- Is 3D faster and safer than 4K laparoscopic cholecystectomy? A randomised-controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- SESurg Endosc 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: A 3D HD laparoscopic system did not reduce operative time or error scores during laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with a new 4K imaging system.
- Early serum tumor marker dynamics predict progression-free and overall survival in single PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor treated advanced NSCLC-A retrospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- LCLung Cancer 2019; 134:59-65
- CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing leading STM at first restaging predict longer PFS and OS and identify patients with favorable outcomes among initial radiological non-responders in ICI treated NSCLC patients.
- [Congenital middle ear malformation: clinical analysis and discussion of classification]. [Journal Article]
- ZEZhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019 Jul 07; 54(7):481-488
- CONCLUSIONS: Referring to the classification of congenital middle ear malformation combining with appropriate surgical materials and methods, otologists can better understand and choose appropriate surgical method to the middle ear malformation.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a snapshot for the internist. [Review]
- IEIntern Emerg Med 2019 Jul 15
- Intravenous immunoglobulins are the cornerstone for the treatment of primary humoral immunodeficiencies and may be used for a great number of other autoimmune, neurological and hematological conditio…
Intravenous immunoglobulins are the cornerstone for the treatment of primary humoral immunodeficiencies and may be used for a great number of other autoimmune, neurological and hematological conditions as well. Given their wide application, the possibility of running across a patient who needs this kind of therapy is becoming increasingly common. Generally, intravenous immunoglobulins are well tolerated. However, numerous adverse reactions ranging from mild to severe have been reported and linked to patient- and product-related factors. For all these reasons, we present herein a comprehensive review of the on- and off-label applications of intravenous immunoglobulins and provide a guide for the internist how to minimize the risk of adverse reactions and manage them.
- Neurotrophin gene augmentation by electrotransfer to improve cochlear implant hearing outcomes. [Review]
- HRHear Res 2019 Jun 21; 380:137-149
- This Review outlines the development of DNA-based therapeutics for treatment of hearing loss, and in particular, considers the potential to utilize the properties of recombinant neurotrophins to impr…
This Review outlines the development of DNA-based therapeutics for treatment of hearing loss, and in particular, considers the potential to utilize the properties of recombinant neurotrophins to improve cochlear auditory (spiral ganglion) neuron survival and repair. This potential to reduce spiral ganglion neuron death and indeed re-grow the auditory nerve fibres has been the subject of considerable pre-clinical evaluation over decades with the view of improving the neural interface with cochlear implants. This provides the context for discussion about the development of a novel means of using cochlear implant electrode arrays for gene electrotransfer. Mesenchymal cells which line the cochlear perilymphatic compartment can be selectively transfected with (naked) plasmid DNA using array - based gene electrotransfer, termed 'close-field electroporation'. This technology is able to drive expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the deafened guinea pig model, causing re-growth of the spiral ganglion peripheral neurites towards the mesenchymla cells, and hence into close proximity with cochlear implant electrodes within scala tympani. This was associated with functional enhancement of the cochlear implant neural interface (lower neural recruitment thresholds and expanded dynamic range, measured using electrically - evoked auditory brainstem responses). The basis for the efficiency of close-field electroporation arises from the compression of the electric field in proximity to the ganged cochlear implant electrodes. The regions close to the array with highest field strength corresponded closely to the distribution of bioreporter cells (adherent human embryonic kidney (HEK293)) expressing green fluorescent reporter protein (GFP) following gene electrotransfer. The optimization of the gene electrotransfer parameters using this cell-based model correlated closely with in vitro and in vivo cochlear gene delivery outcomes. The migration of the cochlear implant electrode array-based gene electrotransfer platform towards a clinical trial for neurotrophin-based enhancement of cochlear implants is supported by availability of a novel regulatory compliant mini-plasmid DNA backbone (pFAR4; plasmid Free of Antibiotic Resistance v.4) which could be used to package a 'humanized' neurotrophin expression cassette. A reporter cassette packaged into pFAR4 produced prominent GFP expression in the guinea pig basal turn perilymphatic scalae. More broadly, close-field gene electrotransfer may lend itself to a spectrum of potential DNA therapeutics applications benefitting from titratable, localised, delivery of naked DNA, for gene augmentation, targeted gene regulation, or gene substitution strategies.
