- Dietary Glycemic Index and Load and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analyses of Prospective Cohort Studies. [Review]
- NNutrients 2019 Jun 05; 11(6)
- Published meta-analyses indicate significant but inconsistent incident type-2 diabetes(T2D)-dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) risk ratios or risk relations (RR). It is nowover a deca…
Published meta-analyses indicate significant but inconsistent incident type-2 diabetes(T2D)-dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) risk ratios or risk relations (RR). It is nowover a decade ago that a published meta-analysis used a predefined standard to identify validstudies. Considering valid studies only, and using random effects dose-response meta-analysis(DRM) while withdrawing spurious results (p < 0.05), we ascertained whether these relationswould support nutrition guidance, specifically for an RR > 1.20 with a lower 95% confidence limit>1.10 across typical intakes (approximately 10th to 90th percentiles of population intakes). Thecombined T2D-GI RR was 1.27 (1.15-1.40) (p < 0.001, n = 10 studies) per 10 units GI, while that forthe T2D-GL RR was 1.26 (1.15-1.37) (p < 0.001, n = 15) per 80 g/d GL in a 2000 kcal (8400 kJ) diet.The corresponding global DRM using restricted cubic splines were 1.87 (1.56-2.25) (p < 0.001, n =10) and 1.89 (1.66-2.16) (p < 0.001, n = 15) from 47.6 to 76.1 units GI and 73 to 257 g/d GL in a 2000kcal diet, respectively. In conclusion, among adults initially in good health, diets higher in GI or GLwere robustly associated with incident T2D. Together with mechanistic and other data, thissupports that consideration should be given to these dietary risk factors in nutrition advice.Concerning the public health relevance at the global level, our evidence indicates that GI and GLare substantial food markers predicting the development of T2D worldwide, for persons ofEuropean ancestry and of East Asian ancestry.
- SP promotes cell proliferation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through the NK1R/Hes1 axis. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Jul 05; 514(4):1210-1216
- CONCLUSIONS: The significant role of NK1R in mediating ESCC cell proliferation depended on the activation of SP and might be related to the downstream regulation of Hes1.
- Rare cases of primary central nervous system anaplastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. [Journal Article]
- DPDiagn Pathol 2019 May 20; 14(1):45
- CONCLUSIONS: These cases shed light on the unique genetic alterations and biological features of primary CNS A-DLBCL. Patients with primary CNS A-DLBCL may often have a MYC/BCL2 double-expressor and concurrent MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 genetic abnormalities, as well as constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway. Primary CNS A-DLBCL follows a very aggressive disease course and poor prognosis. In the future, a large number of cases should be analyzed, and the evaluation of molecular genetic characteristics could help with practical and therapeutic implications for primary CNS A-DLBCL.
- Texture and mouthfeel perceptions of a model beverage system containing soluble and insoluble oat bran fibres. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2019; 120:62-72
- Dietary fibre fortified products have increased in popularity as health-conscious consumers seek convenient ways to increase fibre intake. Fibres from wholegrains are particularly desirable inclusion…
Dietary fibre fortified products have increased in popularity as health-conscious consumers seek convenient ways to increase fibre intake. Fibres from wholegrains are particularly desirable inclusions in food products because of their proven physiological health-benefits. When fortifying beverages with fibre, however, the insoluble dietary fibre components present in wholegrains often contribute to unpleasant gritty sensations making the products unpalatable. Consequently, designing wholegrain-fortified beverages with sufficient fibre-content to make health related fibre claims is a major challenge in the food manufacturing industry. This work aims to take a systematic approach in identifying the texture/mouthfeel related sensory impact and interaction between two commercial oat fibre ingredients (Oatwell28XF® and Milled Oats) when added to a model beverage system. Eighteen samples were prepared containing either or both the ingredients, at varying levels, and were assessed by a trained panel using conventional sensory descriptive techniques. The results indicate that the two different oat bran fibres produced distinct mouthfeel perceptions which could be attributed to the varying soluble and insoluble fibre content of the samples. Insoluble dietary fibre concentrations above 2% (w/w) resulted in particle-related sensory properties chalkiness, dryness and particle perception, which dominated the overall mouthfeel and textural sensory perception of the samples. Samples with predominantly soluble β-glucan, resulted in perceptions of smoothness, sliminess and stickiness residue, while thickness, mouthcoating and cloying sensations were driven by total fibre concentration, irrespective of fibre solubility. This work provides a solid foundation for food manufacturers aiming to rationally design and develop nutritionally superior fibre-fortified beverages and is relevant to fibre content concentrations required for labelling/nutrition claims for consumer products in many developed nations.
