- Insulin Resistance Among Pregnant Women in Urban Areas of Arusha Region, Tanzania. [Journal Article]Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2019MS
- CONCLUSIONS: IR was higher among pregnant women with increased body fat percentage, family history of T2DM, hypertension, edema, and proteinuria. These findings call for large-scale screening to further explore risk factors to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus.
- Inequality, validity of self-reported height, and its implications for BMI estimates: An analysis of randomly selected primary sampling units' data. [Journal Article]Prev Med Rep 2019; 16:100974PM
- Any systematic errors in self-reported height, a measure commonly used in health research, may produce biased BMI estimates and reduce the effectiveness of public health interventions. To our knowledge, none of the studies evaluating the validity of self-reported height explore this issue in cross-national settings. This study analyses data on a sub-set of 750 individuals with information on self…
Any systematic errors in self-reported height, a measure commonly used in health research, may produce biased BMI estimates and reduce the effectiveness of public health interventions. To our knowledge, none of the studies evaluating the validity of self-reported height explore this issue in cross-national settings. This study analyses data on a sub-set of 750 individuals with information on self-reported and measured height from the Life in Transition Survey (LITS) conducted in 34 European and Central Asian countries in 2016. We make use of the unique design of LITS in which all respondents reported their height, but in one randomly selected primary sampling unit in each country the actual height was also measured, using a portable stadiometer. In addition to analysing individual-level characteristics, using a multiply imputed dataset for missing data and multilevel mixed-effects regressions, we test if macro-level factors are associated with respondents under- or over-reporting their height. We find that on the aggregate level self-reported and measured height estimates are not statistically different, but some socio-demographic groups such as women and those who live in rural areas are likely to overestimate their height. Adjusting for this bias would lead to the higher estimates of the proportion of individuals who are overweight and obese. The results from multilevel analysis also show that macro-level factors do not per se explain the likelihood of misreporting height, but rather some of the effects of individual characteristics are moderated by income inequality.
- Prevalence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy and influence of body fat on development of hyperglycemia in pregnancy among pregnant women in urban areas of Arusha region, Tanzania. [Journal Article]BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019; 19(1):315BP
- CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy was high, particularly among women with history of delivering ≥4-kg babies, increased body fat, mid-upper arm circumference, symptoms and/or family history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings identify opportunities to further explore the utility of body fat percentage and other determinants for rapid screening and management of hyperglycemia in pregnancy.
- Total protein or leucine intakes are not associated with handgrip strength in hemodialysis patients: A pilot study. [Journal Article]Clin Nutr ESPEN 2019; 33:290-293CN
- CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 75% of patients undergoing hemodialysis presented low HGS. Additionally, neither a high protein diet nor leucine intake was associated with the HGS values.
- Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Libyan Men and Women. [Journal Article]Biomed Res Int 2019; 2019:8531360BR
- Libya is following the trend observed in developing countries of steadily becoming more obese, such that obesity in Libya has reached epidemic proportions in the twenty-first century. The prevalence of obesity in Libya has more than doubled in the last three decades, with the numbers of overweight and obese adults being continuing to grow. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate and describe the …
Libya is following the trend observed in developing countries of steadily becoming more obese, such that obesity in Libya has reached epidemic proportions in the twenty-first century. The prevalence of obesity in Libya has more than doubled in the last three decades, with the numbers of overweight and obese adults being continuing to grow. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate and describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Libyan men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the Libyan population. A multistage sampling technique was employed to select 401 Libyan adults randomly from the Benghazi electoral register. Qualified nurses were allocated to take anthropometric measurements (including visceral fat and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from participants using the Segmental Body Composition Analyser and a portable Stadiometer. The response rate achieved in this cross-sectional study was 78%. Four hundred and one Libyan adult, aged 20-65 years, participated; 253 were female (63%). The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and normal weight among Libyan adults was 42.4%, 32.9%, and 24.7%, respectively. The results also revealed that approximately 75.3% of Libyan adults were overweight and obese, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women was significantly higher than that in men (the prevalence of overweight was 33.2% in women compared to 32.4% in men, while the prevalence of obesity was 47.4% in women compared to 33.8% in men, respectively). The findings of this study confirmed that obesity and overweight are the fastest growing issues and have become one of the most serious public health challenges confronting the Libyan authorities. As the obesity epidemic in Libya continues to escalate, with a complete absence of prevention interventions to reduce obesity, more research is desperately needed to follow the trend of gender difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Libyans adults across the Libyan state to improve the effective interventions for preventing obesity.
- Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Navy Seal Formula to Measure Body Composition in Medical Students. [Journal Article]Cureus 2019; 11(5):e4723C
- Objectives There are many different ways to measure body composition and bioelectric impedance is one of the most popular methods to measure body ratios. The navy-seal formula is another simple way of measuring body fat ratio which takes into account simple variables such as gender, weight, height, waist, hip and neck circumference. The objective of our study was to compare the results of body fa…
Objectives There are many different ways to measure body composition and bioelectric impedance is one of the most popular methods to measure body ratios. The navy-seal formula is another simple way of measuring body fat ratio which takes into account simple variables such as gender, weight, height, waist, hip and neck circumference. The objective of our study was to compare the results of body fat composition by these two methods. Materials and methods Height and weight were measured in 85 study participants using a wall-mounted stadiometer and digital scale. Body composition measurements were recorded using a simple measuring tape. Participants were then asked to stand on the electrical impedance machine to determine the body fat and muscle mass. Data were analyzed on IBM's statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 23 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Results The Navy-seal formula had slightly higher values for both muscle mass and body fat ratio in both genders and across all body mass index (BMI) categories. Body fat ratio and muscle mass of both genders were similar in underweight, normal, over weight and obese participants. In males, the results on two instruments showed more similarity with the increase in BMI, whereas, in females, the results of the two methods were more similar in the normal weight category. Conclusion Navy-seal formula and bioelectrical impedance are both simple and reliable instruments to measure body composition in adults. The navy-seal formula can be used to screen individuals with high-fat body fat ratio whereas bioelectric impedance can be used to measure the body composition for personal monitoring.
- Analysis of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption by Children in School Canteens Depending on Selected Sociodemographic Factors. [Journal Article]Medicina (Kaunas) 2019; 55(7)M
- CONCLUSIONS: Bearing in mind the various conditions discussed when shaping the eating habits of pre-school- and early-school-aged children, the importance of proper nutritional education should be stressed both among children and parents.
- Factors influencing basal metabolism of Czechs of working age from South Moravia. [Journal Article]Cent Eur J Public Health 2019; 27(2):135-140CE
- CONCLUSIONS: Body fat and age have both an indirect impact on the basal metabolic rate of the Czech population in working age. However, BMI and the total body water were discovered to have a direct influence on the BMR.
- A cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of anaemia and malnutrition in primary school children in the Tiko Health District, Cameroon. [Journal Article]Pan Afr Med J 2019; 32:111PA
- CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a low prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia which could be attributed to the deworming and nutrition supplement strategies which have been implemented.
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- Early lifecycle UV-exposure calibrates adult vitamin D metabolism: Evidence for a developmentally originated vitamin D homeostat that may alter related adult phenotypes. [Journal Article]Am J Hum Biol 2019; 31(4):e23272AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: Increased solar irradiance/UV exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy calibrates adult vitamin D metabolism, which is an important hormone in maintaining calcium balance. This may explain how very early lifecycle UV exposure can influence skeletal development (adult height) and modify risk for the skeletal degenerative disorder osteoporosis. The data demonstrate humans are tuned to the world (exposome) in ways we have not yet fully considered, and which are entrained at the earliest phase of the lifecycle.