- A conserved RNA seed-pairing domain directs small RNA-mediated stress resistance in enterobacteria. [Journal Article]
- EJEMBO J 2019 Jul 17; :e101650
- Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are crucial components of many stress response systems. The envelope stress response (ESR) of Gram-negative bacteria is a paradigm for sRNA-mediated stress management an…
Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are crucial components of many stress response systems. The envelope stress response (ESR) of Gram-negative bacteria is a paradigm for sRNA-mediated stress management and involves, among other factors, the alternative sigma factor E (σE) and one or more sRNAs. In this study, we identified the MicV sRNA as a new member of the σE regulon in Vibrio cholerae. We show that MicV acts redundantly with another sRNA, VrrA, and that both sRNAs share a conserved seed-pairing domain allowing them to regulate multiple target mRNAs. V. cholerae lacking σE displayed increased sensitivity toward antimicrobials, and over-expression of either of the sRNAs suppressed this phenotype. Laboratory selection experiments using a library of synthetic sRNA regulators revealed that the seed-pairing domain of σE -dependent sRNAs is strongly enriched among sRNAs identified under membrane-damaging conditions and that repression of OmpA is crucial for sRNA-mediated stress relief. Together, our work shows that MicV and VrrA act as global regulators in the ESR of V. cholerae and provides evidence that bacterial sRNAs can be functionally annotated by their seed-pairing sequences.
- Physiological responses and small RNAs changes in maize under nitrogen deficiency and resupply. [Journal Article]
- GGGenes Genomics 2019 Jul 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study comprehensively provides important information on miRNA functions and molecular mechanisms in response to N stress. These findings may assist to improve nitrogen availability in plants.
- Hfq Globally Binds and Destabilizes sRNAs and mRNAs in Yersinia pestis. [Journal Article]
- MmSystems 2019 Jul 16; 4(4)
- Hfq is a ubiquitous Sm-like RNA-binding protein in bacteria involved in physiological fitness and pathogenesis, while its in vivo binding nature remains elusive. Here we reported genome-wide Hfq-boun…
Hfq is a ubiquitous Sm-like RNA-binding protein in bacteria involved in physiological fitness and pathogenesis, while its in vivo binding nature remains elusive. Here we reported genome-wide Hfq-bound RNAs in Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, by using cross-linking immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (CLIP-seq) approach. We show that the Hfq binding density is enriched in more than 80% mRNAs of Y. pestis and that Hfq also globally binds noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) encoded by the intergenic, antisense, and 3' regions of mRNAs. An Hfq U-rich stretch is highly enriched in sRNAs, while motifs partially complementary to AGAAUAA and GGGGAUUA are enriched in both mRNAs and sRNAs. Hfq-binding motifs are enriched at both terminal sites and in the gene body of mRNAs. Surprisingly, a large fraction of the sRNA and mRNA regions bound by Hfq and those downstream are destabilized, likely via a 5'P-activated RNase E degradation pathway, which is consistent with a model in which Hfq facilitates sRNA-mRNA base pairing and the coupled degradation in Y. pestis These results together have presented a high-quality Hfq-RNA interaction map in Y. pestis, which should be important for further deciphering the regulatory role of Hfq-sRNAs in Y. pestis IMPORTANCE Discovered in 1968 as an Escherichia coli host factor that was essential for replication of the bacteriophage Qβ, the Hfq protein is a ubiquitous and highly abundant RNA-binding protein in many bacteria. With the assistance of Hfq, small RNAs in bacteria play important roles in regulating the stability and translation of mRNAs by base pairing. In this study, we want to elucidate the Hfq-assisted sRNA-mRNA regulation in Yersinia pestis A global map of Hfq interaction sites in Y. pestis was obtained by sequencing cDNAs converted from the Hfq-bound RNA fragments using UV cross-linking coupled immunoprecipitation technology. We demonstrate that Hfq could bind to hundreds of sRNAs and the majority of mRNAs in Y. pestis The enriched binding motifs in sRNAs and mRNAs are complementary to each other, suggesting a general base-pairing mechanism for sRNA-mRNA interaction. The Hfq-bound sRNA and mRNA regions were both destabilized. The results suggest that Hfq binding facilitates sRNA-mRNA base pairing and coordinates their degradation, which might enable Hfq to surveil the homeostasis of most mRNAs in bacteria.
