- Re-assessing the effectiveness of wire-marking to mitigate bird collisions with power lines: A meta-analysis and guidelines for field studies. [Journal Article]J Environ Manage 2019; 252:109651JE
- The expansion of overhead power lines worldwide challenges companies of energy transmission and distribution, regulators and environmental consultants, among other stakeholders, to effectively mitigate their negative impacts on wildlife. Wire-marking is currently the most widespread and recommended measure to reduce bird collisions with these infrastructures. Nevertheless, and despite its importa…
The expansion of overhead power lines worldwide challenges companies of energy transmission and distribution, regulators and environmental consultants, among other stakeholders, to effectively mitigate their negative impacts on wildlife. Wire-marking is currently the most widespread and recommended measure to reduce bird collisions with these infrastructures. Nevertheless, and despite its importance for a bird-friendly development of energy projects, there is still much uncertainty about what explains wire-marking effectiveness. We performed an extensive literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the overall effectiveness of wire-marking in reducing bird collisions with power lines, including the possible influencing factors of power line voltage, habitat and type of device. We gathered data from 35 field studies across the world (which included 66 trials) assessing the effectiveness of wire-marking based on regular carcass searches beneath power lines. Overall, wire-marking reduced bird collisions with power lines by half (50.4%; 95% Confidence Interval Estimate: 40.4-58.8%), although this estimate of effectiveness is lower than the one reported in a meta-analysis performed in 2011. Despite the effort to include both peer-reviewed and grey literature studies in the present meta-analysis, the risk of publication bias could not be entirely excluded and may be still overestimating the true overall effect of wire-marking. High heterogeneity among the study outcomes hindered the power to detect clear moderating effects, with none of explanatory variables being statistically significant. Large between-study heterogeneity is (to some extent) explained by the variety of anti-collision devices available, wire-marking intensities used and ecological circumstances in which the experiments were carried out. Nonetheless, it may be also related to within-study methodological biases and reporting gaps in the existing field studies. Robust experimental designs (ideally using Before-After-Control-Impact approaches), comprehensive reporting of results and broad dissemination of study findings are needed to increase the statistical power of future meta-analyses. Ways to achieve these improvements in field studies are presented in detail. Their inclusion in future meta-analyses will increase the knowledge on the drivers of wire-marking effectiveness, which is critical to better inform decision-making processes and environmental management plans.
- The role of radical prostatectomy and definitive external beam radiotherapy in combined treatment for high-risk prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [Journal Article]Asian J Androl 2019AJ
- The first-line treatment options for high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) are definitive external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without adjuvant therapies. However, few randomized trials have compared the survival outcomes of these two treatments. To systematically evaluate the survival outcomes of high-risk PCa patie…
The first-line treatment options for high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) are definitive external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without adjuvant therapies. However, few randomized trials have compared the survival outcomes of these two treatments. To systematically evaluate the survival outcomes of high-risk PCa patients treated with EBRT- or RP-based therapy, a comprehensive and up-to-date meta-analysis was performed. A systematic online search was conducted for randomized or observational studies that investigated biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and/or overall survival (OS), in relation to the use of RP or EBRT in patients with high-risk PCa. The summary hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated under the random effects models. We identified heterogeneity between studies using Q tests and measured it using I2 statistics. We evaluated publication bias using funnel plots and Egger's regression asymmetry tests. Seventeen studies (including one randomized controlled trial [RCT]) of low risk of bias were selected and up to 9504 patients were pooled. When comparing EBRT-based treatment with RP-based treatment, the pooled HRs for bRFS, CSS, and OS were 0.40 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.67), 1.36 (95% CI: 0.94-1.97), and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.18-1.62), respectively. Better OS for RP-based treatment and better bRFS for EBRT-based treatment have been identified, and there was no significant difference in CSS between the two treatments. RP-based treatment is recommended for high-risk PCa patients who value long-term survival, and EBRT-based treatment might be a promising alternative for elderly patients.
