- In Vivo Pharmacological Comparison of TAK-071, a Positive Allosteric Modulator of Muscarinic M1 Receptor, and Xanomeline, an Agonist of Muscarinic M1/M4 Receptor, in Rodents. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroscience 2019 Jul 09
- Activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1R) may be an effective therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and schizophrenia. Previously, the M1R/M…
Activation of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1R) may be an effective therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and schizophrenia. Previously, the M1R/M4R agonist xanomeline was shown to improve cognitive function and exert antipsychotic effects in patients with AD and schizophrenia. However, its clinical development was discontinued because of its cholinomimetic side effects. We compared in vivo pharmacological profiles of a novel M1R-selective positive allosteric modulator, TAK-071, and xanomeline in rodents. Xanomeline suppressed both methamphetamine- and MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion in mice, whereas TAK-071 suppressed only MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion. In a previous study, we showed that TAK-071 improved scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in a rat novel object recognition task (NORT) with 33-fold margins versus cholinergic side effects (diarrhea). Xanomeline also improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in a NORT; however, it had no margin versus cholinergic side effects (e.g., diarrhea, salivation, and hypoactivity) in rats. These side effects were observed even in M1R knockout mice. Evaluation of c-Fos expression as a marker of neural activation revealed that xanomeline increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in several cortical areas, the hippocampal formation, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Other than in the orbital cortex and claustrum, TAK-071 induced similar c-Fos expression patterns. When donepezil was co-administered to increase the levels of acetylcholine, the number of TAK-071-induced c-Fos-positive cells in these brain regions was increased. TAK-071, through induction of similar neural activation as that seen with xanomeline, may produce procognitive and antipsychotic effects with improved cholinergic side effects.
- CARDIOVASCULAR AND HIDROELECTROLYTIC CHANGES IN RATS FED WITH HIGH-FAT DIET. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2019 Jul 05; :112075
- Obesity activates the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic systems facilitating hypertension and changes in the hydroelectrolytic balance. In the present study, in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD), we …
Obesity activates the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic systems facilitating hypertension and changes in the hydroelectrolytic balance. In the present study, in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD), we investigated daily water intake and urinary excretion, prandial consumption of water and the changes in blood pressure and water intake to intracerebroventricular (icv) angiotensin II (ANG II). Male Holtzman rats (290-320 g) were fed with standard diet (SD, 11% calories from fat) or HFD (45% calories from fat) for 6 weeks. Part of the animals received a stainless steel cannula in the lateral ventricle (LV) at the 6th week after the beginning of the diets and the experiments were performed at the 7th week. The pressor effect, but not the dipsogenic response to acute icv injection of ANG II, was potentiated in the HFD rats. Daily water intake and urinary volume were reduced in rats fed with HFD with no significant changes in sodium excretion. Prandial water consumption was also reduced in rats ingesting HFD, an effect almost totally reverted blocking salivation with atropine. These results show a potentiation of the pressor response to icv ANG II in HFD-fed rats, without changing icv ANG II-induced water intake. In addition, prandial and daily water intake and urinary volume were reduced in HFD-fed rats, without changing sodium excretion. Salivation in rats ingesting HFD may play a role in the reduced prandial and daily water intake.
- Case 3: A Rare Cause of Respiratory Distress and Excessive Salivation in a Term Infant. [Journal Article]
- NNeoreviews 2019; 20(4):e229-e232
- Toxicological evaluation of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract: Sub-chronic and mutagenicity studies. [Journal Article]
- TRToxicol Rep 2019; 6:544-549
- Kaempferia parviflora (KP), also known as Krachai-dam in Thailand, belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and has been used traditionally to improve blood flow and treat inflammatory, allergic, and gast…
Kaempferia parviflora (KP), also known as Krachai-dam in Thailand, belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and has been used traditionally to improve blood flow and treat inflammatory, allergic, and gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety profile of a standardized hydroalcoholic KP rhizome extract via mutagenicity and sub-chronic toxicity evaluations using in vitro and in vivo techniques. The in vitro mutagenicity of KP extract was assessed via reverse mutation tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA. The sub-chronic toxicity profile was evaluated after daily oral administration of KP extract to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. General toxicological parameters were monitored weekly. After the treatment period, blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analyses and certain organs were removed for macroscopic and histopathological analyses. Reverse mutation tests revealed that KP extract did not induce gene mutations at any of the concentrations tested. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, a few changes were observed, including increased salivation in the animals administered high-dose KP extract (249 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day). No toxicologically relevant changes were observed in the biochemical analysis. Sub-chronic administration of KP extract increased platelet levels in animals administered low-dose KP extract (25 mg/kg bw/day). However, the hematological and biochemical parameters remained within normal physiological ranges for the animal species. No toxicological changes were observed in the macroscopic and histopathological analyses performed in this study. These results demonstrate that KP extract is not genotoxic and that 90-day oral administration of the doses tested did not result in toxicity. Therefore, KP extract has a high safety margin for daily use.
