- Impact of cisplatin dose and smoking pack-years in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Cancer 2019 Jul 19; 118:112-120
- CONCLUSIONS: CDDP-D correlated with neither survival nor disease-specific outcomes in this large and homogeneous HPV+ cohort, although reduced CSS was observed in stageIII HPV+ OPSCC receiving CDDP-D <200 mg/m2. Smoking PYs were negatively associated with OS but not with CSS.
- Treatment with fibrates is associated with higher LAL activity in dyslipidemic patients. [Journal Article]
- PRPharmacol Res 2019 Jul 19; :104362
- Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG) within the lysosomes; generated cholesterol and free fatty acids (FFA) are released in …
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters (CE) and triglycerides (TG) within the lysosomes; generated cholesterol and free fatty acids (FFA) are released in the cytosol where they can regulate their own synthesis and metabolism. When LAL is not active, as in case of genetic mutations, CE and TG accumulate in the lysosomal compartment, while the lack of release of cholesterol and FFA in the cytosol leads to an upregulation of their synthesis. Thus, LAL plays a central role in the intracellular homeostasis of lipids. Since there are no indications about the effect of different lipid-lowering agents on LAL activity, aim of the study was to address the relationship between LAL activity and the type of lipid-lowering therapy in a cohort of dyslipidemic patients. LAL activity was measured on dried blood spot from 120 patients with hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia and was negatively correlated to LDL-cholesterol levels. Among enrolled patients, ninety-one were taking one or more lipid-lowering drugs, as statins, fibrates, ezetimibe and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. When patients were stratified according to the type of lipid-lowering treatment, i.e. untreated, taking statins or taking fibrates, LAL activity was significantly higher in those with fibrates, even after adjustment for sex, age, BMI, lipid parameters, liver function, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and statin use. In a subset of patients tested after 3 months of treatment with micronized fenofibrate, LAL activity raised by 21%; the increase was negatively correlated with baseline LAL activity. Thus, the use of fibrates is independently associated with higher LAL activity in dyslipidemic patients, suggesting that the positive effects of PPAR-α activation on cellular and systemic lipid homeostasis can also include an improved LAL activity.
- Establishment and performance assessment of an in-house 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium (RhCE) as a screening tool for the identification of liquid chemicals with potential eye hazard. [Journal Article]
- TVToxicol In Vitro 2019 Jul 19; :104604
- The objective of this project was to develop an in-house 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium (RhCE) to be used as a screening tool in early stages of product development. This study reports…
The objective of this project was to develop an in-house 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium (RhCE) to be used as a screening tool in early stages of product development. This study reports the establishment of the experimental procedure and the performance assessment of the model to discriminate liquid chemicals classified as causing serious eye damage/irritation (UN-GHS Category 1/2) from liquid chemicals not requiring such hazard classification (UN-GHS No Category). Histological examination of this ocular equivalent model, based on Normal Human Keratinocytes (NHK) cultured in a chemically defined medium, revealed a stratified and well-organized tissue construct. Moreover, barrier robustness and functionality were demonstrated by the effective time-50 (ET50) of Triton X-100 measurement. The prediction model is based on cytotoxicity assessment following a test chemical exposure. When the mean tissue viability was over 60%, the chemical was defined as No Category; otherwise, it was classified as Category 1/2. In accordance with the applicable OECD guidance document (ENV/JM/MONO (2015)23), the performance of the model for eye hazard identification was evaluated with the minimum list of reference chemicals. As a result, the method scored 84.4% Accuracy, 70.8% Specificity, 100% sensitivity and 93.3% for concordance, demonstrating prediction performances close to those of Validated Reference Methods that are commonly used for regulatory purposes. Finally, these results suggest that this in-house RhCE based test method is a qualitative and accurate screening tool for eye hazard identification of liquid chemicals.
