific features of the -Capgras' delusional content and associated signs point to either organic or functional aetiology. The delusion is more amorphous than many theorists have supposed, which challenges their explanatory models.
- Cardiac Output Measurement Using the Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor: A Validation Study in Newborn Infants. [Journal Article]
- NNeonatology 2019 Jul 19; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: CO measured by USCOM consistently overestimated the results obtained from echocardiography. USCOM is not adequate to provide absolute estimates of CO. However, it may allow longitudinal hemodynamic assessment of sick neonates.
- Unduly long left main (79 mm) coronary artery arising from right coronary sinus in a 64-year-old diabetic man. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2019 Jul 19; 12(7)
- Coronary artery anomalies are usually an incidental finding on coronary angiogram. Most of them are benign, although few of them are malignant which may cause sudden cardiac death. A 64-year-old diab…
Coronary artery anomalies are usually an incidental finding on coronary angiogram. Most of them are benign, although few of them are malignant which may cause sudden cardiac death. A 64-year-old diabetic, hypertensive man underwent coronary angiography for evaluation of exertional dyspnoea, and angina which revealed an anomalous left main coronary artery (LMCA) arising from right coronary sinus which was unduly long (79 mm) but free from any disease. To the best of our knowledge after extensive search in literature, this is the longest LMCA to be ever reported. The patient was managed conservatively.
- The 'serious' factor in germline modification. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Ethics 2019 Jul 20
- Current advances in assisted reproductive technologies aim to promote the health and well-being of future children. They offer the possibility to select embryos with the greatest potential of being b…
Current advances in assisted reproductive technologies aim to promote the health and well-being of future children. They offer the possibility to select embryos with the greatest potential of being born healthy (eg, preimplantation genetic testing) and may someday correct faulty genes responsible for heritable diseases in the embryo (eg, human germline genome modification (HGGM)). Most laws and policy statements surrounding HGGM refer to the notion of 'serious' as a core criterion in determining what genetic diseases should be targeted by these technologies. Yet, this notion remains vague and poorly defined, rendering its application challenging and decision making subjective and arbitrary. By way of background, we begin by briefly presenting two conceptual approaches to 'health' and 'disease': objectivism (ie, based on biological facts) and constructivism (ie, based on human values). The basic challenge under both is sorting out whether and to what extent social and environmental factors have a role in helping to define what qualifies as a 'serious' disease beyond the medical criteria. We then focus on how a human rights framework (eg, right to science and right to the highest attainable health) could integrate the concepts of objectivism and constructivism so as to provide guidance for a more actionable consideration of 'serious'. Ultimately, it could be argued that a human rights framework, by way of its legally binding nature and its globally accepted norms and values, provides a more universal foundation for discussions of the ethical, legal and social implications of emerging or disruptive technologies.
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- Human urine as a forward osmosis draw solution for the application of microalgae dewatering. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2019 Jun 03; 378:120724
- Human urine is a unique solution that has the right composition to constitute both a severe environmental threat and a rich source of nitrogen and phosphorous. In fact, between 4-9% of urine mass con…
Human urine is a unique solution that has the right composition to constitute both a severe environmental threat and a rich source of nitrogen and phosphorous. In fact, between 4-9% of urine mass consists of ions, such as K+, Cl-, Na+ or NH4+. Because of its high ionic strength, urine osmotic pressure can reach values of up to 2000 kPa. With this in mind, this work aimed to study the effectiveness of real urine as a novel draw solution for forward osmosis. Water flux, reverse nitrogen flux and membrane fouling were investigated using fresh or hydrolysed urine. Water flux as high as 16.7 ± 1.1 L m-2 h-1 was recorded using real hydrolysed urine. Additionally, no support layer membrane fouling was noticed in over 20 h of experimentation. Urine was also employed to dewater a Chlorella vulgaris culture. A fourfold increase in algal concentration was achieved while having an average flux of 14.1 L m-2 h-1. During the algae dewatering, a flux decrease of about 19% was noticed; this was mainly due to a thin layer of algal deposition on the active side of the membrane. Overall, human urine was found to be an effective draw solution for forward osmosis.