- Structural features in tension wood and distribution of wall polymers in the G-layer of in vitro grown poplars. [Journal Article]
- PProtoplasma 2019 Jul 18
- Under the effect of disturbances, like unbalanced stem, but also during normal development, poplar trees can develop a specific secondary xylem, called "tension wood" (TW), which is easily identifiab…
Under the effect of disturbances, like unbalanced stem, but also during normal development, poplar trees can develop a specific secondary xylem, called "tension wood" (TW), which is easily identifiable by the presence of a gelatinous layer in the secondary cell walls (SCW) of the xylem fibers. Since TW formation was mainly performed on 2-year-old poplar models, an in vitro poplar that produces gelatinous fibers (G-fibers) while offering the same experimental advantages as herbaceous plants has been developed. Using specific cell wall staining techniques, wood structural features and lignin/cellulose distribution were both detailed in cross-sections obtained from the curved stem part of in vitro poplars. A supposed delay in the SCW lignification process in the G-fibers, along with the presence of a G-layer, could be observed in the juvenile plants. Moreover, in this G-layer, the immunolabeling of various polymers carried out in the SCW of TW has allowed detecting crystalline cellulose, arabinogalactans proteins, and rhamnogalacturonans I; however, homogalacturonans, xylans, and xyloglucans could not be found. Interestingly, extensins were detected in this typical adaptative or stress-induced structure. These observations were corroborated by a quantitation of the immunorecognized polymer distribution using gold particle labeling. In conclusion, the in vitro poplar model seems highly convenient for TW studies focusing on the implementation of wall polymers that provide the cell wall with greater plasticity in adapting to the environment.
- Biological characterization of omw1 and omw2: antimicrobial peptides derived from omwaprin. [Journal Article]
- 3B3 Biotech 2019; 9(8):295
- Two cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) were designed based on the snake venom peptide, omwaprin, hypothesized to be shorter, cost effective and potent. Omw1 and omw2 demonstrated significant broad…
Two cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) were designed based on the snake venom peptide, omwaprin, hypothesized to be shorter, cost effective and potent. Omw1 and omw2 demonstrated significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against standard and clinical strains at a MIC ranging from 15.625 to 250 µg/ml for omw1 and from 31.3 to 500 µg/ml for omw2. Time-kill kinetics revealed that omw1 caused complete lysis of E. coli ATCC 25922 at 1× MIC and S. aureus ATCC 25923 at 2× MIC after 40 and 60 min of incubation, respectively. Membranolytic activity of the peptides was assessed by propidium iodide stain, where red fluorescence was observed in cells treated with the peptides compared to untreated cells. Notable morphological changes were observed in the microbes treated with peptides, as revealed by scanning electron micrographs. Omw1 and omw2 were also potent to inhibit the formation as well as dispersal of matured biofilms at 1/2× MIC against clinical strain, C. albicans. Further, minimal hemolytic activity demonstrated by both the peptides at microbicidal concentration against human erythrocytes proves that the designed peptides were less toxic and potent antimicrobial agents which could be considered for further studies with animal models to affirm its efficiency.
- Ventilation-Like Mechanical Strain Modulates the Inflammatory Response of BEAS2B Epithelial Cells. [Journal Article]
- OMOxid Med Cell Longev 2019; 2019:2769761
- Protective mechanical ventilation is aimed at preventing ventilator-induced lung injury while ensuring sufficient gas exchange. A new approach focuses on the temporal profile of the mechanical ventil…
Protective mechanical ventilation is aimed at preventing ventilator-induced lung injury while ensuring sufficient gas exchange. A new approach focuses on the temporal profile of the mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that the temporal mechanical strain profile modulates inflammatory signalling. We applied cyclic strain with various temporal profiles to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS2B) and assessed proinflammatory response. The cells were subjected to sinusoidal, rectangular, or triangular strain profile and rectangular strain profile with prestrain set to 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the maximum stain, static strain, and strain resembling a mechanical ventilation-like profile with or without flow-controlled expiration. The BEAS2B response to mechanical load included altered mitochondrial activity, increased superoxide radical levels, NF-kappaB translocation, and release of interleukin-8. The response to strain was substantially modulated by the dynamics of the stimulation pattern. The rate of dynamic changes of the strain profile correlates with the degree of mechanical stress-induced cell response.
- Nicorandil prevents doxorubicin-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharmacol 2019 Jul 15; :172542
- Nicorandil is an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener with additional antioxidant properties. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug that exerts oxidation-mediated adverse cardi…
Nicorandil is an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener with additional antioxidant properties. Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anticancer drug that exerts oxidation-mediated adverse cardiovascular effects. This study examined the effects of nicorandil on DOX-induced cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and underlying intracellular signaling mechanisms. Cultured HUVECs were pretreated with nicorandil (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 μM) for 12 h and then treated with DOX (1 μM) for 24 h. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was examined using a caspase-3 activity assay, and DNA fragmentation was detected through TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) staining. Western blot analysis was conducted to determine the related protein expression. DOX markedly increased reactive oxygen species production, p53 expression, caspase-3 activity, cleaved caspase-3 levels, and TUNEL-positive cell numbers but reduced Bcl-2 expression and intracellular antioxidant enzyme levels; these effects were effectively antagonized through nicorandil (3 μM, 12 h) pretreatment, which resulted in HUVECs being protected from DOX-induced apoptosis. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-induced transcription factor, was induced by nicorandil (3 μM). Furthermore, nicorandil (3 μM) enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. ATF3 short interfering RNA significantly attenuated nicorandil-mediated Nrf2 translocation, HO-1 expression, and inhibitory effects on DOX-stimulated reactive oxygen species production and cell apoptosis. In summary, nicorandil may protect HUVECs from DOX-induced apoptosis, in part through ATF3-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways, which potentially protect the vessels from severe DOX toxicity.
