- Comparison of Sexual Reproductive Behaviors in Two Species of Macrobiotidae (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada). [Journal Article]
- ZSZoolog Sci 2019 Apr 12; 36(2):120-127
- Reproductive strategy is an important aspect of biological diversity. In tardigrades, several reproductive modes, including sexual reproduction, are known. However, tardigrade mating behavior has bee…
Reproductive strategy is an important aspect of biological diversity. In tardigrades, several reproductive modes, including sexual reproduction, are known. However, tardigrade mating behavior has been observed only rarely in most species, and in some cases, especially in the freely ovipositing eutardigrades, remains entirely unknown. In the present study, we cultured two sexually reproducing tardigrade species that lay eggs freely, Paramacrobiotus sp. TYO strain and Macrobiotus shonaicus, to investigate and compare their courtship, mating, and chromosome morphology. Mating behavior was observed and recorded in both species. The entire mating sequence, including courtship, was categorized into five discrete steps common to two species, as follows:  Tracking: the male tracks and orientates toward the female;  Touching: the male makes contact with the cloaca of the female;  Standstill: the female ceases movement until male ejaculation is complete;  Ejaculation: the male curls its caudal end and ejaculates into the cloaca from close range;  Contraction: the female contracts its ventral side after ejaculation to capture spermatozoa deposited in the external environment in close proximity to the cloaca. Some notable differences between the two species were observed in the steps 3-4. First, oviposition was observed at 40 min in Paramacrobiotus sp. TYO strain, and a few days after mating in M. shonaicus, respectively. Comparisons of chromosome morphology before and after mating indicated that oocytes are arrested at metaphase I in both species. Spermatozoa attach to the interior of the chorion of laid eggs.
- Hemodynamic Standstill in Cardiac Tamponade. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 May 15
- Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS) for the Detection of Individuals At-Risk and the Prediction of Their Outcomes. [Review]
- FPFront Psychiatry 2019; 10:174
- Primary prevention in individuals at Clinical High Risk for psychosis (CHR-P) can ameliorate the course of psychotic disorders. Further advancements of knowledge have been slowed by the standstill of…
Primary prevention in individuals at Clinical High Risk for psychosis (CHR-P) can ameliorate the course of psychotic disorders. Further advancements of knowledge have been slowed by the standstill of the field, which is mostly attributed to its epidemiological weakness. The latter, in turn, underlies the limited identification power of at-risk individuals and the relatively modest ability of CHR-P interviews to rule-in a state of risk for psychosis. In the first part, this perspective review discusses these limitations and traces a new approach to overcome them. Theoretical concepts to support a Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS) integrating genetic and non-genetic risk and protective factors for psychosis are presented. The PPS hinges on recent findings indicating that risk enrichment in CHR-P samples is accounted for by the accumulation of non-genetic factors such as: parental and sociodemographic risk factors, perinatal risk factors, later risk factors, and antecedents. In the second part of this perspective review we present a prototype of a PPS encompassing core predictors beyond genetics. The PPS prototype may be piloted in the next generation of CHR-P research and combined with genetic information to refine the detection of individuals at-risk of psychosis and the prediction of their outcomes, and ultimately advance clinical research in this field.
- The POCUS Pulse Check: A Case Series on a Novel Method for Determining the Presence of a Pulse Using Point-of-Care Ultrasound. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Emerg Med 2019 Apr 16
- CONCLUSIONS: Using this technique, we found that a POCUS pulse check can be consistently performed in < 5 s and is clearly determinate, even when palpation yields indeterminate results.In this case series, the POCUS pulse check was a valuable adjunct that helped to change management for critically ill patients. Future prospective studies are required to determine the accuracy of this technique and the impact on patient outcomes in a larger cohort.
- Mesenchymal stem cell therapies in brain disease. [Review]
- SCSemin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 03
- As treatments for diseases throughout the body progress, treatment for many brain diseases has been at a standstill due to difficulties in drug delivery. While new drugs are being discovered in vitro…
As treatments for diseases throughout the body progress, treatment for many brain diseases has been at a standstill due to difficulties in drug delivery. While new drugs are being discovered in vitro, these therapies are often hindered by inefficient tissue distribution and, more commonly, an inability to cross the blood brain barrier. Mesenchymal stem cells are thus being investigated as a delivery tool to directly target therapies to the brain to treat wide array of brain diseases. This review discusses the use of mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic disease (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy), an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease (multiple sclerosis), and a malignant condition (glioma).