- Bacterial Cyclopropane Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA is targeted by activating and repressing small RNAs. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bacteriol 2019 Jul 15
- Altering membrane protein and lipid composition is an important strategy for maintaining membrane integrity during environmental stress. Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) control membrane protein pro…
Altering membrane protein and lipid composition is an important strategy for maintaining membrane integrity during environmental stress. Many bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) control membrane protein production, but sRNA-mediated regulation of membrane fatty acid composition is less well understood. The sRNA RydC was previously shown to stabilize cfa (cyclopropane fatty acid synthase) mRNA, resulting in higher levels of cyclopropane fatty acids in the cell membrane. Here, we report that additional sRNAs, ArrS and CpxQ, also directly regulate cfa post-transcriptionally. RydC and ArrS act through masking an RNase E cleavage site in the cfa mRNA 5' untranslated region (UTR), and both sRNAs post-transcriptionally activate cfa In contrast, CpxQ binds to a different site in the cfa mRNA 5' UTR and represses cfa expression. Alteration of membrane lipid composition is a key mechanism for bacteria to survive low pH environments, and we show that cfa translation increases in an sRNA-dependent manner when cells are subjected to mild acid stress. This work suggests an important role for sRNAs in the acid stress response through regulation of cfa mRNA.IMPORTANCESmall RNAs in bacteria are abundant and play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, particularly under stress conditions. Some mRNAs are targets for regulation by multiple sRNAs each responding to different environmental signals. Uncovering the regulatory mechanisms governing sRNA-mRNA interactions and the relevant conditions for these interactions is an ongoing challenge. In this study, we discovered that multiple sRNAs control membrane lipid composition by regulating stability of a single mRNA target. The sRNA-dependent regulation occurred in response to changing pH, and was important for cell viability under acid stress conditions. This work reveals yet another aspect of bacterial physiology controlled at the post-transcriptional level by sRNA regulators.
- Identification of Fusarium graminearum-responsive miRNAs and their targets in wheat by sRNA sequencing and degradome analysis. [Journal Article]
- FIFunct Integr Genomics 2019 Jul 13
- Fusarium head blight (FHB), a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Fusarium graminearum, leads to considerable losses of yield and quality in wheat production. MicroRNAs …
Fusarium head blight (FHB), a prevalent disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by Fusarium graminearum, leads to considerable losses of yield and quality in wheat production. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of plant defense responses. Here, to better understand the F. graminearum-responsive miRNAs, we constructed sRNA libraries for wheat cultivar Sumai 3 challenged with F. graminearum and sterile water, respectively. As a result, a total of 203 known miRNAs from 46 families and 68 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 18 known and six novel miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between the F. graminearum-infected samples and the controls and thus were considered to be responsive to F. graminearum. The expression patterns of eight miRNAs were further validated by stem-loop qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, target genes were validated by degradome sequencing. Integrative analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and their targets revealed complex miRNA-mediated regulatory networks involved in the response of wheat to F. graminearum infection. Our findings are expected to facilitate a better understanding of the miRNA regulation in wheat-F. graminearum interaction.
