- Chemical composition of Chilean bottled waters: Anomalous values and possible effects on human health. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 15; 689:526-533
- The Chilean bottled water market has experienced continuous growth since 2000, surpassing 500 million liters sold in 2015. Generally, consumers tend to associate the consumption of bottled water with…
The Chilean bottled water market has experienced continuous growth since 2000, surpassing 500 million liters sold in 2015. Generally, consumers tend to associate the consumption of bottled water with a healthy lifestyle, but current Chilean law does not require the product to be labelled with the chemical composition, thus preventing consumers from making informed choices. Our study focuses on determining the water quality of ten brands of bottled water available for sale in Santiago, Chile. All of the analyzed water was not carbonated and in plastic containers in the 1.5 L size when available and the closest size to this when not available. Thirty-two chemical elements were analyzed, including minor and trace elements, and the data have been evaluated with respect to the limits established by Chilean and international regulatory agencies. Our results indicate that the quality of the analyzed water generally complies with Chilean law for bottled water. However, 30% of the analyzed samples exceed the values of arsenic (As) permitted by Chilean drinking water regulations, the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In 40% of the samples, the NO3 content is higher than groundwater values suggesting that the source of the bottled water is superficial. The purified bottled water brands contain minimal amounts of dissolved elements but do not comply with all of the parameters (e.g., pH) established by Chilean drinking water regulations. Our study highlights that there is an inconsistency between the Chilean norms that regulate bottled water and those that regulate drinking water. Some of the analyzed bottled waters do not comply with the drinking water regulations and paradoxically these brands should not be consumed by humans. However, risk assessment calculations for As ingestion show that the consumption of 1 L/day of bottled water does not pose a risk for human health.
- Development and deployment of integrated air pollution control, CO2 capture and product utilization via a high-gravity process: comprehensive performance evaluation. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 Jun 14; 252(Pt B):1464-1475
- In this study, a proposed integrated high-gravity technology for air pollution control, CO2 capture, and alkaline waste utilization was comprehensively evaluated from engineering, environmental, and …
In this study, a proposed integrated high-gravity technology for air pollution control, CO2 capture, and alkaline waste utilization was comprehensively evaluated from engineering, environmental, and economic perspectives. After high-gravity technology and coal fly ash (CFA) leaching processes were integrated, flue gas air emissions removal (e.g., sulfate dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), total suspended particulates (TSP)) and CO2 capture were studied. The CFA, which contains calcium oxide and thus, had high alkalinity, was used as an absorbent in removing air pollution residues. To elucidate the availability of technology for pilot-scale high-gravity processes, the engineering performance, environmental impact, and economic cost were simultaneously investigated. The results indicated that the maximal CO2, SO2, NOx, and TSP removal efficiencies of 96.3 ± 2.1%, 99.4 ± 0.3%, 95.9 ± 2.1%, and 83.4 ± 2.6% were respectively achieved. Moreover, a 112 kWh/t-CO2 energy consumption for a high-gravity process was evaluated, with capture capacities of 510 kg CO2 and 0.468 kg NOx per day. In addition, the fresh, water-treated, acid-treated, and carbonated CFA was utilized as supplementary cementitious materials in the blended cement mortar. The workability, durability, and compressive strength of 5% carbonated CFA blended into cement mortar showed superior performance, i.e., 53 MPa ±2.5 MPa at 56 days. Furthermore, a higher engineering performance with a lower environmental impact and lower economic cost could potentially be evaluated to determine the best available operating condition of the high-gravity process for air pollution reduction, CO2 capture, and waste utilization.
