- The Phenotypes conferred by Wheat Multiple Pathogen Resistance Locus, Sr2, include Cell Death in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. [Journal Article]
- PPhytopathology 2019 Jun 14
- The wheat Sr2 locus confers partial resistance to four biotrophic pathogens: wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. s…
The wheat Sr2 locus confers partial resistance to four biotrophic pathogens: wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminins f. sp. tritici). In addition, it is linked with a brown coloration of ears and stems, termed pseudo black chaff (PBC). PBC, initially believed to be elicited by stem rust infection, was subsequently recognized to occur in the absence of pathogen infection. In the current study, it is demonstrated that the resistance response to stem rust was associated with death of photosynthetic cells around rust infection sites in inoculated leaf sheath. Similarly, Sr2-dependent resistance to powdery mildew was associated with death of leaf mesophyll cells around mildew infection sites. We demonstrate that the PBC occurring in the absence of pathogen inoculation also corresponds with death and collapse of photosynthetic cells in the affected parts of stems and ears. In addition, Sr2-dependent necrosis was inducible in leaves by application of petroleum jelly, or by heat treatments. Thus Sr2 was found to be associated with cell death, which could be triggered by either biotic or abiotic stresses. Our results suggest a role for the Sr2 locus in controlling cell death in response to stress.
- Biochemical, Micronutrient and Physicochemical Properties of the Dried Red Seaweeds Gracilaria edulis and Gracilaria corticata. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jun 14; 24(12)
- The present study sought to evaluate the nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of two dried commercially interesting edible red seaweeds, Gracilaria corticata and G. edulis. Proximat…
The present study sought to evaluate the nutritional composition and physicochemical properties of two dried commercially interesting edible red seaweeds, Gracilaria corticata and G. edulis. Proximate composition of the dried seaweeds revealed a higher content in carbohydrates (8.30 g/100 g), total crude protein (22.84 g/100 g) and lipid content (7.07 g/100 g) in G. corticata than in G. edulis. Fatty acids profile showed that G. corticata samples contain higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic and stearic acids, and polyunsaturated ones such as α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids. Contrariwise, G. edulis contained higher amounts of monounsaturated oleic acid. Total amino acid content was 76.60 mg/g in G. corticata and 65.42 mg/g in G. edulis, being the essential amino acid content higher in G. edulis (35.55 mg/g) than in G. corticata (22.76 mg/g). Chlorophyll a was found in significantly higher amounts in G. edulis (17.14 μg/g) than G. corticata, whereas carotenoid content was significantly higher in G. corticata (12.98 μg/g) than in G. edulis. With respect to physical properties, both water- and oil-holding capacities were similar in both seaweeds, whereas swelling capacity was higher in G. edulis. In view of the results, the present study suggests that G. corticata and G. edulis contains important nutrients for human health and are possible natural functional foods.
- Sleep macro-architecture and micro-architecture in children born preterm with sleep disordered breathing. [Journal Article]
- PRPediatr Res 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: Sleep micro-architecture in children born preterm showed increased theta power and SWA. These differences provide evidence of increased sleep debt and reduced dissipation of sleep debt across the night. Further studies are required to identify if these findings are related to impaired neurocognition and behavior.
- [Clinical value of Canephron N after surgical treatment of urinary stone disease]. [Journal Article]
- UUrologiia 2019; (2):15-20
- CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors of stone formation persist after surgical treatment of urinary stone disease. This is reflected in a negative correlation between 24-hour diuresis and calcium excretion. During treatment, a positive correlation between diuresis and calcium excretion was noted in patients with urinary stone disease. The use of drugs that affect stone formation as well as herbal medicine Canephron N allow to obtain comparable ratio of diuresis and calcium excretion.
