- Neighborhood Density and Word Production in Delayed and Advanced Learners. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Speech Lang Hear Res 2019 Jul 22; :1-8
- Purpose This study reexamines the claim that difficulty forming memories of words comprising uncommon sound sequences (i.e., low phonological neighborhood density words) is a determinant of delayed e…
Purpose This study reexamines the claim that difficulty forming memories of words comprising uncommon sound sequences (i.e., low phonological neighborhood density words) is a determinant of delayed expressive vocabulary development (e.g., Stokes, 2014). Method We modeled communicative development inventory data from (N = 442) 18-month-old children, with expressive lexicon sizes between 0 and 517 words (Mdn = 84). We fitted a Bayesian regression model in which the production of each communicative inventory word (N = 680) by each child was predicted by interactions between that child's expressive lexicon size and the word's (a) phonological neighborhood density, (b) frequency in child-directed speech, (c) length, (d) babiness, and (e) concreteness. Results Children with larger expressive lexicons were more likely to produce words comprising uncommon sound sequences than age-matched children with smaller lexicons. However, the magnitude of the interaction between expressive lexicon size and phonological neighborhood density was modest relative to interactions between expressive lexicon size and word frequency, length, babiness, and concreteness. Conclusion Emphasis on a difficulty with the memorization of low-neighborhood density words as a determinant of slow vocabulary growth may be unwarranted, and the current evidence base in this direction is not robust enough to strongly support the development of possible interventions for late talkers.
- Structure of clinician-reported ICD-11 personality disorder trait qualifiers. [Journal Article]
- PAPsychol Assess 2019 Jul 22
- The International Classification of Diseases-11th Edition (ICD-11) Classification of Personality Disorders provides the option of coding 5 trait domain qualifiers that contribute to the individual ex…
The International Classification of Diseases-11th Edition (ICD-11) Classification of Personality Disorders provides the option of coding 5 trait domain qualifiers that contribute to the individual expression of personality dysfunction (i.e., Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, Disinhibition, and Anankastia). Previous investigations of these trait domains are based on self-reported data, and so is much of the research literature from which the ICD-11 trait model has evolved. However, the ICD-11 itself involves judgments made by clinicians about their patients. Thus, it is important to examine whether the trait domains identified in self-report studies can also be obtained from clinician-reported data. A sample of 238 mental health patients were characterized by clinicians using an informant-report form of the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD-IRF). As expected, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that clinician-reported ICD-11 trait domains could be captured by both 4- and 5-factor structures, of which the 5-factor solution seemed less conceptually sound relative to the 4-factor solution. The 4-factor model captured the unipolar domains of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Dissociality, along with a bipolar domain of Disinhibition versus Anankastia, whereas the 5-factor model furthermore captured features of Disinhibition and Anankastia as 2 separate factors. The hierarchical structure from 1 to 5 factors partially resembled previously reported trait structures and models of psychopathology. These findings overall support the multimethod robustness of ICD-11 trait domain qualifiers and the potential for their valid ratings by mental health clinicians. The PiCD-IRF is provided in the online supplementary material - for clinical or research purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
- An iterative, interdisciplinary, collaborative framework for developing and evaluating digital behavior change interventions. [Journal Article]
- TBTransl Behav Med 2019 Jul 22
- The rapid expansion of technology promises to transform the behavior science field by revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors. To fully live into …
The rapid expansion of technology promises to transform the behavior science field by revolutionizing the ways in which individuals can monitor and improve their health behaviors. To fully live into this promise, the behavior science field must address distinct challenges, including: building interventions that are not only scientifically sound but also engaging; using evaluation methods to precisely assess intervention components for intervention optimization; and building personalized interventions that acknowledge and adapt to the dynamic ecosystem of individual and contextual variables that impact behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework to address these challenges by leveraging behavior science, human-centered design, and data science expertise throughout the cycle of developing and evaluating digital behavior change interventions (DBCIs). To define this framework, we reviewed current models and practices for intervention development and evaluation, as well as technology industry models for product development. The framework promotes an iterative process, aiming to maximize outcomes by incorporating faster and more frequent testing cycles into the lifecycle of a DBCI. Within the framework provided, we describe each phase, from development to evaluation, to discuss the optimal practices, necessary stakeholders, and proposed evaluation methods. The proposed framework may inform practices in both academia and industry, as well as highlight the need to offer collaborative platforms to ensure successful partnerships that can lead to more effective DBCIs that reach broad and diverse populations.
- The Association between Public Transportation and Social Isolation in Older Adults: A Scoping Review of the Literature. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Aging 2019 Jul 22; :1-13
- ABSTRACT Inadequate public transportation was recognized as a barrier to social participation, especially for older adults in rural communities and with mobility issues. Older adults will not benefit…
ABSTRACT Inadequate public transportation was recognized as a barrier to social participation, especially for older adults in rural communities and with mobility issues. Older adults will not benefit from opportunities to engage with their community and maintain social networks if they are unable to access them. The purpose of this scoping review was to make recommendations for further research and to summarize areas for improvement identified in the literature that will aid in the development of public transportation initiatives that can better address social isolation for older adults (≥ 55 years of age). Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria, identifying themes of access to rural public transportation, issues with public transportation, and mobility. In practice, older adults need to prepare for driving cessation and mobility transitions; sound policy requires input to tailor transportation initiatives to an aging population, and future research should explore older adults' transportation needs and potential solutions in urban and rural communities.