- Chest tube drainage versus video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for a first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Cardiothorac Surg 2019 Apr 24
- Primary spontaneous pneumothorax affects up to 28 patients per 100 000 population yearly and is commonly resolved by chest tube drainage. However, drainage is also known to be associated with ipsilat…
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax affects up to 28 patients per 100 000 population yearly and is commonly resolved by chest tube drainage. However, drainage is also known to be associated with ipsilateral recurrence rates ranging from 25% to 43%. Preventive video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) may be an effective alternative to diminish these recurrence rates and its associated morbidity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of chest tube drainage and VATS as first line treatments of an initial episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched through 16 September 2018. Data regarding the ipsilateral recurrence rate and the length of hospitalization were extracted and submitted to meta-analysis using the random-effects model and the I2 test for heterogeneity. Two randomized controlled trials and 2 observational studies were included, enrolling a total of 479 patients. Pairwise analysis demonstrated significantly reduced ipsilateral recurrence rates [odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.33; P < 0.00001] and length of hospitalization (standardized mean difference -2.19, 95% CI -4.34 to -0.04; P = 0.046) in favour of VATS. However, a significant level of heterogeneity was detected for the length of hospitalization (I2 = 97%; P < 0.00001). Subgroup analysis that stratified study design found no statistical differences regarding recurrence rate. In conclusion, VATS can be an effective and attractive alternative to standard chest tube drainage, with reduced ipsilateral recurrence rates and length of hospitalization. However, given the low quality of the majority of included studies, more well-designed randomized controlled trials are necessary to strengthen the current evidence.
- Impact of nighttime procedures on outcomes after liver transplantation. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0220124
- CONCLUSIONS: Our retrospective single center data derived from a German transplant center within the Eurotransplant region provides evidence that oLT is a safe procedure irrespective of the starting time. Our data demonstrate that compared to daytime surgery nighttime liver transplantation is not associated with a greater risk of surgical complications. In addition, one-year graft and patient survival do not display inferior results in patients undergoing nighttime transplantation.
- ARCHES: A Randomized, Phase III Study of Androgen Deprivation Therapy With Enzalutamide or Placebo in Men With Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Oncol 2019 Jul 22; :JCO1900799
- CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide with ADT significantly reduced the risk of metastatic progression or death over time versus placebo plus ADT in men with mHSPC, including those with low-volume disease and/or prior docetaxel, with a safety analysis that seems consistent with the safety profile of enzalutamide in previous clinical trials in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
- A cross-sectional evaluation of opt-in testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections in three Canadian provincial correctional facilities: a missed opportunity for public health? [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Prison Health 2019 Aug 29; 15(3):273-281
- CONCLUSIONS: This study found high rates of STBBI in correctional facilities and showed that only a small proportion of the population was tested using an opt-in strategy. Shifting to an "opt-out" strategy may be warranted.
- The increasing use of shave biopsy for diagnosing invasive melanoma in Australia. [Journal Article]
- MJMed J Aust 2019 Jul 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Partial biopsy, particularly shave biopsy, was increasingly used for diagnosing invasive melanoma between 2005 and 2015. Shave biopsy has a high rate of base transection, reducing the accuracy of tumour staging, which is crucial for planning appropriate therapy, including definitive surgery and adjuvant therapy.
- Prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems in cerebral palsy across the lifespan: a systematic review and meta-analyses. [Review]
- DMDev Med Child Neurol 2019 Jul 22
- CONCLUSIONS: Drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems are very common in people with CP. Consequently, they experience increased risks of malnutrition and dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and poor quality of life.Drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems are very common in persons with cerebral palsy (CP). The prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems is 44.0%, 50.4%, and 53.5% respectively. There are limited data on the prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems in adults. Higher Gross Motor Function Classification System levels are associated with higher prevalence of drooling, swallowing, and feeding problems. There is increased risk for malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, and poor quality of life in CP.
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- Comorbidity of substance misuse with anxiety-related and depressive disorders: a genetically informative population study of 3 million individuals in Sweden. [Journal Article]
- PMPsychol Med 2019 Jul 22; :1-10
- CONCLUSIONS: Substance misuse and anxiety/depression are associated at the population level, and these associations are partially explained by familial liabilities. Our findings indicate a common genetic etiology but are also compatible with a potential partially causal relationship between substance misuse and anxiety/depression.