- Glycopyrrolate in comparison to hyoscine hydrobromide and placebo in the treatment of hypersalivation induced by clozapine (GOTHIC1): a feasibility study. [Journal Article]
- PFPilot Feasibility Stud 2019; 5:79
- CONCLUSIONS: The feasibility study demonstrated that a trial of alternative medications in the treatment of CIH is feasible; patients were willing to be randomised to the trial and retention rate was high.
- Occupational inhalation poisoning with the veterinary antibiotic tiamulin. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Jun 21; :1-3
- CONCLUSIONS: Tiamulin inhalation can be associated with prolonged QT-interval and ventricular tachyarrhythmia. QT-interval prolongation could be expected in overdoses of emerging human pleuromutilins.
- Betel Nnut (areca) and Smokeless Tobacco Use in Myanmar. [Journal Article]
- SUSubst Use Misuse 2019 Jun 20; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: The concomitant use of nicotine and areca indicates that betel quid addiction includes a significant component of nicotine dependence. However, the additional activities of areca, including the muscarinic effects of arecoline, indicate that potential cessation therapies should optimally address other factors as well.
- [Role and mechanism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the regulation of submandibular gland secretion]. [Journal Article]
- BDBeijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Jun 18; 51(3):390-396
- Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), including M1-M5 subtypes, are classic receptors in regulating water, ion, and solute transport in salivary gland. Our work focuses on the studies on the e…
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), including M1-M5 subtypes, are classic receptors in regulating water, ion, and solute transport in salivary gland. Our work focuses on the studies on the expression pattern and function of mAChR in the submandibular gland (SMG), and the underlying mechanism involved in the mAChR-regulated secretion, together with the effect of parasympathectomy on the salivary secretion. Microvascular autotransplantation of SMG into the temporal fossa provides a continuous and endogenous source of fluids, and is currently an effective method for treating severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca. By using RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence, our data demonstrated that the expression of M1 and M3 subtypes were decreased in latent period in rabbit SMG autotransplantation model, whereas carbachol stimulation promoted the salivary secretion, as well as M1 and M3 expressions. By contrast, mAChRs were hypersensitive in epiphora SMGs, whereas atropine gel and botulinum toxin A application significantly inhibited the hypersecretion in both animal models and patients. Furthermore, the possible intracellular signal molecules involved in the mAChR-modulated salivary secretion were explored. Activation of mAChR upregulated the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5), the main transporter that mediated water secretion through transcellular pathway, and led to AQP5 trafficking from lipid rafts to non-lipid microdomain. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was involved in the mAChR-regulated AQP5 content. mAChR activation also modulated the expression, distribution, and function of tight junction proteins, and increased paracellular permeability. ERK1/2/β-arrestin2/clathrin/ubiquitin signaling pathway was responsible for the mAChR-regulated downregulation of tight junction molecule claudin-4. Cytoskeleton filamentous actin (F-actin) was also involved in the distribution and barrier function of epithelial tight junctions. Besides, endothelial tight junctions were opened by mAChR agonist-evoked salivation in the mice. Furthermore, parasympathetic denervation increased resting salivary secretion in the long terminrats and minipigs. Taken together, our work demonstrated that mAChR regulated saliva secretion via transcellular and paracellular pathways in SMG epithelium as well as tight junction opening in SMG endothelium. Modulation of mAChR might be a promising strategy to ameliorate SMG dysfunction.
- StatPearls: Physiology, Salivation [BOOK]
- BOOKStatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)
- Salivation plays a vital role in digestion, as digestion of food begins in the mouth. The salivary submandibular, parotid, sublingual, and submucosal glands produce saliva which is necessary for the …
Salivation plays a vital role in digestion, as digestion of food begins in the mouth. The salivary submandibular, parotid, sublingual, and submucosal glands produce saliva which is necessary for the moistening of food products, breakdown of carbohydrates by salivary amylase (formerly known as ptyalin), antimicrobial, and other protective mechanisms. This initial phase of digestion and lubrication is essential for the passage of food from the oropharynx to the esophagus and stomach. Certain disease states, drugs, and radiation therapy can affect the proper functioning of salivation. This article will review the associated anatomy, histology, innervation, cellular mechanisms, development, the physiologic and pathophysiologic basis of salvation.
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- Early reversal of ketamine/dexmedetomidine chemical immobilization by atipamezole in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Primatol 2019 Jun 13
- CONCLUSIONS: All animals presented great scores of sedation and muscle relaxation during the procedure. Recovery in the control group was smooth and uneventful. Salivation, muscle tremors, and head movements were observed in ATI 20 and ATI40. The administration of atipamezole did not change total recovery times (ATI20 69 ± 23 minutes; ATI40 72 ± 45 minutes; SAL 57 ± 23 minutes).