- Electrical Stimulation of Back Muscles Does Not Prime the Corticospinal Pathway. [Journal Article]
- NNeuromodulation 2019 Jun 24
- CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that, unlike previous reports that show increased corticospinal excitability of limb muscles, PES of back muscles does not modify the corticospinal excitability. This difference in response of the motor pathway of back muscles to PES might be explained by the lesser importance of voluntary cortical drive to these muscles and the greater role of postural networks. Whether PES influences back muscle training remains unclear, yet the present results suggest that potential effects are unlikely to be explained by the effects of PES at corticospinal level with the parameters used in this study.
- Inductively coupled, mm-sized, single channel optical neuro-stimulator with intensity enhancer. [Journal Article]
- MNMicrosyst Nanoeng 2019; 5:23
- We introduce a single channel neuro-stimulator consisting of a reflector-coupled microscale light emitting diode (µLED) with an integrated mm-sized wireless receiver (Rx) coil for free-floating, batt…
We introduce a single channel neuro-stimulator consisting of a reflector-coupled microscale light emitting diode (µLED) with an integrated mm-sized wireless receiver (Rx) coil for free-floating, battery-free, untethered optogenetics neuromodulation. The system utilizes a two-coil inductive link to deliver instantaneous power at a low operating frequency (<100 MHz) for continuous optical stimulation with minimized invasiveness and tissue exposure to electromagnetic radiation. Coupling a microscale reflector to the µLED provides significant light intensity enhancement compared to a bare µLED. Our activated stimulators have an operational temperature increase of <1 °C, well below the safety limit of biomedical implants. In vivo experiment and histological analysis verify the efficacy of wireless optical stimulation in the primary visual cortex of rats, using c-Fos biomarker as a reporter of light-evoked neuronal activity.
- Drug-resistant epilepsy, early-onset hypertension and white matter lesions: a hidden paraganglioma. [Journal Article]
- BCBMJ Case Rep 2019 Jun 21; 12(6)
- We describe the case of a 35-year-old man with focal epilepsy since age 16. Due to a refractory course, several treatments were tried over the years, including insertion of a deep brain stimulator. A…
We describe the case of a 35-year-old man with focal epilepsy since age 16. Due to a refractory course, several treatments were tried over the years, including insertion of a deep brain stimulator. At the time of his first assessment at our unit, he had recently been diagnosed with hypertension. An MR scan of brain revealed multiple T2 hyperintense white matter lesions, and evidence of previous haemorrhage in the left basal ganglia and pons. On follow-up imaging, the changes were considered to be in keeping with hypertensive arteriopathy. He was referred for further assessment of his hypertension and was found to have a para-aortic paraganglioma. This was excised 16 months after his initial presentation to us. The surgery was associated with an improvement in his seizure control. This case serves as a reminder of the need to be vigilant about the possibility of coexisting conditions in people with epilepsy.
- The 6th R of Radiobiology: Reactivation of Anti-Tumor Immune Response. [Review]
- CCancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 20; 11(6)
- Historically, the 4Rs and then the 5Rs of radiobiology explained the effect of radiation therapy (RT) fractionation on the treatment efficacy. These 5Rs are: Repair, Redistribution, Reoxygenation, Re…
Historically, the 4Rs and then the 5Rs of radiobiology explained the effect of radiation therapy (RT) fractionation on the treatment efficacy. These 5Rs are: Repair, Redistribution, Reoxygenation, Repopulation and, more recently, intrinsic Radiosensitivity. Advances in radiobiology have demonstrated that RT is able to modify the tumor micro environment (TME) and to induce a local and systemic (abscopal effect) immune response. Conversely, RT is able to increase some immunosuppressive barriers, which can lead to tumor radioresistance. Fractionation and dose can affect the immunomodulatory properties of RT. Here, we review how fractionation, dose and timing shape the RT-induced anti-tumor immune response and the therapeutic effect of RT. We discuss how immunomodulators targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors and the cGAS/STING (cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase/Stimulator of Interferon Genes) pathway can be successfully combined with RT. We then review current trials evaluating the RT/Immunotherapy combination efficacy and suggest new innovative associations of RT with immunotherapies currently used in clinic or in development with strategic schedule administration (fractionation, dose, and timing) to reverse immune-related radioresistance. Overall, our work will present the existing evidence supporting the claim that the reactivation of the anti-tumor immune response can be regarded as the 6th R of Radiobiology.