- Assessing Appetitive Traits Among Chinese Young Adults Using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Factor Structure, Gender Invariance and Latent Mean Differences, and Associations With BMI. [Journal Article]
- AAssessment 2019 Jul 21; :1073191119864642
- The current study examined the factor structure, measurement reliability, measurement invariance across genders, and latent gender mean differences, of a new Chinese translation of the Adult Eating B…
The current study examined the factor structure, measurement reliability, measurement invariance across genders, and latent gender mean differences, of a new Chinese translation of the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire (C-AEBQ) in a Chinese young adult sample (n = 1,068, 52.57% women). The associations between the appetitive traits assessed by the AEBQ and body mass index were also explored. The previously established eight-factor model of the AEBQ was supported in the present sample. The C-AEBQ had strong measurement invariance between genders. Cronbach's alpha estimates of the eight subscales of the C-AEBQ ranged from 0.76 to 0.97, and the test-retest reliability coefficients of the subscales ranged from 0.50 to 0.77. The C-AEBQ had adequate convergent and divergent validity, as supported by the theoretically expected correlations between C-AEBQ and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Furthermore, Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, and Food Fussiness were inversely associated with body mass index. Overall, the C-AEBQ appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument as a comprehensive measure for appetitive traits for Chinese young adults.
- The ACTB Variants and Alcohol Drinking Confer Joint Effect to Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Han Population. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Atheroscler Thromb 2019 Jul 19
- CONCLUSIONS: ACTB rs852426 was significantly associated with alcohol consumption on stroke risk, and the expression of ACTB mRNA in IS who had a drinking habit was significantly down-regulated. This finding will provide a novel insight into the prevention of stroke.
- Synthesis of surface modified Fe3O4 super paramagnetic nanoparticles for ultra sound examination and magnetic resonance imaging for cancer treatment. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Photochem Photobiol B 2019 Jul 02; 197:111547
- In the present work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles with superparamagnetic properties were prepared and capped by using Chitosan. The synthesized NPs were studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM)…
In the present work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles with superparamagnetic properties were prepared and capped by using Chitosan. The synthesized NPs were studied by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Average particle size and surface charge of the synthesized NPs were characterized by using Malvern Zetasizer instrument. TEM images showed the morphology and size distribution of uncoated Fe3O4 NPs, exhibiting the uniform sized NPS with an average particle size of about 10 nm. Vibrating Scanning Magnetometry (VSM) experiments, showed the superparamagnetic nature of the prepared nanoparticles. Fe3O4 NPs showed ferromagnetic magnetization which is very sensitive towards the sample's nanostructure. The results of paramagnetic studies exhibited the substantial reduction in paramagnetic behavior after Chitosan coating but sufficient for responding in magnetic field. Further, the in-vitro ability of the Chitosan coated Fe3O4 NPs as contrast agents in efficient Ultra sound/Magnetic resonance (US/MR) imaging was investigated. These findings demonstrated that the Chitosan coated super para magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have reported significant contrast-enhanced imaging potential for dual-mode US/MR imaging. Hence, the prepared Chitosan coated SPION composites administration serve as potential guide in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers.
- Trait sensitivities to seagrass fragmentation across spatial scales shape benthic community structure. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anim Ecol 2019 Jul 20
- 1.The structure of local ecological communities is thought to be determined by a series of hierarchical abiotic and biotic filters which select for or against species based on their traits. Many huma…
1.The structure of local ecological communities is thought to be determined by a series of hierarchical abiotic and biotic filters which select for or against species based on their traits. Many human impacts, like fragmentation, serve to alter environmental conditions across a range of spatial scales and may impact trait-environment interactions. 2.We examined the effects of environmental variation associated with habitat fragmentation of seagrass habitat measured from microhabitat to landscape scales in controlling the taxonomic and trait-based community structure of benthic fauna. 3.We measured patterns in species abundance and biomass of seagrass epifauna and infauna sampled using sediment cores from 86 sites (across 21 meadows) in Back Sound, North Carolina, USA. We related local faunal community structure to environmental variation measured at three spatial scales (microhabitat, patch, and landscape). Additionally, we tested the value of species traits in predicting species-specific responses to habitat fragmentation across scales. 4.While univariate measures of faunal communities (i.e., total density, biomass and species richness) were positively related to microhabitat-scale seagrass biomass only, overall community structure was predicted by environmental variation at the microhabitat, patch (i.e., patch size), and landscape scales (i.e., number of patches, landscape seagrass area). Furthermore, fourth-corner analysis revealed that species traits explained as much variation in organismal densities as species identity. For example, species with planktonic dispersing larvae and deposit feeding trophic modes were more abundant in contiguous, high seagrass cover landscapes while suspension feeders favored more fragmented landscapes. 5.We present quantitative evidence supporting hierarchal models of community assembly which predict that interactions between species traits and environmental variation across scales ultimately drive local community composition. Variable responses of individual traits to multiple environmental variables suggest that community assembly processes that act on species via traits related to dispersal, mobility and trophic mode will be altered under habitat fragmentation. Additionally, with increasing global temperatures, the tropical seagrass Halodule wrightii is predicted to replace the temperate Zostera marina as the dominate seagrass in our study region, therefore potentially favoring species with planktonic-dispersing larva and weakening the strength of environmental control on community assembly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Development of auditory and language skills in children using cochlear implants with two signal processing strategies. [Journal Article]
- BJBraz J Otorhinolaryngol 2019 Jun 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The development of auditory and language skills in the assessed children was similar during the entire study period, regardless of which signal processing strategy was used.
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- Danish study of Non-Invasive testing in Coronary Artery Disease 2 (Dan-NICAD 2): Study design for a controlled study of diagnostic accuracy. [Journal Article]
- AHAm Heart J 2019 May 01; 215:114-128
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of the Dan-NICAD 2 study are expected to contribute to the improvement of diagnostic strategies for patients suspected of CAD in 3 different steps: risk stratification prior to coronary CTA, diagnostic strategy after coronary CTA, and invasive wireless QFR analysis as an alternative to ICA-FFR.