- Temperature-dependent regulation of the Escherichia coli lpxT gene. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2019 Jul 09; 1862(8):786-795
- The Lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide can be covalently modified during its transport to the outer membrane by different enzymes, among which the LpxT inner membrane protein. LpxT transfers a …
The Lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide can be covalently modified during its transport to the outer membrane by different enzymes, among which the LpxT inner membrane protein. LpxT transfers a phosphate group from the undecaprenyl pyrophosphate to the Lipid A, a modification affecting the stability of the outer membrane and its recognition by the host immune system in Enterobacteria. We previously found that the expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa lpxT gene, encoding LpxT, is induced in response to a temperature upshift and we proposed that an RNA thermometer was responsible for such regulation. Here we show that the Escherichia coli lpxT orthologous gene is down-regulated upon a temperature upshift and investigated the mechanism of this regulation. We found that the LpxT protein stability is not affected by the temperature change. Conversely, the lpxT mRNA levels strongly decrease upon a shift from 28 to 42 °C. The lack of MicA sRNA, which was previously implicated in lpxT regulation, does not affect lpxT thermal regulation. We identified the lpxTp promoter and demonstrated that lpxTp has temperature-sensitive activity depending on its peculiar -10 region. Moreover, we found that RNase E-dependent degradation of the lpxT mRNA is also modulated by temperature causing a strong destabilization of the lpxT mRNA at 42 °C. In vitro data argue against the involvement of factors differentially expressed at 28 and 42 °C in the temperature-dependent modulation of lpxT mRNA stability.
- Identifying microRNAs and Their Editing Sites in Macaca mulatta. [Journal Article]
- CCells 2019 Jul 05; 8(7)
- MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are critical in post-transcriptional regulation. Macaca mulatta is an important nonhuman primate that is often used in basic and translational resear…
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are critical in post-transcriptional regulation. Macaca mulatta is an important nonhuman primate that is often used in basic and translational researches. However, the annotation of miRNAs in Macaca mulatta is far from complete, and there are no reports of miRNA editing events in Macaca mulatta, although editing may affect the biogenesis or functions of the miRNAs. To improve miRNA annotation and to reveal editing events of miRNAs in Macaca mulatta, we generated 12 small RNA profiles from eight tissues and performed comprehensive analysis of these profiles. We identified 479 conserved pre-miRNAs that have not been reported in Macaca mulatta and 17 species specific miRNAs. Furthermore, we identified 3386 editing sites with significant editing levels from 471 pre-miRNAs after analyzing the 12 self-generated and 58 additional published sRNA-seq profiles from 17 different types of organs or tissues. In addition to 16 conserved A-to-I editing sites, we identified five conserved C-to-U editing sites in miRNAs of Macaca mulatta and Homo sapiens. We also identified 11 SNPs in the miRNAs of Macaca mulatta. The analysis of the potential targets of 69 miRNAs with editing or mutation events in their seed regions suggest that these editing or mutation events severely changed their targets and their potential functions. These results significantly increase our understanding of miRNAs and their mutation/editing events in Macaca mulatta.
- High-Throughput Sequencing Analysis of Small RNAs Derived from Coleus Blumei Viroids. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2019 Jul 05; 11(7)
- Characterization of viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is important to understand viroid-host interactions; however, vd-sRNAs belonging to the genus Coleviroid are yet to be identified and characte…
Characterization of viroid-derived small RNAs (vd-sRNAs) is important to understand viroid-host interactions; however, vd-sRNAs belonging to the genus Coleviroid are yet to be identified and characterized. Herein, we used coleus plants singly infected with coleus blumei viroid (CbVd)-1, -5, or -6 and doubly infected with CbVd-1 and -5 to identify and analyze their vd-sRNAs. We found sense and antisense vd-sRNAs for CbVd-1, -5 and -6, and 22-nt vd-sRNAs were the most abundant; moreover, the 5'-terminal nucleotides (nts) of CbVd-1, -5, and -6 were biased toward U and C, and sRNAs derived from these three viroids were unevenly distributed along their genomes. We also noted that CbVd-5 and -6 share a fragment that forms the right half of the rod-like secondary structure of these viroids, which implied that they generated almost the same type of vd-sRNAs. This finding indicated that vd-sRNA biogenesis is mainly determined by the primary sequence of their substrates. More importantly, we found two complementary vd-sRNAs (22 nt) that were generated from the central conserved region (CCR) of these three viroids, suggesting an important role of CCR in vd-sRNA biogenesis. In conclusion, our results provide novel insight into the biogenesis of vd-sRNAs and the biological roles of CCR.
