- Utilization of an endocrine growth index, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1b, for postsmolt coho salmon in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. [Journal Article]
- FPFish Physiol Biochem 2019 Jul 11
- Monitoring the growth of salmon during their early marine phase provides insights into prey availability, and growth rates may be linked to risks of size-dependent mortality. However, the measurement…
Monitoring the growth of salmon during their early marine phase provides insights into prey availability, and growth rates may be linked to risks of size-dependent mortality. However, the measurement of growth rate is challenging for free-living salmon in the ocean. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a growth-promoting hormone that is emerging as a useful index of growth in salmon. In addition, laboratory-based studies using coho salmon have shown that one of circulating IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP-1b, is induced by fasting and thus could be used as an inverse index of growth and/or catabolic state in salmon. However, few studies have measured plasma levels of IGFBP-1b in salmon in the wild. We measured plasma IGFBP-1b levels for postsmolt coho salmon collected in the Strait of Georgia and surrounding waters, British Columbia, Canada, and compared regional differences in IGFBP-1b to ecological information such as seawater temperature and stomach fullness. Plasma IGFBP-1b levels were the highest in fish from Eastern Johnstone Strait and relatively high in Queen Charlotte Strait and Western Johnstone Strait, which was in good agreement with the poor ocean conditions for salmon hypothesized to occur in that region. The molar ratio of plasma IGF-I to IGFBP-1b, a theoretical parameter of IGF-I availability to the receptor, discriminated differences among regions better than IGF-I or IGFBP-1b alone. Our data suggest that plasma IGFBP-1b reflects catabolic status in postsmolt coho salmon, as highlighted in fish in Eastern Johnston Strait, and is a useful tool to monitor negative aspects of salmon growth in the ocean.
- Not just a policy; this is for real. An affirmative action policy to encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples to seek employment in the health workforce. [Journal Article]
- IMIntern Med J 2019; 49(7):908-910
- Delivery of culturally safe healthcare is critical to ensuring access to high-quality care for indigenous people. A key component of this is for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to be par…
Delivery of culturally safe healthcare is critical to ensuring access to high-quality care for indigenous people. A key component of this is for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to be participants in the health workforce. The proportion of indigenous people in the health workforce should at least equate to the proportion in the population served. We describe the development and implementation of a successful affirmative action employment policy at Monash Health, one of Australia's largest Academic Health Centres, and provide perspective on its adoption.
- Isolation, marine transgression and translocation of the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus). [Journal Article]
- EAEvol Appl 2019; 12(6):1114-1123
- Island populations can represent genetically distinct and evolutionarily important lineages relative to mainland conspecifics. However, phenotypic divergence of island populations does not necessaril…
Island populations can represent genetically distinct and evolutionarily important lineages relative to mainland conspecifics. However, phenotypic divergence of island populations does not necessarily reflect genetic divergence, particularly for lineages inhabiting islands periodically connected during Pleistocene low sea stands. Marine barriers may also not be solely responsible for any divergence that is observed. Here, we investigated genetic divergence among and within the three phenotypically distinct subspecies of bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) in south-east Australia that are presently-but were not historically-isolated by marine barriers. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified three genetically distinct groups (mainland Australia, Bass Strait island, and Tasmania) corresponding to the recognized subspecies. However, isolation by distance was observed in the Tasmanian population, indicating additional constraints on gene flow can contribute to divergence in the absence of marine barriers, and may also explain genetic structuring among fragmented mainland populations. We additionally confirm origins and quantify the genetic divergence of an island population 46 years after the introduction of 21 individuals from the Vulnerable Bass Strait subspecies. In the light of our findings, we make recommendations for the maintenance of genetic variation and fitness across the species range.