- Highly porous polycaprolactone scaffolds doped with calcium silicate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate designed for bone regeneration. [Journal Article]
- MSMater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019; 102:341-361
- Polycaprolactone (PCL), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and/or calcium silicates (CaSi) have been used to prepare highly porous scaffolds by thermally induced phase separation technique (TIPS). …
Polycaprolactone (PCL), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and/or calcium silicates (CaSi) have been used to prepare highly porous scaffolds by thermally induced phase separation technique (TIPS). Three experimental mineral-doped formulations were prepared (PCL-10CaSi, PCL-5CaSi-5DCPD, PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD); pure PCL scaffolds constituted the control group. Scaffolds were tested for their chemical-physical and biological properties, namely thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mechanical properties by quasi-static parallel-plates compression testing, porosity by a standard water-absorption method calcium release, alkalinizing activity, surface microchemistry and micromorphology by Environmental Scanning electronic Microscopy (ESEM), apatite-forming ability in Hank Balanced Saline Solution (HBSS) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-Raman, and direct contact cytotoxicity. All mineral-doped scaffolds released calcium and alkalinized the soaking medium, which may favor a good biological (osteogenic) response. ESEM surface micromorphology analyses after soaking in HBSS revealed: pure PCL, PCL-10CaSi and PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD kept similar surface porosity percentages but different pore shape modifications. PCL-5CaSi-5DCPD revealed a significant surface porosity increase despite calcium phosphates nucleation (p < 0.05). Micro-Raman spectroscopy detected the formation of a B-type carbonated apatite (Ap) layer on the surface of PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD aged for 28 days in HBSS; a similar phase (but of lower thickness) formed also on PCL-5CaSi-5DCPD and PCL; the deposit formed on PCL-10CaSi was mainly composed of calcite. All PCL showed bulk open porosity higher than 94%; however, no relevant brittleness was observed in the materials, which retained the possibility to be handled without collapsing. The thermo-mechanical properties showed that the reinforcing and nucleating action of the inorganic fillers CaSi and DCPD improved viscoelastic properties of the scaffolds, as confirmed by the increased value of storage modulus and the slight increase in the crystallization temperature for all the biomaterials. A detrimental effect on the mechanical properties was observed in samples with the highest amount of inorganic particles (PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD). All the scaffolds showed absence of toxicity, in particular PCL-10CaSi-10DCPD. The designed scaffolds are biointeractive (release biologically relevant ions), nucleate apatite, possess high surface and internal open porosity and can be colonized by cells, creating a bone forming osteoblastic microenvironment and appearing interesting materials for bone regeneration purposes.
- Putting out the fire - Efficacy of common beverages in reducing oral burn from capsaicin. [Journal Article]
- PBPhysiol Behav 2019 Sep 01; 208:112557
- Capsaicin is classically considered an irritant, due to the warming and burning sensations it elicits. Widespread consumption of chilis suggests many individuals enjoy this burn, but these sensations…
Capsaicin is classically considered an irritant, due to the warming and burning sensations it elicits. Widespread consumption of chilis suggests many individuals enjoy this burn, but these sensations can be overwhelming if the burn is too intense. While substantial folklore exists on the ability of specific beverages to mitigate capsaicin burn, quantitative data to support these claims are generally lacking. Here, we systematically tested various beverages for their ability to reduce oral burn following consumption of capsaicin in tomato juice. Participants (n = 72, 42 women, 30 men) rated the burn of 30 mL of spicy tomato juice on a general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) immediately after swallowing, and again every 10 s for 2 min. On 7 of 8 trials, a test beverage (40 mL) was consumed after tomato juice was swallowed, including: skim milk, whole milk, seltzer water, Cherry Kool-Aid, non-alcoholic beer, cola, and water. Participants also answered questions regarding intake frequency and liking of spicy food. Initial burn of tomato juice alone was rated below "strong" but above "moderate" on a gLMS and continued to decay over the 2 min to a mean just above "weak". All beverages significantly reduced the burn of the tomato juice. To quantify efficacy over time, area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated, and the largest reductions in burn were observed for whole milk, skim milk, and Kool-Aid. More work is needed to determine the mechanism(s) by which these beverages reduce burn (i.e., partitioning due to fat, binding by protein, or sucrose analgesia). Present data suggest milk is the best choice to mitigate burn, regardless of fat context, suggesting the presence of protein may be more relevant than lipid content.