- Enhancing Sustainability in Healthcare Delivery-A Challenge to the New Malaysia. [Editorial]
- MJMalays J Med Sci 2019; 26(1):1-4
- There have been substantial improvements in the health indicators since Malaysia achieved independence. These were accomplished through strong primary healthcare services addressing maternal and paed…
There have been substantial improvements in the health indicators since Malaysia achieved independence. These were accomplished through strong primary healthcare services addressing maternal and paediatric health, as well as the successful control of communicable diseases. The rate of decline in the mortality statistics has been at a virtual standstill, or at best, almost plateaued since 2000. However, with the plethora of national health issues at both the policy and delivery levels, we cannot continue on with 'business as usual'. Therefore, we must strategise effective and practical approaches to a renewed and revamped national healthcare services for a modern 'New Malaysia' that are compatible with our quest toward the status of a 'truly developed' nation.
- Microsurgical Clip Reconstruction of a Ruptured Dissecting PICA Aneurysm: a 2D Operative Video. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2019 Mar 11
- This case is a presentation of technical tenets for the microsurgical clipping of a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm. The patient described in this case was a 19-year old…
This case is a presentation of technical tenets for the microsurgical clipping of a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm. The patient described in this case was a 19-year old male with a history of polysubstance abuse who presented from an outside hospital after being found unresponsive and admitted for a subarachnoid hemorrhage seven days earlier. Noninvasive vascular imaging completed at the outset hospital showed no clear intracranial aneurysm except some irregularity of left PICA proximally. The cerebral angiogram subsequently completed following transfer demonstrated a left dissecting PICA aneurysm from the anterior medullary segment of PICA. Endovascular options were considered to be high risk for this patient, due to the wide neck of the aneurysm. Stent coiling was not considered the best option given the concern of recent subarachnoid hemorrhage and need for anti-platelets. This case is valuable to the literature as it illustrates technical steps required for reconstructing an aneurysm with dissected wall with pseudo aneurysmal formation, the need for early proximal control and the use of intraoperative adenosine for temporary cardiac standstill.
- Development of vaccine that could save lives of children in the North at a standstill. [Journal Article]
- CMAJCMAJ 2019 Mar 11; 191(10):E293-E294
- Ventricular standstill in a patient with a left ventricular assist device. [Journal Article]
- ATAnn Thorac Surg 2019 Mar 07
- A 58-year-old woman suffered from medically refractory heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. She underwent tricuspid repair and left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD) fo…
A 58-year-old woman suffered from medically refractory heart failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. She underwent tricuspid repair and left ventricular assist device implantation (LVAD) for inotropic dependent heart failure. Due to severe right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, she developed progressive bradycardia and ventricular asystole with electrocardiographic and echocardiographic standstill. Despite the lack of native cardiac activity, she maintained end-organ perfusion with inotropic support until she underwent successful transplant. This report highlights a case of mechanical circulatory support with an isolated LVAD even in the absence of native RV function.
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- Atrial standstill presenting as cerebral infarction in a 7-year-old girl. [Case Reports]
- SOSAGE Open Med Case Rep 2019; 7:2050313X19827735
- Atrial standstill is a rare arrhythmia defined by the absence of mechanical and electrical activity in the atria. Few cases of atrial standstill have been described in children, none of which have pr…
Atrial standstill is a rare arrhythmia defined by the absence of mechanical and electrical activity in the atria. Few cases of atrial standstill have been described in children, none of which have presented with cerebral infarction confirmed by imaging. We report a unique case of a 7-year-old girl presenting with expressive aphasia, central facial palsy and irregular pulse with cerebral infarction secondary to atrial standstill. This case illustrates that cardiogenic cerebral embolism in children can be caused by rare conditions like atrial standstill and should be considered in paediatric patients undergoing evaluation for stroke. There are no established treatment guidelines for atrial standstill. We recommend that treatment be directed towards any potential underlying cause. All patients with atrial standstill should receive long-term oral anticoagulation treatment and a permanent cardiac pacemaker implant to reduce the risk of further strokes or other cardiac events.