- Increased flanker task and forward digit span performance in caudate-nucleus-dependent response strategies. [Journal Article]
- BCBrain Cogn 2019 Jun 13; 135:103576
- One of two memory systems can be used to navigate in a new environment. Hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy consists of creating a cognitive map of an environment and caudate nucleus-dependent res…
One of two memory systems can be used to navigate in a new environment. Hippocampus-dependent spatial strategy consists of creating a cognitive map of an environment and caudate nucleus-dependent response strategy consists of memorizing a rigid sequence of turns. Spontaneous use of the response strategy is associated with greater activity and grey matter within the caudate nucleus while the spatial strategy is associated with greater activity and grey matter in the hippocampus. The caudate nucleus is involved in executive functions such as working memory, cognitive control and certain aspects of attention such as attentional disengaging. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether response learners would display better performance on tests of executive and attention functioning compared to spatial learners. Fifty participants completed the 4/8 virtual maze to assess navigational strategy, the forward and backward visual digit span and the Attention Network Test - Revised to assess both attention disengagement and cognitive control. Results revealed that response learners showed significantly higher working memory capacity, more efficient attention disengagement and better cognitive control. Results suggest that response learners, who putatively display more grey matter and activity in the caudate nucleus, are associated with better working memory span, cognitive control and attentional disengagement.
- Role of cuticle hydrocarbons composition in the salinity tolerance of aquatic beetles. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Physiol 2019 Jun 13; :103899
- Salinity tolerance has enabled the colonization of inland saline waters and promoted species diversification in some lineages of aquatic insects. However, the mechanisms behind this tolerance, partic…
Salinity tolerance has enabled the colonization of inland saline waters and promoted species diversification in some lineages of aquatic insects. However, the mechanisms behind this tolerance, particularly the role of cuticle hydrocarbons (CHCs), are not well-known. We characterized the CHC profile of eight species of two water beetle genera (Nebrioporus, Adephaga: Dytiscidae and Enochrus, Polyphaga: Hydrophilidae), which span the fresh-hypersaline gradient, to: i) determine the interspecific variation of CHC composition in relation to species' salinity tolerance; ii) explore plastic adjustments in CHC profiles in response to salinity changes at the intraspecific level in saline-tolerant species. CHC profiles were highly species-specific, more complex and diverse in composition, and characterized by longer-chain-length compounds in the species with higher salinity tolerance within each genus. Higher salinity tolerance in the Enochrus species was also associated with an increase in the relative abundance of branched alkanes, and with a lower proportion of n-alkanes and unsaturated compounds. These CHC characteristics are related with improved waterproofing capacity and suggest that reducing cuticle permeability was one of the key mechanisms to adapt to saline waters. Similar CHC composition patterns were found at the intraspecific level between populations from lower and higher salinity sites within saline-tolerant species of each genus. These saline species also displayed an extraordinary ability to adjust CHC profiles to changing salinity conditions in the laboratory in a relatively short time, which reflects great plasticity and a high potential to deal with daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations in the highly dynamic saline habitats.
- The crayfish model (Orconectes rusticus), epigenetics and drug addiction research. [Review]
- PBPharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Jun 13
- Fundamental signs of epigenetic effects are variations in the expression of genes or phenotypic traits among isogenic mates. Therefore, genetically identical animals are in high demand for epigenetic…
Fundamental signs of epigenetic effects are variations in the expression of genes or phenotypic traits among isogenic mates. Therefore, genetically identical animals are in high demand for epigenetic research. There are many genetically identical animals, including natural parthenogens and inbred laboratory lineages or clones. However, most parthenogenetic animal taxa are very small in combined epigenetic and drug addiction research. Orconectes rusticus has a unique phylogenetic position, with 2-3 years of life span, which undergoes metamorphosis that creates developmental stages with distinctly different morphologies, unique lifestyles, and broad behavioral traits, even among isogenic mates reared in the same environment offer novel inroads for epigenetics studies. Moreover, the establishment of crayfish as a novel system for drug addiction with evidence of an automated, operant self-administration and conditioned-reward, withdrawal, reinstatement of the conditioned drug-induced reward sets the stage to investigate epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction. We discuss behavioral, pharmacological and molecular findings from laboratory studies that document a broad spectrum of molecular and, behavioral evidence including potential hypotheses that can be tested with the crayfish model for epigenetic study in drug addiction research.