- Antigen-specific CD4+ CD25+ T cells induced by locally expressed ICOS-Ig: The role of Foxp3, Perforin, Granzyme B and IL-10. [Journal Article]
- TITranspl Int 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Expression of soluble ICOS-Ig by a xenograft generates antigen specific CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells that mediate specific graft prolongation using at least 3 key mediators: IL-10, perforin and granzyme B. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Treatment of Tinnitus Using Theta Burst Based Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-A Single Blinded Randomized Control Trial. [Journal Article]
- ONOtol Neurotol 2019; 40(5S Suppl 1):S38-S42
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a significant placebo effect following treatment with sham therapy and may suggest that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation does not have a therapeutic use in treating chronic tinnitus.
- Tissue Temperature Increases by a 10 kHz Spinal Cord Stimulation System: Phantom and Bioheat Model. [Journal Article]
- NNeuromodulation 2019 Jun 21
- CONCLUSIONS: Heating of spinal tissues by this 10 kHz SCS system theoretically increases quickly with stimulation level and load impedance, while dampened by IPG pulse bandwidth and voltage compliance limitations. If validated in vivo as a mechanism of kHz SCS, bioheat models informed by IPG limitations allow prediction and optimization of temperature changes.
- Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 and the response to cell stress. [Review]
- CSCell Stress 2018 Dec 02; 3(1):1-8
- Expression of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is up-regulated by several types of cell stress, such as ischemia, radiation and hyperosmotic shock. The SGK1 protein is activate…
Expression of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is up-regulated by several types of cell stress, such as ischemia, radiation and hyperosmotic shock. The SGK1 protein is activated by a signaling cascade involving phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). SGK1 up-regulates Na+/K+-ATPase, a variety of carriers including Na+-,K+-,2Cl-- cotransporter (NKCC), NaCl cotransporter (NCC), Na+/H+ exchangers, diverse amino acid transporters and several glucose carriers such as Na+-coupled glucose transporter SGLT1. SGK1 further up-regulates a large number of ion channels including epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, voltagegated Na+ channel SCN5A, Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel (ORAI1) with its stimulator STIM1, epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 and diverse K+ channels. Furthermore, SGK1 influences transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), p53 tumor suppressor protein, cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and forkhead box O3 protein (FOXO3a). Thus, SGK1 supports cellular glucose uptake and glycolysis, angiogenesis, cell survival, cell migration, and wound healing. Presumably as last line of defense against tissue injury, SGK1 fosters tissue fibrosis and tissue calcification replacing energy consuming cells.
- Gossypol but Not Cottonseed Extracts or Lipopolysaccharides Stimulates HuR Gene Expression in Mouse Macrophages (P06-071-19). [Journal Article]
- CDCurr Dev Nutr 2019; 3(Suppl 1)
- CONCLUSIONS: These results show for the first time that gossypol is a strong stimulator of HuR gene expression and that cottonseed extracts essentially free of gossypol are probably safe to use as a reliable source of plant polyphenols.
New Search Next
- Expression of a constitutively active human STING mutant in hematopoietic cells produces an Ifnar1-dependent vasculopathy in mice. [Journal Article]
- LSLife Sci Alliance 2019; 2(3)
- STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by blood vessel occlusions, acral necrosis, myositis, rashes, and pulmonary inflammation that …
STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by blood vessel occlusions, acral necrosis, myositis, rashes, and pulmonary inflammation that are the result of activating mutations in the STimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We generated a transgenic line that recapitulates many of the phenotypic aspects of SAVI by targeting the expression of the human STING-N154S-mutant protein to the murine hematopoietic compartment. hSTING-N154S mice demonstrated failure to gain weight, lymphopenia, progressive paw swelling accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates, severe myositis, and ear and tail necrosis. However, no significant lung inflammation was observed. X-ray microscopy imaging revealed vasculopathy characterized by arteriole occlusions and venous thromboses. Type I interferons and proinflammatory mediators were elevated in hSTING-N154S sera. Importantly, the phenotype was prevented in hSTING-N154S mice lacking the type I interferon receptor gene (Ifnar1). This model, based on a mutant human STING protein, may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms operative in SAVI.