- Biocompatible Materials Based on Plasticized Poly(lactic acid), Chitosan and Rosemary Ethanolic Extract I. Effect of Chitosan on the Properties of Plasticized Poly(lactic acid) Materials. [Journal Article]
- PPolymers (Basel) 2019 May 30; 11(6)
- The purpose of the present study is to develop new multifunctional environmentally friendly materials having applications both in medical and food packaging fields. New poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based …
The purpose of the present study is to develop new multifunctional environmentally friendly materials having applications both in medical and food packaging fields. New poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based multifunctional materials containing additives derived from natural resources like chitosan (CS) and rosemary extract (R) were obtained by melt mixing. Each of the selected components has its own specific properties such as: PLA is a biodegradable thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable biomass, heat-resistant, with mechanical properties close to those of polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate, and CS offers good antimicrobial activity and biological functions, while R significantly improves antioxidative action necessary in all applications. A synergy of their combination, an optimum choice of their ratio, and processing parameters led to high performance antimicrobial/antioxidant/biocompatible/environmentally degradable materials. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-plasticized PLA/chitosan/powdered rosemary extract biocomposites of various compositions were characterized in respect to their mechanical and rheological properties, structure by spectroscopy, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy images evidence the morphology features added by rosemary powder presence in polymeric materials. Incorporation of additives improved elongation at break, antibacterial and antioxidant activity and also biocompatibility. Migration of bioactive components into D1 simulant is slower for PEG-plasticized PLA containing 6 wt % chitosan and 0.5 wt % rosemary extract (PLA/PEG/6CS/0.5 R) biocomposite and it occurred by a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The biocomposites show high hydrophilicity and good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. No hematological, biochemical and immunological modifications are induced by subcutaneous implantation of biocomposites. All characteristics of the PEG-plasticized PLA-based biocomposites recommend them as valuable materials for biomedical implants, and as well as for the design of innovative drug delivery systems. Also, the developed biocomposites could be a potential nature-derived active packaging with controlled release of antimicrobial/antioxidant compounds.
- Discovery of Antibacterial Dietary Spices That Target Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. [Journal Article]
- MMicroorganisms 2019 May 29; 7(6)
- Although spice extracts are well known to exhibit antibacterial properties, there is lack of a comprehensive evaluation of the antibacterial effect of spices against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In…
Although spice extracts are well known to exhibit antibacterial properties, there is lack of a comprehensive evaluation of the antibacterial effect of spices against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the present study, ethanolic extracts from a total of 67 spices were comprehensively investigated for their in vitro antibacterial activities by agar well diffusion against two common food-borne bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis, with multi-drug resistance. Results showed that S. aureus was generally more sensitive to spice extracts than S. enteritidis. Of the 67 spice extracts, 38 exhibited antibacterial activity against drug-resistant S. aureus, while only four samples were effective on drug-resistant S. enteritidis. In addition, 11 spice extracts with inhibition zones greater than 15 mm were further verified for their broad-spectrum antibacterial properties using another 10 drug-resistant S. aureus strains. It was found that five spice extracts, including galangal, fructus galangae, cinnamon, yellow mustard seed, and rosemary, exhibited the highest antibacterial capacity. Further cytotoxicity of these 11 spices was determined and LC50 values were found to be more than 100 μg/mL except for galangal, rosemary, and sage, whose LC50 values were 9.32 ± 0.83, 19.77 ± 2.17, and 50.54 ± 2.57, respectively. Moreover, the antioxidant activities (ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values) and total phenolic content (TPC) of spice extracts were determined to establish possible correlations with the antibacterial activity. Although the antibacterial effect was positively correlated with the antioxidant activities and TPC, the correlation was weak (r < 0.5), indicating that the antibacterial activity could also be attributed to other components besides antioxidant polyphenols in the tested spice extracts. In conclusion, dietary spices are good natural sources of antibacterial agents to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with potential applications as natural food preservatives and natural alternatives to antibiotics in animal feeding.
- Effects of aromatherapy massage on pain, functional state, and quality of life in an elderly individual with knee osteoarthritis. [Journal Article]
- JJJpn J Nurs Sci 2019 May 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Aromatherapy massage performed in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis reduced pain and improved functional status and quality of life. The week 8 findings showed that aromatherapy has more favorable and longer sustained effects than the massage.