- Rapid Recovery After Total Joint Arthroplasty Using General Anesthesia. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Arthroplasty 2019 May 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Neuraxial anesthesia for TJA is commonly preferred in high-volume institutions utilizing contemporary enhanced recovery pathways. Our data support the notion that the utilization of modern GA techniques that limit narcotics and certain inhalants can be successfully used in short-stay primary total joint arthroplasty.
- Reference intervals of nine steroid hormones over the life-span analyzed by LC-MS/MS: Effect of age, gender, puberty, and oral contraceptives. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019 Jun 12; :105409
- New reference intervals need to be established for a new analytical method with improved sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to establish the new reference intervals from infancy to senescence of n…
New reference intervals need to be established for a new analytical method with improved sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to establish the new reference intervals from infancy to senescence of nine steroid hormones (cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, DHEAS, and aldosterone) for LC-MS/MS method. Serum samples from 4678 reference individuals (age range: 0.3 - 79 years) were measured with LC-MS/MS. Samples were collected between 7 am and 10 am. Exclusion criteria were concomitant endocrine diseases and body mass index ≥ 33. Generalized additive model for location, scale and shape, the nonparametric or robust method was applied. We established the reference intervals of the nine steroid hormones by sex, age, and pubertal stage. Below the age of one, we observed the surge of androgen and estrogen which implied mini-puberty. At the same period of life, aldosterone and cortisone levels were very high reflecting physiological hyperaldosteronism. An increase of steroid hormones during the pubertal development and slow decrease towards senescence after the peak at early adulthood were observed. Due to the increase of CBG synthesis, cortisol levels were increased under oral contraceptives (OC) significantly (p < 0.0001), while OC suppressed progesterone, 17-OHP, androstenedione, and estradiol (p < 0.0001). Our results will facilitate the interpretation of patient data in routine diagnostics with the use of LC-MS/MS method. Since LC-MS/MS methods have shown good comparability among the different laboratories, our reference intervals can be further adopted in other laboratories equipped with LC-MS/MS, once the validation with a small number of reference samples is performed.
- In situ structure and assembly of the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jun 14; 10(1):2635
- Multidrug efflux pumps actively expel a wide range of toxic substrates from the cell and play a major role in intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. In Gram-negative bacteria, these pumps form tripa…
Multidrug efflux pumps actively expel a wide range of toxic substrates from the cell and play a major role in intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. In Gram-negative bacteria, these pumps form tripartite assemblies that span the cell envelope. However, the in situ structure and assembly mechanism of multidrug efflux pumps remain unknown. Here we report the in situ structure of the Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump obtained by electron cryo-tomography and subtomogram averaging. The fully assembled efflux pump is observed in a closed state under conditions of antibiotic challenge and in an open state in the presence of AcrB inhibitor. We also observe intermediate AcrAB complexes without TolC and discover that AcrA contacts the peptidoglycan layer of the periplasm. Our data point to a sequential assembly process in living bacteria, beginning with formation of the AcrAB subcomplex and suggest domains to target with efflux pump inhibitors.
- Open Source Brain: A Collaborative Resource for Visualizing, Analyzing, Simulating, and Developing Standardized Models of Neurons and Circuits. [Journal Article]
- NNeuron 2019 Jun 03
- Computational models are powerful tools for exploring the properties of complex biological systems. In neuroscience, data-driven models of neural circuits that span multiple scales are increasingly b…
Computational models are powerful tools for exploring the properties of complex biological systems. In neuroscience, data-driven models of neural circuits that span multiple scales are increasingly being used to understand brain function in health and disease. But their adoption and reuse has been limited by the specialist knowledge required to evaluate and use them. To address this, we have developed Open Source Brain, a platform for sharing, viewing, analyzing, and simulating standardized models from different brain regions and species. Model structure and parameters can be automatically visualized and their dynamical properties explored through browser-based simulations. Infrastructure and tools for collaborative interaction, development, and testing are also provided. We demonstrate how existing components can be reused by constructing new models of inhibition-stabilized cortical networks that match recent experimental results. These features of Open Source Brain improve the accessibility, transparency, and reproducibility of models and facilitate their reuse by the wider community.