- A Fundamental Micro Scale Study of the Roles of Associated Gas Content and Different Classes of Hydrocarbons on the Dominant Oil Recovery Mechanism by CWI. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Apr 12; 9(1):5996
- Various studies demonstrated new gaseous phase formation and oil swelling and viscosity reduction are the oil recovery mechanisms by carbonated water injection (CWI) with new gaseous phase formation …
Various studies demonstrated new gaseous phase formation and oil swelling and viscosity reduction are the oil recovery mechanisms by carbonated water injection (CWI) with new gaseous phase formation being the major recovery mechanism for live oil systems. However, none of the previous studies investigated the influences of dissolved gas content of the oil and oil composition, on the new gaseous phase. This study attempts to provide insights on this area. Based on the results, during CWI as CO2 partitions into the oil the dissolved gas of the oil liberates, which leads to in-situ new gaseous phase formation. The dissolved gas content of the crude oil has a direct impact on the saturation and growth rate of the new gaseous phase. The new gaseous phase doesn't form for oils that have an infinite capacity for dissolving CO2, such as light pure hydrocarbon components. Oils with limited capacity for dissolving CO2, such as heavy hydrocarbon components, are responsible for the formation of the new gaseous phase. Therefore for a live crude oil, the relatively heavier fractions of oil are responsible for triggering of the new gaseous phase and light to intermediate oil components control the further growth of the new gaseous phase.
- Valorization of residual soft drinks by baker's yeast production and insight for dairy wastewater whey incorporation. [Journal Article]
- WSWater Sci Technol 2019; 79(4):635-644
- Residuals are responsible for the polluting load increase of soft drink industry wastewater due to their high sugar contents. The present work proposes an upstream segregation of residuals to be biol…
Residuals are responsible for the polluting load increase of soft drink industry wastewater due to their high sugar contents. The present work proposes an upstream segregation of residuals to be biologically treated by the bioconversion of their carbohydrates content into baker's yeast biomass. Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and nectars and juices (NJ) ranges were considered. Different incorporation ratios of NJ in the CSD (0-75%) have been investigated for balanced growth medium. Despite the nitrogen deficiency of media, results showed that NJ incorporation promoted the microbial growth. Media containing more than 50% of NJ exhibited ∼25% sugar-biomass conversion rates. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the media exceeded 70% at the end of fermentation. Moreover, valuable components were recovered by yeast production. Nutrient consumption rates varied from 65.4% for sugar and calcium content to in excess of 99% for protein and other minerals. In order to investigate an available and low-cost source of nitrogen for yeast production, partial substitution of the soft drink growth medium by bactofugate whey was evaluated. The soft drink-whey mixture medium fermentation resulted in 63% COD removal rate after 28 h. Meanwhile, the biomass production yield revealed an improvement of about 25% compared to the balanced soft drink medium (NJ50).
- Color stability and surface roughness of chitosan- and nanodiamond-modified bisacrylic resin. [Journal Article]
- BOBraz Oral Res 2019; 33:e024
- The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chitosan or nanodiamond incorporation on the color stability and surface roughness of a bisacrylic resin subjected to artificial aging. Four bisacry…
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of chitosan or nanodiamond incorporation on the color stability and surface roughness of a bisacrylic resin subjected to artificial aging. Four bisacrylic resins were evaluated, namely, control, chitosan-modified material, nanodiamond-modified material, and chitosan-nanodiamond-modified material. Twenty-four specimens were prepared for each material. The surface roughness was determined using a profilometer with a cut-off of 0.25 mm. The baseline color was measured according to the CIE L*a*b* system using a reflectance spectrophotometer. After these tests, the specimens were individually immersed in cola soft drink, red wine, or distilled water (n = 8) for 28 days. After the aging, the surface roughness and final color were re-evaluated. The color stability was determined using the difference between the coordinates obtained before and after the aging process. The data on roughness and color change were evaluated using ANOVA and the Tukey test (α = 0.05). The results show that the incorporation of nanodiamonds and chitosan into a bisacrylic resin provided a better color stability to the materials (p = 0.007). The storage in red wine resulted in a higher variation in the surface roughness values, especially when only the nanodiamond was incorporated to the material (p < 0.05). The incorporation of both chitosan and nanodiamonds are promising in providing an improvement in the properties of the bisacrylic resin when they are simultaneously incorporated in the product.
