- Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Ehrlichia canis in a hospital canine population. [Journal Article]
- VCVet Clin Pathol 2019 Jun 09
- CONCLUSIONS: A high E canis seroprevalence was documented in a canine population living in an endemic area. Selected clinicopathologic variables might be useful indicators of E canis exposure and could allow the prioritization of serologic testing in the clinical setting.
- Identification of Alzheimer's Disease Autoantibodies and Their Target Biomarkers by Phage Microarrays. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Proteome Res 2019 May 28
- The characterization of the humoral response in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients might aid in detecting the disease at early stages. We have combined phage display and protein microarrays to identif…
The characterization of the humoral response in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients might aid in detecting the disease at early stages. We have combined phage display and protein microarrays to identify AD autoantibodies and their target biomarkers. After enrichment of T7 phage display libraries from AD and healthy brain tissue mRNA in AD-specific phages, 1536 monoclonal phages were printed on microarrays to probe them with 8 AD and 8 healthy controls sera. 57 phages showed higher seroreactivity in AD. 13 out of the 44 unique sequences displayed on phages were selected for validation using 68 AD and 52 healthy controls sera. Peptides from Anthrax toxin receptor 1, Nuclear protein 1, Glycogen phosphorylase and Olfactory receptor 8J1 expressed in bacteria as HaloTag fusion proteins showed statistically significant ability to discriminate between AD patients and controls. The identified panel of AD autoantibodies might provide new insights into the blood-based diagnosis of the disease.
- Investigation of chronic infection by Leptospira spp. in asymptomatic sheep slaughtered in slaughterhouse. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0217391
- The study aimed to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of renal lesions in chronically infected sheep and with low titers of anti-Leptospira antibodies from a slaughterhouse. In the serolo…
The study aimed to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of renal lesions in chronically infected sheep and with low titers of anti-Leptospira antibodies from a slaughterhouse. In the serological analysis, 24.74% (48/194) presented seroreactivity with a titer equal to or greater than 100. Among these seroreactive sheep, titers of 100 were predominant (58.33%, 28/48), with the highest titer being 1,600 (2.08%, 1/48). Serogroup Sejroe (sv. Hardjo) was the most frequent at 35.42% (17/48). Leptospiral DNA was verified in 4.12% (8/194) of the kidney samples tested, and no urine sample was positive. All the samples corresponded to the pathogenic species L. interrogans. The eight amplicons with 202-nucleotides were identical with two mismatches (presented 100% of identity) using the PCR targeting to secY gene. Histological sections of PCR-positive kidneys were submitted to direct detection by the anti-LipL32 immunohistochemistry (IHC) technique. The Leptospira spp. antigen was evident in 62.5% (5/8) of the kidneys. Positive staining was observed in the cytoplasm of tubular cells and in the form of brownish aggregates that adhered to tubular epithelial cells and projected into the lumen. Inflammatory lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, ranging from mild to moderate, with multifocal distribution, was the predominant finding in seroreactive animals (33.33%, 16/48). The demonstration of the leptospiral antigen lining the renal tubules through IHC of naturally infected sheep confirmed by PCR characterizes renal colonization in a species with the presence of histological changes compatible with leptospirosis.
- Ecological and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Bartonella henselae Exposure in Dogs Tested for Vector-Borne Diseases in North Carolina. [Journal Article]
- VBVector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 May 21
- Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic vector-borne pathogen affecting both humans and dogs. Little is known about the epidemiology of B. henselae in dogs, including risk factors associated with exposure.…
Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic vector-borne pathogen affecting both humans and dogs. Little is known about the epidemiology of B. henselae in dogs, including risk factors associated with exposure. The objectives of this study were to map the current distribution of B. henselae in dogs in North Carolina (NC) and to identify ecological and socioeconomic factors influencing B. henselae seroreactivity. Results from 4446 B. henselae serology samples from dogs in NC submitted by veterinarians for clinical diagnostic testing to the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine Vector Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. These results were used to generate a map of B. henselae seroreactivity. To account for sparsely sampled areas, statistical smoothing using head banging and areal interpolation kriging was performed. Using previously described risk factors for exposure to canine tick-borne diseases, eight multivariable logistic regression models based on biologically plausible hypotheses were tested, and a final model was selected using an Akaike's Information Criterion weighted-average approach. Seroreactivity among dogs tested for vector-borne disease was variable across the state: higher along the southern/eastern coastal plains and eastern Piedmont, and lower in the western mountains. Of 25 explanatory factors considered, the model combining demographic, socioeconomic, climatic, and land use variables fits best. Based on this model, female intact sex and increasing percentage of the county with low-intensity development and evergreen forest were associated with higher seroreactivity. Conversely, moderate development, increasing median household income, and higher temperature range and relative humidity were associated with lower seroreactivity. This model could be improved, however, by including local and host-scale factors that may play a significant role in dogs' exposure.