- Lemongrass and Cinnamon Bark: Plant Essential Oil Blend as a Spatial Repellent for Mosquitoes in a Field Setting. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Entomol 2019 May 30
- Plant essential oils (EOs) have been considered as spatial repellents to help disrupt the pathogen transmission cycle of mosquitoes. Our objective was to assess spatial repellency effects of EOs on t…
Plant essential oils (EOs) have been considered as spatial repellents to help disrupt the pathogen transmission cycle of mosquitoes. Our objective was to assess spatial repellency effects of EOs on the tropical yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and on local mosquito populations in coastal British Columbia (Canada). In laboratory experiments using protocols of the World Health Organization, three of the solitary EOs tested proved repellent to Ae. aegypti: cinnamon bark, lemongrass, and rosemary. Binary combinations of select EOs enhanced the repellent effect of single EOs through synergistic interactions. The EO blend of geranium and peppermint lowered the RD50 (the dose required to obtain 50% repellency) of each solitary EO by >1,000-fold. Compared with binary EO blends, ternary EO blends were typically less repellent to mosquitoes, possibly due to a dilution effect of the most effective EO constituent(s) in the blend. In field experiments, the EO blend of lemongrass and cinnamon bark expressed spatial repellency towards the cool weather mosquito, Culiseta incidens (Thomson) (Diptera: Culicidae), even when this blend was disseminated from devices as much as 1 m away from a sentinel trap releasing attractive vertebrate host odorants and CO2. Deployment of EOs as spatial repellents in small outdoor gatherings could help protect humans from mosquito-borne diseases, particularly when this tactic is coupled with other tools of mosquito management.
- Herbs and Spices- Biomarkers of Intake Based on Human Intervention Studies - A Systematic Review. [Review]
- GNGenes Nutr 2019; 14:18
- Culinary herbs and spices have been used as both food flavoring and food preservative agents for centuries. Moreover, due to their known and presumptive health benefits, herbs and spices have also be…
Culinary herbs and spices have been used as both food flavoring and food preservative agents for centuries. Moreover, due to their known and presumptive health benefits, herbs and spices have also been used in medical practices since ancient times. Some of the health effects attributed to herbs and spices include antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory effects as well as potential protection against cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. While interest in herbs and spices as medicinal agents remains high and their use in foods continues to grow, there have been remarkably few studies that have attempted to track the dietary intake of herbs and spices and even fewer that have tried to find potential biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). The aim of the present review is to systematically survey the global literature on herbs and spices in an effort to identify and evaluate specific intake biomarkers for a representative set of common herbs and spices in humans. A total of 25 herbs and spices were initially chosen, including anise, basil, black pepper, caraway, chili pepper, cinnamon, clove, cumin, curcumin, dill, fennel, fenugreek, ginger, lemongrass, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, peppermint and spearmint, rosemary, saffron, sage, tarragon, and thyme. However, only 17 of these herbs and spices had published, peer-reviewed studies describing potential biomarkers of intake. In many studies, the herb or spice of interest was administrated in the form of a capsule or extract and very few studies were performed with actual foods. A systematic assessment of the candidate biomarkers was also performed. Given the limitations in the experimental designs for many of the published studies, further work is needed to better evaluate the identified set of BFIs. Although the daily intake of herbs and spices is very low compared to most other foods, this important set of food seasoning agents should not be underestimated, especially given their potential benefits to human health.
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- Effect of herbal antioxidant-rich formula on improvement of antioxidant defense system and heat shock protein-70 expression in recreational female athletes: A randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- JRJ Res Med Sci 2019; 24:37
- CONCLUSIONS: The results presented herein revealed that natural antioxidant rich formula had variable effects on oxidative status. However, in contrast to many antioxidant supplements, this formulation increases the HSP-70 mRNA expression which might improve the antioxidant ability of cells in the long-term period and exercise-induced adaptation.