- Expression patterns of male germ cell markers in cryptorchid pig testes. [Journal Article]
- AHActa Histochem 2019 Jul 17
- Male germ cell apoptosis has been described in heat-damaged testes by cryptorchidism. In the present study, wild type pig testes were compared with cryptorchid testes via histological and immunohisto…
Male germ cell apoptosis has been described in heat-damaged testes by cryptorchidism. In the present study, wild type pig testes were compared with cryptorchid testes via histological and immunohistological analyses. Spermatozoa were not detected in two cryptorchid testes and the diameters of seminiferous tubules were significantly reduced in cryptorchid pig testes compared with wild type pig testes. Cells expressing marker genes for undifferentiated spermatogonia, such as protein gene product 9.5 was significantly decreased in cryptochid pig testes. In addition, the numbers of cells expressing DEAD-box polypeptide 4 (VASA), synaptonemal complex protein 3, protamine, and acrosin (a biomarker of spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa) were significantly reduced in cryptochid pig testes. However, the number of vimentin-expressing Sertoli cells was not changed or was significantly increased in cryptorchid pig testes. This result indicates that male germ cells are specifically damaged by heat in cryptorchid pig testes and not Sertoli cells. These findings will facilitate the further study of spermatogenesis and the specific mechanisms by which cryptorchidism causes male infertility.
- DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications in the mouse germline following in-vitro maturation of fresh or cryopreserved prepubertal testicular tissue. [Journal Article]
- RBReprod Biomed Online 2019 May 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences with the in-vivo situation, DNA methylation and histone methylation and acetylation occur in the mouse germline in in-vitro matured fresh or cryopreserved mouse prepubertal testicular tissue, and the expression of the enzymes catalysing these epigenetic modifications are maintained in vitro.
- Mammalian germ cell migration during development, growth, and homeostasis. [Review]
- RMReprod Med Biol 2019; 18(3):247-255
- CONCLUSIONS: During migration, there are multiple gates that disallow germ cells from re-entering the proper developmental pathway after wandering off the original migration path. The presence of gates may ensure the robustness of germ cell development during development, growth, and homeostasis.
- Increased error-free DNA repair gene expression through reprogramming in human iPS cells. [Journal Article]
- RTRegen Ther 2019; 11:101-105
- CONCLUSIONS: High PARP activity and HR-related gene expression in hiPS cells were achieved through reprogramming and likely facilitate precise genome editing in these cells in exchange for a high possibility of cell death.
- The roles of retinoic acid in the differentiation of spermatogonia and spermatogenic disorders. [Review]
- CCClin Chim Acta 2019 Jul 11
- Male fertility depends on the regulatory balance between germ cell self-renewal and differentiation, and the spatial and temporal patterns of this balance must be maintained throughout the life cycle…
Male fertility depends on the regulatory balance between germ cell self-renewal and differentiation, and the spatial and temporal patterns of this balance must be maintained throughout the life cycle. Retinoic acid and its receptors are important factors in spermatogenesis. Spermatogonia cells can self-proliferate and differentiate and have unique meiotic capabilities; they halve their genetic material and produce monomorphic sperm to pass genetic material to the next generation. A number of studies have found that the spermatogenesis process is halted in animals with vitamin A deficiency and that most germ cells are degraded, but they tend to recover after treatment with RA or vitamin A. This literature review discusses our understanding of how RA regulates sperm cell differentiation and meiosis and also reviews the functional information and details of RA.
- Sperm DNA Damage in Cancer Patients. [Journal Article]
- AEAdv Exp Med Biol 2019; 1166:189-203
- Fertility is a growing healthcare issue for a rising number of cancer survivors. In men, cancer itself and its treatment can negatively affect spermatogenesis by targeting the dividing spermatogonia …
Fertility is a growing healthcare issue for a rising number of cancer survivors. In men, cancer itself and its treatment can negatively affect spermatogenesis by targeting the dividing spermatogonia and their cellular environment, ultimately leading to a reduction of testicular germ cells and sperm count. Experimental data and prospective longitudinal studies have shown that sperm production can recover after cancer treatment. But despite this, yet unpredictable, recovery in sperm production, cancer survivors are more at risk to produce sperm with aneuploidy, DNA damage, abnormal chromatin structure, and epigenetic defects even 2 years post-treatment. Sperm DNA alteration is of clinical concern, as these patients may father children or seek assisted reproduction technologies (ART) using gametes with damaged genome that could result in adverse progeny outcomes. Interestingly, large cohort studies revealed lower birth rate but no significant impact on the health of the children born from male cancer survivors (naturally or using ART). Nevertheless, a better understanding of how cocktail of chemotherapy and new anticancer agents affect spermatogenesis and sperm quality is needed to reduce side effects. Moreover, developing new fertility preservation strategies is essential as sperm cryopreservation before treatment is currently the only option but does not apply for prepubertal/young postpubertal patients.
