- Sperm Morphology: History, Challenges, and Impact on Natural and Assisted Fertility. [Review]
- CUCurr Urol Rep 2019 Jun 15; 20(8):43
- The classification of morphologically normal sperm has been progressively redefined. Concurrently, our understanding of the significance of sperm morphology in relation to male factor infertility has…
The classification of morphologically normal sperm has been progressively redefined. Concurrently, our understanding of the significance of sperm morphology in relation to male factor infertility has evolved. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of sperm morphology assessment and factors that contribute to its measurement variability. We will examine the impact of sperm morphology on natural pregnancy, IUI, IVF, and ICSI outcomes.
- An overview on role of some trace elements in human reproductive health, sperm function and fertilization process. [Review]
- RERev Environ Health 2019 Jun 14
- Human semen contains several trace elements such as calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) which are necessary for reproductive health, normal spermato…
Human semen contains several trace elements such as calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) which are necessary for reproductive health, normal spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, motility and capacitation, as well as normal sperm function. In this review, the potential role of these trace elements in male reproductive health, normal function of spermatozoa and fertility potency were considered. We selected and reviewed articles that considered crucial roles of trace elements in human sperm function and fertility. Ca is essential for sperm motility and its hyperactivation, sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction, as well as sperm chemotaxis. Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are involved in sperm motility and capacitation. Mg is necessary for normal ejaculation, spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Zn is one of the most significant nutrients in human semen. Seminal deficiency of Zn can be associated with delayed testicular development, impaired spermatogenesis, deficiency of sex hormones, oxidative stress and inflammation, and apoptosis. Se is another significant element which has antioxidative properties and is essential for spermatogenesis and the maintenance of male fertility. Mn is a potent stimulator for sperm motility; however, increased level of seminal plasma Se can be toxic for sperm. Like Se, Cu has antioxidative properties and has a positive effect on sperm parameters. Decreased level of these trace elements can negatively affect human reproductive health, semen quality, sperm normal function and as the result, fertility potency in men. Measurement of these trace elements in men with idiopathic infertility is necessary.
- Sperm DNA fragmentation is correlated with poor embryo development, lower implantation rate, and higher miscarriage rate in reproductive cycles of non-male factor infertility. [Journal Article]
- FSFertil Steril 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Higher SDF is correlated with poor embryo development, lower implantation rate, and higher miscarriage rate in non-male factor infertility intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Since defects in sperm may be hidden, the SDF test can bring additional information to the sperm quality evaluation of men with unknown infertility history.
- Potential of seminal plasma to improve the fertility of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. [Review]
- TTheriogenology 2019 May 31
- Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for livestock breeding. Although sperm cryopreservation is the most efficient method for long-term storage, its use for porcine AI is marginal, because of …
Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used for livestock breeding. Although sperm cryopreservation is the most efficient method for long-term storage, its use for porcine AI is marginal, because of its dramatic impact on sperm quality. While the removal of seminal plasma is a routine practice prior to porcine sperm cryopreservation, its beneficial role on sperm function has not been investigated in as much detail. In this context and despite seminal plasma being regarded as a mere vehicle of sperm, mounting evidence indicates that it could be positive for porcine sperm fertility. In effect, not only is seminal plasma able to interact with the female reproductive tract after mounting/insemination, but it has been demonstrated it modulates sperm function. For this reason, the composition of this fluid and its proteome have begun to be investigated in order to elucidate whether its components play any role in sperm function, fertility and cryotolerance. Previous research has demonstrated that seminal plasma may maintain the quality and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa when added before or after cryopreservation. However, a large variety of results have been reported with both beneficial and detrimental effects, including studies in which no influence has been observed. This review examines the composition of porcine seminal plasma and summarizes the available published studies regarding seminal plasma supplementation to spermatozoa before or after freeze-thawing. The take-home message of this article is that clearing up the role of seminal plasma in sperm cryotolerance may increase the reproductive performance of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa.
- An update on boar semen assessments by flow cytometry and CASA. [Review]
- TTheriogenology 2019 Jun 04
- In the quest for predicting fertility of an individual, enhancing semen handling, dilution and storage protocols, and understanding the impact of environment and, andrologists have changed their appr…
In the quest for predicting fertility of an individual, enhancing semen handling, dilution and storage protocols, and understanding the impact of environment and, andrologists have changed their approaches to semen analysis. The technologies used today are fast developing and readily implemented in research. Semen is one of a few naturally occurring monocellular suspensions, so sperm function analysis by flow cytometry (FC) and utilization of fluorochromes is an ideal technique for high throughput, objective and accurate analysis. The complementary use of microscopical assessments by Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA), where sperm cell parameters can be objectively assessed is equally important. The objectivity and repeatability of these techniques have driven research on the function, identification of heterogeneity and fertility of the ejaculate. The wealth of knowledge obtained from the application of these powerful methods has changed our view of the spermatozoon. Although there is some application of these methods in the industry producing boar semen for artificial insemination (AI) and to eliminate sires of sub-standard semen quality, uptake of advanced methods is still slow. Instruments are becoming cheaper and technically more user friendly. Standardization of methodology and optimization of instrument settings is important for full implementation of these systems, including comparison between labs. This review provides an update on two technologies: flow cytometry and CASA for objective analysis of boar semen quality.