- Survey of oral nursing care attitudes, knowledge and practices in a neurorehabilitation setting. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oral Rehabil 2019; 46(8):730-737
- The provision of oral care is an important fundamental nursing activity. The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge on nursing care professionals´ attitude, belief, knowledge and practice towards…
The provision of oral care is an important fundamental nursing activity. The purpose of the study was to gain knowledge on nursing care professionals´ attitude, belief, knowledge and practice towards oral care in a neurorehabilitation setting. Nursing care professionals (n = 260, response rate: 60%) at neurorehabilitation hospital took part in cross-sectional web-based 59-items survey. Attitudes were cross-tabulated and compared using Fisher's exact test. Oral care product frequencies were compared between patients with/without eating difficulties using McNemar's test. Most professionals agreed that oral health impacts general health (93%) and poor oral health can cause pneumonia (85%). 41% professionals found it difficult to clean the oral cavity and 12% found it unpleasant. 40% indicated that time allocated for oral hygiene was insufficient, 27% indicated a need for broader range of oral care supplies and >80% would like continuing oral care education. Manual toothbrush and toothpaste were used more than once per shift by >75% in all patients. Swabs, premixed mouth rinse, carbonated water and lip moisturiser were more frequently used in patients with eating difficulties compared to with no eating difficulties. Oral care is perceived as an essential component of care in neurorehabilitation. However, professionals indicated lack of time, need for better supplies and oral care training. The differentiated use of oral care products shows that professionals were aware that patients with eating difficulties have different requirements; however, some oral care practices were inappropriate. The results should be considered while designing oral care guidelines and training.
- Carbon Dioxide in Bottled Carbonated Waters and Subsequent Bubble Nucleation under Standard Tasting Condition. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2019 Apr 24; 67(16):4560-4567
- Experimental and theoretical developments, including gas-liquid thermodynamics and bubble nucleation, were made relevant to the conditioning and service of three various commercial carbonated bottled…
Experimental and theoretical developments, including gas-liquid thermodynamics and bubble nucleation, were made relevant to the conditioning and service of three various commercial carbonated bottled waters holding different levels of dissolved carbon dioxide comprised between about 3 g L-1 and 7 g L-1. The strong dependence in temperature of the partial pressure of gas-phase CO2 found within the three batches of bottled carbonated waters was determined. Moreover, in a glass of carbonated water, the process by which the diffusion of dissolved CO2 in tiny immersed gas pockets enabled heterogeneous bubble nucleation was formalized, including every pertinent parameter at play. From this assessment, the minimum level of dissolved CO2 below which bubble nucleation becomes thermodynamically impossible was determined and found to strongly decrease by increasing the water temperature and size of the gas pockets acting as bubble nucleation sites. Accordingly, the total number of bubbles likely to form in a single glass of sparkling water was theoretically derived to decipher the role played by various key parameters. Most interestingly, for a given level of dissolved CO2, the theoretical number of bubbles likely to form in a glass was found to increase by increasing the water temperature.
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- The efficacy of pH-dependent leaching tests to provide a reasonable estimate of post-carbonation leaching. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hazard Mater 2019 Jul 05; 373:204-211
- pH is a vital factor related to the heavy metal leaching from wastes. Over time, waste materials may be naturally weathered in the presence of water and carbon dioxide, reducing their pH and altering…
pH is a vital factor related to the heavy metal leaching from wastes. Over time, waste materials may be naturally weathered in the presence of water and carbon dioxide, reducing their pH and altering their mineralogy. Here we evaluate whether conducting a pH-dependent leaching test on wastes expected to carbonate sufficiently reflects the leaching of these wastes upon carbonation. Certain elements, such as Al and Sb, exhibited different leaching trends for carbonated and un-carbonated samples of two different waste materials. XRD results observed different mineral phases as a result of carbonation in incineration bottom ash. The application of pH-dependent leaching tests on fresh waste samples (at neutral pH values) were found to potentially mischaracterize leaching from carbonated waste samples at similar pH values for some elements and waste materials.