- Germacrone attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via antioxidative and antiapoptotic mechanisms. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2019 Jul 18
- Germacrone (GM) is an anti-inﬂammatory compound extracted from Rhizoma curcuma. Here, we strived to investigate the neuroprotective effects of GM in rat models of transient middle cerebral artery occ…
Germacrone (GM) is an anti-inﬂammatory compound extracted from Rhizoma curcuma. Here, we strived to investigate the neuroprotective effects of GM in rat models of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion injury. Rats immediately after cerebral ischemia were intraperitoneally injected with GM at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. After 1 day of reperfusion, the water content in the brain, infarct volume, and neurological deficits were assessed. Hippocampus neurons were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining. Activities of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in brain tissue were detected. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were utilized to quantify the expression of apoptosis markers, such as caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2. The content of phospho-Akt (p-Akt) was also measured using Western blotting. GM treatment markedly decreased the brain water content, infarct volume and the neurological deficits, which was corroborated by attenuated histopathologic change. MDA levels were reduced and activities of GSH, SOD, and GSH-PX were elevated after GM treatment. Caspase-3 and Bax were decreased, and Bcl-2 was increased at both messenger RNA and protein levels by GM treatment. The p-Akt expression was increased by GM. Our data indicated that the neuroprotective effects of GM may attenuate the injuries from cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats through antioxidative and antiapoptotic mechanisms.
- Segmentation of Glomeruli Within Trichrome Images Using Deep Learning. [Journal Article]
- KIKidney Int Rep 2019; 4(7):955-962
- CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the power of deep learning for assessing complex histologic structures from digitized human kidney biopsies.
- Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis: An Update. [Review]
- KIKidney Int Rep 2019; 4(7):917-922
- Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare proliferative form of glomerular disease characterized by randomly oriented fibrillar deposits with a mean diameter of 20 nm. By immunofluorescence (IF),…
Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare proliferative form of glomerular disease characterized by randomly oriented fibrillar deposits with a mean diameter of 20 nm. By immunofluorescence (IF), the deposits stain for IgG, C3, and κ and λ light chains, suggesting that the fibrils may be composed of antigen-antibody immune complexes. A recent major advance in our understanding of the pathogenesis of FGN resulted from the discovery that a major component of the fibrils is DNA-J heat-shock protein family member B9 (DNAJB9), and immunohistochemical staining for DNAJB9 now makes it possible to diagnose FGN in the absence of ultrastructural evaluation. FGN has a poor prognosis, treatment options are currently limited, and transplant recurrence is not uncommon.
- Fluorescence Imaging of Actin Turnover Parses Early Stem Cell Lineage Divergence and Senescence. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 17; 9(1):10377
- This study describes a new approach to discern early divergence in stem cell lineage progression via temporal dynamics of the cytoskeletal protein, F-actin. The approach involves real-time labeling o…
This study describes a new approach to discern early divergence in stem cell lineage progression via temporal dynamics of the cytoskeletal protein, F-actin. The approach involves real-time labeling of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and longitudinal tracking of the turnover dynamics of a fluorogenic F-actin specific probe, SiR-actin (SA). Cells cultured in media with distinct lineage factors and labeled with SA showed lineage specific reduction in the actin turnover shortly after adipogenic (few minutes) and chondrogenic (3-4 hours) commitment in contrast to osteogenic and basal cultured conditions. Next, composite staining of SA along with the competing F-actin specific fluorescent conjugate, phalloidin, and high-content image analysis of the complementary labels showed clear phenotypic parsing of the sub-populations as early as 1-hour post-induction across all three lineages. Lastly, the potential of SA-based actin turnover analysis to distinguish cellular aging was explored. In-vitro aged cells were found to have reduced actin turnover within 1-hour of simultaneous analysis in comparison to cells of earlier passage. In summary, SiR-actin fluorescent reporter imaging offers a new platform to sensitively monitor emergent lineage phenotypes during differentiation and aging and resolve some of the earliest evident differences in actin turnover dynamics.
- [Polyphyllin I alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via nuclear factor-ΚB signal pathway]. [Journal Article]
- ZWZhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2019; 31(6):746-749
- CONCLUSIONS: PPI alleviates myocardial I/R injury in rats via NF-ΚB signal pathway, and the PPI effect of 150 mg×kg-1×d-1 is most especially significant.
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- [Influences of estrogen-related receptor α on pulmonary vascular endothelium of rats undergoing sepsis]. [Journal Article]
- ZWZhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2019; 31(6):699-703
- CONCLUSIONS: ERRα can aggravate inflammation in sepsis rats, destroy lung tissue and increase pulmonary permeability.