- An adverse drug effect mentions extraction method based on weighted online recurrent extreme learning machine. [Journal Article]
- CMComput Methods Programs Biomed 2019; 176:33-41
- CONCLUSIONS: Our research results indicate that the proposed method for adverse drug effect mentions extraction from text can significantly improve performance over existing methods. Our experiments show the effectiveness of incorporating word-level and character level embeddings as features for WOR-ELM. They also illustrate the benefits of using IOU segment to represent ADE mentions.
- First Case Report of Primary Carnitine Deficiency Manifested as Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorder. [Case Reports]
- BSBrain Sci 2019 Jun 13; 9(6)
- Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is a genetic disorder caused by decreased or absent organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) carnitine transporter activity, resulting in low serum carnit…
Systemic primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is a genetic disorder caused by decreased or absent organic cation transporter type 2 (OCTN2) carnitine transporter activity, resulting in low serum carnitine levels and decreased carnitine accumulation inside cells. In early life, PCD is usually diagnosed as a metabolic decompensation, presenting as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome, or sudden infant death; in childhood, PCD presents with skeletal or cardiac myopathy. However, the clinical presentation of PCD characterized by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with intellectual disability (ID) has seldom been reported in the literature. In this report, we describe the clinical features of a seven-year-old girl diagnosed with PCD who presented atypical features of the disease, including a developmental delay involving language skills, concentration, and attention span, as well as autistic features and brain alterations apparent in magnetic resonance imaging. We aim to highlight the difficulties related to the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used to diagnose such patients. The case reported here presented typical signs of PCD, including frequent episodes of hypoglycemia, generalized muscle weakness, decreased muscle mass, and physical growth deficits. A molecular genetic study confirmed the definitive diagnosis of the disease (c.1345T>G (p.Y449D)) in gene SLC22A5, located in exon 8. PCD can be accompanied by less common clinical signs, which may delay its diagnosis because the resulting global clinical picture can closely resemble other metabolic disorders. In this case, the patient was prescribed a carnitine-enriched diet, as well as oral carnitine at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day. PCD has a better prognosis if it is diagnosed and treated early; however, a high level of clinical suspicion is required for its timely and accurate diagnosis.
New Search Next
- Comparative Metabolomics of Early Development of the Parasitic Plants Phelipanche aegyptiaca and Triphysaria versicolor. [Journal Article]
- MMetabolites 2019 Jun 13; 9(6)
- Parasitic weeds of the family Orobanchaceae attach to the roots of host plants via haustoria capable of drawing nutrients from host vascular tissue. The connection of the haustorium to the host marks…
Parasitic weeds of the family Orobanchaceae attach to the roots of host plants via haustoria capable of drawing nutrients from host vascular tissue. The connection of the haustorium to the host marks a shift in parasite metabolism from autotrophy to at least partial heterotrophy, depending on the level of parasite dependence. Species within the family Orobanchaceae span the spectrum of host nutrient dependency, yet the diversity of parasitic plant metabolism remains poorly understood, particularly during the key metabolic shift surrounding haustorial attachment. Comparative profiling of major metabolites in the obligate holoparasite Phelipanche aegyptiaca and the facultative hemiparasite Triphysaria versicolor before and after attachment to the hosts revealed several metabolic shifts implicating remodeling of energy and amino acid metabolism. After attachment, both parasites showed metabolite profiles that were different from their respective hosts. In P. aegyptiaca, prominent changes in metabolite profiles were also associated with transitioning between different tissue types before and after attachment, with aspartate levels increasing significantly after the attachment. Based on the results from 15N labeling experiments, asparagine and/or aspartate-rich proteins were enriched in host-derived nitrogen in T. versicolor. These results point to the importance of aspartate and/or asparagine in the early stages of attachment in these plant parasites and provide a rationale for targeting aspartate-family amino acid biosynthesis for disrupting the growth of parasitic weeds.