- First Evidence of Antibodies Against Lloviu Virus in Schreiber's Bent-Winged Insectivorous Bats Demonstrate a Wide Circulation of the Virus in Spain. [Journal Article]
- VViruses 2019 Apr 19; 11(4)
- Although Lloviu virus (LLOV) was discovered in the carcasses of insectivorous Schreiber's Bent-winged bats in the caves of Northern Spain in 2002, its infectivity and pathogenicity remain unclear. We…
Although Lloviu virus (LLOV) was discovered in the carcasses of insectivorous Schreiber's Bent-winged bats in the caves of Northern Spain in 2002, its infectivity and pathogenicity remain unclear. We examined the seroprevalence of LLOV in potentially exposed Schreiber's Bent-winged bats (n = 60), common serotine bats (n = 10) as controls, and humans (n = 22) using an immunoblot assay. We found antibodies against LLOV GP2 in all of Schreiber's Bent-winged bats serum pools, but not in any of the common serotine bats and human pools tested. To confirm this seroreactivity, 52 serums were individually tested using Domain Programmable Arrays (DPA), a phage display based-system serology technique for profiling filovirus epitopes. A serological signature against different LLOV proteins was obtained in 19/52 samples tested (36.5%). The immunodominant response was in the majority specific to LLOV-unique epitopes, confirming that the serological response detected was to LLOV. To our knowledge, this is the first serological evidence of LLOV exposure in live captured Schreiber's Bent-winged bats, dissociating LLOV circulation as the cause of the previously reported die-offs.
- Anti-HERV-WEnv antibodies are correlated with seroreactivity against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in children and youths at T1D risk. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Apr 18; 9(1):6282
- Recent evidence points at the role that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) may play through the activation of genes integrated across the human genome. Although a variety of genetic/epigenetic mec…
Recent evidence points at the role that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) may play through the activation of genes integrated across the human genome. Although a variety of genetic/epigenetic mechanisms maintain most HERVs silenced, independent environmental stimuli including infections may transactivate endogenous elements favoring pathogenic conditions. Several studies associated exposures to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) with increased anti-MAP seroreactivity in T1D patients. Here, we assessed humoral responses against HERV envelope antigens (HERV-KEnv and HERV-WEnv) and four MAP-derived peptides with human homologs in distinct populations: Sardinian children at T1D risk (rT1D) (n = 14), rT1D from mainland Italy (n = 54) and Polish youths with T1D (n = 74) or obesity unrelated to autoimmunity (OB) (n = 26). Unlike Sardinian rT1D, youths displayed increased anti-HERV-WEnv Abs prevalence compared to age-matched OB or healthy controls (24.32 vs. 11.54%, p = 0.02 for Polish T1D/OB and 31.48 vs. 11.90%, p = 0.0025 for Italian rT1D). Anti-HERV-KEnv responses showed variable trends across groups. A strong correlation between Abs levels against HERV-WEnv and homologous peptides was mirrored by time-related Abs patterns. Elevated values registered for HERV-WEnv overlaped with or preceded the detection of T1D diagnostic autoantibodies. These results support the hypothesis of MAP infection leading to HERV-W antigen expression and enhancing the production of autoantibodies in T1D.
- Hospital-derived antibody profiles of malaria patients in Southwest India. [Journal Article]
- MJMalar J 2019 Apr 17; 18(1):138
- CONCLUSIONS: Seroreactivity at a major hospital in Southwest India reveals antibody responses to P. falciparum and P. vivax in a low malaria transmission region with much migration. In addition to markers of transmission, the data points to specific leads for possible protective immunity against severe disease. Several, but not all, key antigens overlap with work from different settings around the globe and from other parts of India. Together, these studies confidently help define antigens with the greatest potential chance of universal application for surveillance and possibly for disease protection, in many different parts of India and the world.
- Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Rickettsia and Leptospira Infection in Four Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Trop Med Hyg 2019; 100(6):1391-1400
- Rickettsia and Leptospira spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. Rickettsia species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group ric…
Rickettsia and Leptospira spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. Rickettsia species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR). We explored the antibody prevalence among humans for these two groups of rickettsiae in four regions of Peru (Lima, Cusco, Puerto Maldonado, and Tumbes) and for Leptospira spp. in Puerto Maldonado and Tumbes. We also assessed risk factors for seropositivity and collected serum samples and ectoparasites from peri-domestic animals from households in sites with high human seroprevalence. In total, we tested 2,165 human sera for antibodies (IgG) against SFGR and TGR by ELISA and for antibodies against Leptospira by a microscopic agglutination test. Overall, human antibody prevalence across the four sites was 10.6% for SFGR (ranging from 6.2% to 14.0%, highest in Tumbes) and 3.3% for TGR (ranging from 2.6% to 6.4%, highest in Puerto Maldonado). Factors associated with seroreactivity against SFGR were male gender, older age, contact with backyard birds, and working in agriculture or with livestock. However, exposure to any kind of animal within the household decreased the odds ratio by half. Age was the only variable associated with higher TGR seroprevalence. The prevalence of Leptospira was 11.3% in Puerto Maldonado and 5.8% in Tumbes, with a borderline association with keeping animals in the household. We tested animal sera for Leptospira and conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Rickettsia species among ectoparasites collected from domestic animals in 63 households of seropositive participants and controls. We did not find any association between animal infection and human serostatus.
- Antibodies to Peptides in Semiconserved Domains of RIFINs and STEVORs Correlate with Malaria Exposure. [Journal Article]
- MmSphere 2019 03 20; 4(2)
- The repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) and the subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR) family represent two of three major Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen families involve…
The repetitive interspersed family (RIFIN) and the subtelomeric variable open reading frame (STEVOR) family represent two of three major Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigen families involved in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion and are potential targets in the development of natural immunity. Protein and peptide microarrays populated with RIFINs and STEVORs associated with severe malaria vulnerability in Malian children were probed with adult and pediatric sera to identify epitopes that reflect malaria exposure. Adult sera recognized and reacted with greater intensity to all STEVOR proteins than pediatric sera did. Serorecognition of and seroreactivity to peptides within the semiconserved domain of STEVORs increased with age and seasonal malaria exposure, while serorecognition and seroreactivity increased for the semiconserved and second hypervariable domains of RIFINs only with age. Serologic responses to RIFIN and STEVOR peptides within the semiconserved domains may play a role in natural immunity to severe malaria.IMPORTANCE Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, causes nearly 435,000 deaths annually worldwide. RIFINs and STEVORs are two variant surface antigen families that are involved in malaria pathogenesis and immune evasion. Recent work has shown that a lack of humoral immunity to these proteins is associated with severe malaria vulnerability in Malian children. This is the first study to have compared serologic responses of children and adults to RIFINs and STEVORs in settings of malaria endemicity and to examine such serologic responses before and after a clinical malaria episode. Using microarrays, we determined that the semiconserved domains in these two parasite variant surface antigen families harbor peptides whose seroreactivity reflects malaria exposure. A similar approach has the potential to illuminate the role of variant surface antigens in the development of natural immunity to clinical malaria. Potential vaccines for severe malaria should include consideration of peptides within the semiconserved domains of RIFINs and STEVORs.
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- Intradermal SynCon® Ebola GP DNA Vaccine is Temperature Stable and Safely Demonstrates Cellular and Humoral Immunogenicity Advantages in Healthy Volunteers. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Infect Dis 2019 Mar 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Intradermal delivery of INO-4201 was well-tolerated and resulted in 100% seroreactivity after two doses and elicited interferon-γ T cell responses in over 70% of subjects, providing a new approach for EBOV prevention in diverse populations.