- Indirect evidence for biological mortality bias in growth from two temporo-spatially distant samples of children. [Journal Article]
- AAAnthropol Anz 2019 Feb 28
- Biological mortality bias in growth is a challenge to the analysis and understanding of past populations. In this analysis, we address two interrelated aspects of the bias: its potential magnitude in…
Biological mortality bias in growth is a challenge to the analysis and understanding of past populations. In this analysis, we address two interrelated aspects of the bias: its potential magnitude in terms of linear growth and the association between height and survivorship. A contemporary sample of 292 children, whose recumbent length was measured at autopsy in Cuyahoga County, USA, was used to quantify the magnitude of mortality bias. Differences between survivors and non-survivors were quantified using t-tests and Cohen's d for effect size. While survivors were consistently taller than non-survivors, the difference did not become significant until after 7 years of age. A historical sample of 656 girls, whose height and weight were measured at admission to a tuberculosis sanitarium, was used to examine the relationship between height, weight, and survivorship. The survivors and non-survivors were compared using t-tests and Cohen's d, and odds of survival were modeled with logistic regression. Surviving girls were consistently taller and heavier than non-surviving girls. However, while taller girls were more somewhat more likely to survive, survivorship was more strongly associated with heavier weight at admission. Taken together, these results suggest that while mortality bias in growth may exist, it may not be large enough to impact interpretations of past population growth patterns. It should be noted that this is the case only if mortality bias does not vary significantly between different populations and if it does not significantly affect dental development.
- Caspase 3 may participate in the anti-tumor immunity of dendritic cells. [Journal Article]
- BBBiochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 Apr 02; 511(2):447-453
- CONCLUSIONS: Caspase 3 gene overexpression could promote maturation and enhance antitumor capability of DC2.4 cells.
- Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. [Meta-Analysis]
- BMJBMJ 2018 11 21; 363:k4644
- CONCLUSIONS: Energy control and food source appear to mediate the effect of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control. Although most food sources of these sugars (especially fruit) do not have a harmful effect in energy matched substitutions with other macronutrients, several food sources of fructose-containing sugars (especially sugars-sweetened beverages) adding excess energy to diets have harmful effects. However, certainty in these estimates is low, and more high quality randomised controlled trials are needed.
- Prognostic value of differentiation status in gastric cancer. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Cancer 2018 Sep 03; 18(1):865
- CONCLUSIONS: Well, moderately and poorly differentiation status was significantly associated with clinicopathological features of gastric cancer patients. However, it was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.
- Stigma and Shame Experiences by MSM Who Take PrEP for HIV Prevention: A Qualitative Study. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Mens Health 2018; 12(6):1843-1854
- Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake has been extremely low among key groups. PrEP-related stigma and shaming are potential barriers to uptake and retention in PrEP programs. There is a lack of lit…
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake has been extremely low among key groups. PrEP-related stigma and shaming are potential barriers to uptake and retention in PrEP programs. There is a lack of literature describing PrEP stigma. In order to fill this gap, we recruited online 43 HIV-negative Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) who use PrEP. Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore their perceptions and experience of stigma related to PrEP use. Data were analyzed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory and constant comparison techniques to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of MSM who use PrEP. The participants experienced PrEP stigma as rejection by potential/actual partners, stereotypes of promiscuity or chemsex, and labeling of both the user and the medication. They connected PrEP stigma with HIV stigma, generational differences, moralization of condom use, and inability to embrace one's own sexuality. These findings point to a need to develop tailored interventions to address PrEP-related stigma and shaming for individuals, health-care professionals, and the MSM community-at-large.
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- Effects of environmental factors on C-type lectin recognition to zooxanthellae in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2018; 79:228-233
- C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (Pd…
C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (PdC-Lectin) was chosen from stony coral Pocillopora damicornis to understand its recognition characteristics to zooxanthellae. PdC-Lectin protein contained a signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain with EPN motif in Ca2+-binding site 2. The PdC-Lectin recombinant protein was expressed and purified in vitro. The binding of PdC-Lectin protein to zooxanthellae was determined with western blotting method, and the bound protein to 10-105 cell mL-1 zooxanthellae was detectable in a concentration-dependent manner. Less PdC-Lectin protein binding to zooxanthellae was observed for the incubation at 36 °C than that at 26 °C. Furthermore, the PAMP recognition spectrum of PdC-Lectin protein was tested through surface plasmon resonance method, and it bound to LPS and Lipid A, but not to LTA, β-glucan, mannose or Poly (I:C). When PdC-Lectin protein was preincubated with LPS, there was less protein binding to zooxanthellae compared with that in non-preincubation group. These results collectively suggest that PdC-Lectin could recognize zooxanthellae, and the recognition could be repressed by high temperature and pathogenic bacteria, which would help to further understand the molecular mechanism of coral bleaching and the establishment of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral P. damicornis.