- The sRNA PinT contributes to PhoP-mediated regulation of the SPI1 T3SS in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bacteriol 2019 Jul 01
- Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium induces inflammatory diarrhea and bacterial uptake into intestinal epithelial cells using the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) type III secretion syste…
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium induces inflammatory diarrhea and bacterial uptake into intestinal epithelial cells using the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) type III secretion system (T3SS). HilA activates transcription of the SPI1 structural components and effector proteins. Expression of hilA is activated by HilD, HilC, and RtsA, which act in a complex feed-forward regulatory loop. Many environmental signals and other regulators are integrated into this regulatory loop, primarily via HilD. After the invasion of Salmonella into host intestinal epithelial cells or during systemic replication in macrophages, the SPI T3SS is no longer required or expressed. We have shown that the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ, required for intracellular survival, represses the SPI1 T3SS mostly by controlling the transcription of hilA and hilD Here we show that PinT, one of the PhoPQ-regulated sRNAs, contributes to this regulation by repressing hilA and rtsA translation. PinT basepairs with both the hilA and rtsA mRNAs, resulting in translational inhibition of hilA, but also induces degradation of the rts transcript. PinT also indirectly represses expression of FliZ, a post-translational regulator of HilD, and directly represses translation of ssrB, encoding the primary regulator of the SPI2 T3SS. Our in vivo mouse competition assays support the concept that PinT controls a series of virulence genes at the posttranscriptional level in order to adapt Salmonella from the invasion stage to intracellular survival.Importance Salmonella is one of the most important food borne pathogens, infecting over one million people in the US every year. These bacteria use a needle-like device to interact with intestinal epithelial cells, leading to invasion of the cells and induction of inflammatory diarrhea. A complex regulatory network controls expression of the invasion system in response to numerous environmental signals. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms by which the small RNA, PinT, contributes to this regulation, facilitating inactivation of the system after invasion. PinT controls several important virulence systems in Salmonella, tuning the transition between different stages of infection.
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- Regulation of Transcription Termination of Small RNAs and by Small RNAs: Molecular Mechanisms and Biological Functions. [Review]
- FCFront Cell Infect Microbiol 2019; 9:201
- Accurate and efficient transcription termination is an important step for cells to generate functional RNA transcripts. In bacteria, two mechanisms are responsible for terminating transcription: intr…
Accurate and efficient transcription termination is an important step for cells to generate functional RNA transcripts. In bacteria, two mechanisms are responsible for terminating transcription: intrinsic (Rho-independent) termination and Rho-dependent termination. Growing examples suggest that neither type of transcription termination is static, but instead are highly dynamic and regulated. Regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) are key players in bacterial stress responses, are frequently expressed under specific growth conditions, and are predominantly terminated through the intrinsic termination mechanism. Once made, sRNAs can base-pair with mRNA targets and regulate mRNA translation and stability. Recent findings suggest that alterations in the efficiency of intrinsic termination for sRNAs under various growth conditions may affect the availability of a given sRNA and the ability of the sRNA to function properly. Moreover, alterations of mRNA structure, translation, and accessibility by sRNAs have the potential to impact the access of Rho factor to mRNAs and thus termination of the mRNA. Indeed, recent studies have revealed that some sRNAs can modulate target gene expression by stimulating or inhibiting Rho-dependent termination, thus expanding the regulatory power of bacterial sRNAs. Here we review the current knowledge on intrinsic termination of sRNAs and sRNA-mediated Rho-dependent termination of protein coding genes in bacteria.