- Boomeranging around Australia: Historical biogeography and population genomics of the anti-equatorial fish Microcanthus strigatus (Teleostei: Microcanthidae). [Journal Article]
- MEMol Ecol 2019 Jul 10
- The geographic distributions of marine fishes have been shaped by ancient vicariance and ongoing dispersal events. Some species exhibit anti-equatorial distributions, inhabiting temperate regions on …
The geographic distributions of marine fishes have been shaped by ancient vicariance and ongoing dispersal events. Some species exhibit anti-equatorial distributions, inhabiting temperate regions on both sides of the tropics while being absent from equatorial latitudes. The perciform fish Microcanthus strigatus (the stripey) exhibits such a distribution, with disjunct populations occurring in East Asia, Hawaii, Western Australia, and the southwest Pacific. Here we examine the historical biogeography and evolutionary history of M. strigatus, based on more than 80 specimens sampled from the four major populations. We analyse 36 morphological characters, three mitochondrial markers, and two sets of 7120 and 12,771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the nuclear genome. Our results suggest that M. strigatus represents a cryptic species complex comprising at least two genetically distinct populations worthy of species-level recognition, with one population exhibiting strong genetic structuring but with intermittent, historical gene flow. We provide evidence for a southwest Pacific origin for the ancestral Microcanthus and explain how past connectivity between these regions might have given rise to the relationships observed in present-day marine fauna. Our ancestral range reconstructions and molecular-clock analyses support a southwest Pacific centre of origin for Microcanthus, with subsequent colonization of Western Australia through the Bass Strait followed by trans-equatorial dispersals to the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene. Our results detail an anti-tropical dispersal pattern that is highly unusual and previously undocumented, thereby emphasizing the importance of integrative systematics in the evaluation of widespread species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Listen, understand, collaborate: developing innovative strategies to improve health service utilisation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men. [Journal Article]
- ANAust N Z J Public Health 2019 Jul 09
- Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors for Self-Reports of Same-Gender Attraction in Cisgender Heterosexual-Identifying Women and Men. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sex Res 2019 Jul 09; :1-13
- We sought to identify psychosocial predictors of homoerotic motivations (viz., same-gender attraction) in heterosexual identifying cisgender women and men. We recruited participants from Amazon's Mec…
We sought to identify psychosocial predictors of homoerotic motivations (viz., same-gender attraction) in heterosexual identifying cisgender women and men. We recruited participants from Amazon's Mechanical Turk to complete measures of (a) antipathy towards lesbians and gay men, (b) gender role beliefs, (c) felt-pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, and (d) openness to experience. In Study 1, we found that same-gender attraction was (a) negatively related to antipathy towards same-gender homosexual targets and (b) positively related to felt-pressure to conform to gender stereotypes for both women and men. In Study 2, both effects replicated for men at p < .05, but women only showed the antipathy effect at p < .05, even while the felt-pressure effect size was similar to that in Study 1. Additionally, men showed a significant negative relationship between openness and same-gender attraction. Thus, both anti-gay attitudes and felt-pressure to conform to gender stereotypes appear to be reliably associated with same-gender attraction.
- "If you don't speak from the heart, the young mob aren't going to listen at all": An invitation for youth mental health services to engage in new ways of working. [Journal Article]
- EIEarly Interv Psychiatry 2019 Jul 09
- CONCLUSIONS: Building Bridges demonstrates the centrality of trusting relationships for systemic change and the way in which meaningful engagement is at the core of both the process and the outcome.
- The impact of physical activity and sport on social outcomes among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: A systematic scoping review. [Review]
- JSJ Sci Med Sport 2019 Jul 02
- CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence of benefit across the six social outcomes from physical activity and sport programs. This promotes their continuation and development, although critical appraisal of their methods is needed to better quantify benefits, as well as the generation of new evidence across indicators where gaps currently exist, particularly for employment and crime reduction outcomes.
- Implementing Birthing on Country services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families: RISE Framework. [Journal Article]
- WBWomen Birth 2019 Jul 03
- CONCLUSIONS: Application of the RISE framework to plan, develop and monitor Birthing on Country services is likely to result in short and long-term health gains for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families.
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- Reducing drug and alcohol use and improving well-being for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians using the Community Reinforcement Approach: A feasibility and acceptability study. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Psychol 2019 Jul 05
- There is a lack of evidence of effective and appropriate drug and alcohol treatment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This paper contributes to addressing the evidence gap by examini…
There is a lack of evidence of effective and appropriate drug and alcohol treatment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This paper contributes to addressing the evidence gap by examining the feasibility and acceptability and conducting a pre/post-evaluation of the Aboriginal-adapted Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) delivered in New South Wales, Australia. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients (n = 55) received tailored CRA delivery between March and November 2013. Compared to the original US version, tailored CRA had reduced technical language, reduced number of treatment sessions, and the addition of group delivery option. An Australian training manual with local case studies was developed. Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Test (ASSIST), Kessler-5 (K-5) and the Growth Empowerment Measure were used. 58% of participants were followed-up at 3 months. Tailored CRA was feasible to deliver in a rural, community-based health setting, and rated by clients as highly effective and acceptable. CRA was associated with statistically significant reductions in the use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, amphetamine and over the counter medication, and levels of psychological distress, and an increase in levels of empowerment for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal clients. This study provides evidence for the feasibility and acceptability of an Aboriginal-adapted psychological intervention addressing drug, alcohol and mental health outcomes.