- Dynamic paraspeckle component localization during spermatogenesis. [Journal Article]
- RReproduction 2019 Jul 01
- Expression profiles and subcellular localisations of core Drosophila behaviour/human splicing (DBHS) proteins (PSPC1, SFPQ and NONO) and NEAT1, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), are investigated in dev…
Expression profiles and subcellular localisations of core Drosophila behaviour/human splicing (DBHS) proteins (PSPC1, SFPQ and NONO) and NEAT1, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), are investigated in developing and adult mouse testes. Core DBHS proteins are markers for the distinct subnuclear domain termed paraspeckles, while a long NEAT1 isoform scaffold facilitates paraspeckle nucleation. Paraspeckles contain many proteins (>40) and are broadly involved in RNA metabolism, including transcriptional regulation by protein sequestration, nuclear retention of A-to-I edited RNA transcripts to regulate translation, and promoting survival during cellular stress. Immunohistochemistry reveals cell-specific profiles for core DBHS paraspeckle protein expression, indicating their functional diversity. PSPC1 is an androgen receptor co-activator, and it is detected in differentiating Sertoli cell nuclei from day 15 onwards, as they develop androgen-responsiveness. PSPC1 is nuclear in the most mature male germ cell type present at each age, from foetal to adult life. In adult mouse testes, PSPC1 and SFPQ are present in Sertoli cells, spermatocytes and round spermatids, while the NEAT1 lncRNA appears in the punctate nuclear foci delineating paraspeckles only within Leydig cells. Identification of NEAT1 in the cytoplasm of spermatogonia and spermatocytes must reflects non-paraspeckle-related functions. NONO was absent from germ cells but nuclear in Sertoli cells. Reciprocal nuclear profiles of PSPC1 and γ H2AX in spermatogenic cells suggest these each perform developmentally-regulated roles in stress responses. These findings demonstrate paraspeckles and paraspeckle-related proteins contribute to diverse functions during testis development and spermatogenesis.
- Microdissection TESE (mTESE) following adult orchidopexy for undescended intra-abdominal and inguinal testicles - surgical techniques and outcomes from a single-centre cohort. [Journal Article]
- AAndrology 2019 Jul 10
- CONCLUSIONS: Microdissection TESE following orchidopexy for inguinal testicles can result in a successful SSR in over 1/3rd of patients. Intra-abdominal testicles appear to lack spermatogonia although the testicles can still be preserved for endogenous hormone production. Adult orchidopexy allows preservation of endogenous testosterone, easier self-examination and an immediate or delayed mTESE in azoospermic patients.
- Precursor RNA processing 3 is required for male fertility, and germline stem cell self-renewal and differentiation via regulating spliceosome function in Drosophila testes. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 10; 9(1):9988
- The nuclear pre-mRNA spliceosome is a large complex containing five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) and many splicing factors. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are generated from pre-mRNAs b…
The nuclear pre-mRNA spliceosome is a large complex containing five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) and many splicing factors. Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are generated from pre-mRNAs by the process of RNA splicing, which is conserved in eukaryotes. Precursor RNA processing 3 (Prp3) is a U4/U6-associated snRNP whose function remains largely unknown. In the present study, using genetic manipulation of a Drosophila melanogaster testis model, we demonstrated that Prp3 is essential for male fertility in Drosophila. Prp3 deficiency in germline stem cells (GSCs) and early cyst cells resulted in abnormal structure of testes and maintenance defects of GSCs and cyst stem cells. Knockdown of Prp3 in spermatogonia and early cyst cells mediated tumor formation caused by differentiation defects. Using an in vitro assay, knockdown of Prp3 decreased proliferation and increased cell death, and controlled the spliceosome function via regulating spliceosome subunits expression in Drosophila S2 cells. We also identified two other splicing factors in the Prp complex (Prp19 and Prp8), which mimicked the phenotype of Prp3 in the Drosophila stem cell niche. Our results revealed a significant role of precursor RNA processing factors in male testes, indicating that Prp3, a key spliceosome component in the Prp complex, is essential for male fertility, and germline stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, via regulating the spliceosome function in Drosophila testes.
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- CD14 is a unique membrane marker of porcine spermatogonial stem cells, regulating their differentiation. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 10; 9(1):9980
- Molecular markers of spermatogonia are necessary for studies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and improving our understanding of molecular and cellular biology of spermatogenesis. Although studies…
Molecular markers of spermatogonia are necessary for studies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and improving our understanding of molecular and cellular biology of spermatogenesis. Although studies of germ cell surface marker have been extensively conducted in the testes of rodents, these markers have not been well studied in domestic animals. We aimed to determine the expression pattern of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) in developing porcine testes and cultured porcine SSCs (pSSCs), as well as its role in pSSC colony formation. Interestingly, expression of CD14 was observed in porcine testes with PGP9.5-positive undifferentiated spermatogonia at all developmental stages. In addition, in vitro cultured pSSCs expressed CD14 and showed successful colony formation, as determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and flow cytometry. PKH26 dye-stained CD14-positive cells transplants were performed into the testes of recipient mice, which were depleted of both testicular germ and somatic cells from immunodeficiency mice and were shown to colonise the recipient testes. Moreover, a colony-forming assay showed that the development of pSSC colonies was disrupted by a high concentration of lipopolysaccharide. These studies indicated that CD14 is surface marker of early spermatogonia in developing porcine testes and in pSSCs, suggesting a role for CD14 in porcine spermatogenesis.