- Biallelic Variants in CTU2 Cause DREAM-PL Syndrome and Impair Thiolation of tRNA Wobble U34. [Journal Article]
- HMHum Mutat 2019 Jul 13
- The wobble position in the anticodon loop of tRNA is subject to numerous post-transcriptional modifications. In particular, thiolation of the wobble uridine has been shown to play an important role i…
The wobble position in the anticodon loop of tRNA is subject to numerous post-transcriptional modifications. In particular, thiolation of the wobble uridine has been shown to play an important role in codon-anticodon interactions. This modification is catalyzed by a highly conserved CTU1/CTU2 complex, disruption of which has been shown to cause abnormal phenotypes in yeast, worms and plants. We have previously suggested that a single founder splicing variant in human CTU2 causes a novel multiple congenital anomalies syndrome consisting of dysmorphic facies, renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, microcephaly, polydactyly, and lissencephaly (DREAM-PL). In this work, we describe five new patients with DREAM-PL phenotype and whose molecular analysis expands the allelic heterogeneity of the syndrome to five different alleles; four of which predict protein truncation. Functional characterization using patient-derived cells for each of these alleles, as well as the original founder allele; revealed a specific impairment of wobble uridine thiolation in all known thiol-containing tRNAs. Our data establish a recognizable CTU2-linked autosomal recessive syndrome in humans characterized by defective thiolation of the wobble uridine. The potential deleterious consequences for the translational efficiency and fidelity during development as a mechanism for pathogenicity represent an attractive target of future investigations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit defects are a cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jul 12; 10(1):3094
- AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-trans…
AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated channels made up of combinations of GluA1-4 subunits encoded by GRIA1-4 genes. GluA2 has an especially important role because, following post-transcriptional editing at the Q607 site, it renders heteromultimeric AMPARs Ca2+-impermeable, with a linear relationship between current and trans-membrane voltage. Here, we report heterozygous de novo GRIA2 mutations in 28 unrelated patients with intellectual disability (ID) and neurodevelopmental abnormalities including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Rett syndrome-like features, and seizures or developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In functional expression studies, mutations lead to a decrease in agonist-evoked current mediated by mutant subunits compared to wild-type channels. When GluA2 subunits are co-expressed with GluA1, most GRIA2 mutations cause a decreased current amplitude and some also affect voltage rectification. Our results show that de-novo variants in GRIA2 can cause neurodevelopmental disorders, complementing evidence that other genetic causes of ID, ASD and DEE also disrupt glutamatergic synaptic transmission.
- Dicrocoeliosis in extensive sheep farms: a survey. [Journal Article]
- PVParasit Vectors 2019 Jul 12; 12(1):342
- CONCLUSIONS: Our survey reveals the widespread presence of D. dendriticum in Sardinia, although seasonal, geographical and climatic conditions might be key factors in modulating the infection prevalence. Examining typical lesions due to D. dendriticum in the liver in abattoirs can be used as a marker for tracking chronic dicrocoeliosis infection.
- Marine Bacterial Exopolymers-Mediated Green Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles with Antimicrobial Properties. [Journal Article]
- PPolymers (Basel) 2019 Jul 07; 11(7)
- A straightforward and green method for the synthesis of gold, silver, and silver chloride nanoparticles (Au NPs and Ag/AgCl NPs) was developed using three different microbial exopolymers (EP) as redu…
A straightforward and green method for the synthesis of gold, silver, and silver chloride nanoparticles (Au NPs and Ag/AgCl NPs) was developed using three different microbial exopolymers (EP) as reducing and stabilizing agents. The exopolysaccharides EPS B3-15 and EPS T14 and the poly-γ-glutamic acid γ-PGA-APA were produced by thermophilic bacteria isolated from shallow hydrothermal vents off the Eolian Islands (Italy) in the Mediterranean Sea. The production of metal NPs was monitored by UV-Vis measurements by the typical plasmon resonance absorption peak and their antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungi (Candida albicans) was investigated. The biological evaluation showed no activity for EP-Au NPs, except against E. coli, whereas EP-Ag NPs exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity. The chemical composition, morphology, and size of EP-Ag NPs were investigated by UV-Vis, zeta potential (ζ), dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The best antimicrobial results were obtained for EPS B3-15-Ag NPs and EPS T14-Ag NPs (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC: 9.37-45 µg/mL; Minimum Bactericidal Concentration/Minimum Fungicidal Concentration, MBC/MFC: 11.25-75 µg/mL).
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- Aphidius ervi Teratocytes Release Enolase and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Through Exosomal Vesicles. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2019; 10:715
- The molecular bases of the host-parasitoid interactions in the biological system Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera, Aphididae) and Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) have been el…
The molecular bases of the host-parasitoid interactions in the biological system Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera, Aphididae) and Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) have been elucidated allowing the identification of a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, the active component of maternal venom secretion, and teratocytes, the embryonic parasitic factors responsible for host physiology regulation after parasitization. Teratocytes, cells deriving from the dissociation of the serosa, the parasitoid embryonic membrane, are responsible for extra-oral digestion of host tissues in order to provide a suitable nutritional environment for the development of parasitoid larvae. Teratocytes rapidly grow in size without undergoing any cell division, synthesize, and release in the host hemolymph two proteins: a fatty acid binding protein (Ae-FABP) and an enolase (Ae-ENO). Ae-FABP is involved in transport of fatty acids deriving from host tissues to the parasitoid larva. Ae-ENO is an extracellular glycolytic enzyme that functions as a plasminogen like receptor inducing its activation to plasmin. Both Ae-FABP and Ae-ENO lack their signal peptides, and they are released in the extracellular environment through an unknown secretion pathway. Here, we investigated the unconventional mechanism by which teratocytes release Ae-FABP and Ae-ENO in the extracellular space. Our results, obtained using immunogold staining coupled with TEM and western blot analyses, show that these two proteins are localized in vesicles released by teratocytes. The specific dimension of these vesicles and the immunodetection of ALIX and HSP70, two exosome markers, strongly support the hypothesis that these vesicles are exosomes.