- Comparison of pre-operative and post-operative (varicocelectomy) sperm parameters in patients suffering varicocle with and without reflux in Doppler ultrasonography. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Family Med Prim Care 2019; 8(5):1730-1734
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that the presence of testicular reflux has no effect on semen analysis parameters, but also does not predict the consequences of varicocelectomy and therefore is not a suitable prognosis factor in varicocele patients.
- Comparison of Efficacy of Lycopene and Lycopene-Hyaluronidase Combination in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Bioallied Sci 2019; 11(Suppl 2):S260-S264
- CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene appears to be a very promising antioxidant in the management of oral submucous fibrosis, both in clinical and symptomatic improvement.
- Utility and Predictive Value of Human Standard Semen Parameters and Sperm DNA Dispersion for Fertility Potential. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Jun 05; 16(11)
- Because the assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) plays a key role in male fertility, our study was designed to find the relationships between SDF and standard semen parameters. The receiver op…
Because the assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) plays a key role in male fertility, our study was designed to find the relationships between SDF and standard semen parameters. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that 18% SDF is a prognostic parameter for discriminating between men with normal and abnormal standard semen parameters (n = 667). Men with > 18% SDF had significantly lower quality semen, a higher prevalence of abnormal semen characteristics, and a higher odds ratio for abnormal semen parameters compared to men with ≤ 18% SDF. An ROC analysis provided predictive values for age and semen parameters to distinguish between men with SDF > 18% and men with ≤ 18% SDF. SDF was positively correlated with male age and teratozoospermia index but negatively with sperm concentration, total number of spermatozoa, sperm morphology, progressive motility, and vitality. Our study shows that 18% SDF has a predictive value for distinguishing between men with normal and abnormal semen characteristics. Men with >18% SDF have a higher risk for abnormal semen parameters, while age and obtained semen parameters have a predictive value for SDF. There is a relationship between SDF and conventional sperm characteristics, and thus, SDF can be incorporated into male fertility assessment.
- The correlation between mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) gene expression and sperm DNA damage among infertile patients with and without varicocele. [Journal Article]
- AAndrologia 2019 Jun 13; :e13341
- This study aimed to assess the possible correlation between mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) gene expression and sperm DNA damage among infertile patients with and without varicocele. The study i…
This study aimed to assess the possible correlation between mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) gene expression and sperm DNA damage among infertile patients with and without varicocele. The study included sixty infertile males and fifty fertile males as controls. The infertile group was subdivided into the following subgroups: thirty males with varicocele and thirty males without varicocele. All subjects underwent medical history collection, clinical examination, semen analysis, sperm DNA integrity assessment, mTOR gene expression assessment and scrotal colour Doppler ultrasound. The mean mTOR gene expression in infertile patients with varicocele (23.52 ± 14.65) was significantly higher than that in infertile patients without varicocele (12.24 ± 12.44) and fertile control subjects (3.92 ± 3.26; p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively). In the infertile varicocele-positive group, mTOR gene expression showed a significant negative correlation with sperm count (p = 0.028, r = -0.400) and progressive sperm motility (p = 0.038, r = -0.381), as well as a significant positive correlation with the sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI; p = 0.001, r = 0.578). In the infertile varicocele-negative group, mTOR gene expression showed a significant negative correlation with progressive sperm motility (p = 0.018, r = -0.429) and a significant positive correlation with sperm DFI (p < 0.001, r = 0.673). In conclusion, according to these results, there is a significant positive correlation between mTOR gene expression and sperm DFI among infertile patients with and without varicocele.
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- Effects of use of conventional and sexed semen on the conception rate in heifers: A comparison study. [Journal Article]
- TTheriogenology 2019 Jun 06; 135:33-37
- Conception rate with the use of sexed semen is lower than that with the use of conventional semen, posing a major problem in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to understand the risk facto…
Conception rate with the use of sexed semen is lower than that with the use of conventional semen, posing a major problem in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to understand the risk factors that affect the conception rate after artificial insemination (AI) with conventional and sexed semen using field data. The records of the first insemination in Holstein heifers with conventional (n = 41,857) and sexed semen (n = 45,465) in Hokkaido, Japan were analyzed. The mean conception rate after AI from 2012 to 2016 was 56.9% with conventional semen and 47.3% with sexed semen. A multivariable logistic regression model including the effects of year, heifer age, time of the year, semen type, service sire, and their interactions was used to evaluate the interaction effect of heifer age and time of the year by semen type on the conception rate. In the analysis using heifer age, we found that heifers inseminated with sexed semen were approximately 21 days younger than those inseminated with conventional semen. Interestingly, in early, warmer months (Jun, Jul, and Aug), the conception rate after AI with sexed semen significantly decreased compared with that after AI with conventional semen (P < 0.01). Our results showed that more careful implementation of AI is required for a stable conception using sexed semen, particularly during warmer months.