- What Is the Prognostic and Clinical Importance of Urothelial and Nonurothelial Histological Variants of Bladder Cancer in Predicting Oncological Outcomes in Patients with Muscle-invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer? A European Association of Urology Muscle Invasive and Metastatic Bladder Cancer Guidelines Panel Systematic Review. [Review]Eur Urol Oncol 2019EU
- CONCLUSIONS: The data about prognosis and treatment of the variant histology are still immature and assessed mostly in cystectomy patients. Based on this systematic review, all patients with MIBC should be treated with RC. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be beneficial for patients with micropapillary, plasmacytoid, sarcomatoid, and mixed variants, and especially for patients with neuroendocrine tumours. Metastatic bladder cancer should be treated as PUC.
- Association between enrollment factors and incident cognitive impairment in Blacks and Whites: Data from the Alzheimer's Disease Center. [Journal Article]Alzheimers Dement 2019AD
- CONCLUSIONS: The finding that Blacks demonstrated lower rate of progression than Whites is contrary to the extant literature. Nested-regression analyses suggested that selection-related factors, differing by race, may account for these findings and influence our ability to accurately estimate risk for progression. It is potentially problematic to make racial comparisons using Alzheimer's Disease Center data sets.
- The therapeutic effects of microRNAs in preclinical studies of acute kidney injury: a systematic review protocol. [Journal Article]Syst Rev 2019; 8(1):235SR
- CONCLUSIONS: The administration of selective miRNA mimics or antagonists exerts beneficial effects in mammalian models of AKI, although multiple obstacles must be addressed prior to translation to human clinical trials. The proposed systematic review will document key miRNA candidates, and determine effect size estimates and sources of outcome bias. The review will also identify gaps in knowledge and guide future directions in AKI research.
- Effectiveness and Safety of Primary Thromboprophylaxis in Children with Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Network Meta-Analysis. [Journal Article]Thromb Haemost 2019TH
- Thromboembolism (TE) is a well-recognized complication of pediatric cancer and can lead to mortality and excess morbidity. There is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in children. We conducted a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis of primary pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in children and adolescents (0-21 years) with cancer. The pr…
Thromboembolism (TE) is a well-recognized complication of pediatric cancer and can lead to mortality and excess morbidity. There is conflicting evidence about the effectiveness and safety of thromboprophylaxis in children. We conducted a systematic literature review and network meta-analysis of primary pharmacological thromboprophylaxis in children and adolescents (0-21 years) with cancer. The primary outcomes were objectively proven TE and major bleeding. The network meta-analysis included comparisons of multiple alternatives simultaneously: antithrombin (AT) replacement, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), and standard of care (SOC) defined as no thromboprophylaxis or low-dose heparin for catheter patency. Six articles describing 1,318 patients were included (mean age: 6.7 years, 56.7% male). Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the underlying diagnosis in 97.5% of patients. All studies were considered at moderate or high risk of bias. LMWH was the only agent associated with lower odds of TE compared with SOC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.81). No statistically significant difference was detected between other thromboprophylaxis modalities and SOC. Tau2 and I 2 suggested a high degree of heterogeneity. No statistically significant differences in the odds of major bleeding were found between AT replacement, LMWH, VKA, and SOC. Current evidence suggests that low-dose LMWH is effective and safe to prevent TE in children with cancer but is insufficient to conclude if AT replacement or VKA are effective thromboprophylaxis options. Further research, notably randomized controlled trials enrolling children with diverse types of cancer, is crucially needed.
- Preliminary results analysis for left ventricular systolic function in normal fetuses by automated cardiac motion quantitation. [Journal Article]J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019; :1-9JM
- CONCLUSIONS: The global and regional strain values of fetus have no correlation with gestational ages, and the strain values of apical segment are higher than those of basal and middle segments. The base and middle segmental strain values of left ventricular free wall were similar to those of the interventricular septum. aCMQ is a novel method of two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to assess the global and regional systolic function of fetuses. It's a feasible and reproducible approach to evaluate normal cardiac function of fetus quantitatively and may have potential in fetuses with congenital heart diseases.
- Peer-led Self-management Interventions and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living with HIV: A Systematic Review. [Review]AIDS Behav 2019AB
- Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, adherence remains suboptimal, and PLWH may benefit from more self-management support to address the complexities of chronic illness. Our objective was to identify the impact of peer-led self-management interventions on adherence and patient-reported outcomes (PROs…
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLWH). However, adherence remains suboptimal, and PLWH may benefit from more self-management support to address the complexities of chronic illness. Our objective was to identify the impact of peer-led self-management interventions on adherence and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) among PLWH. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL for English language publications from 1996 to March 2018, and included controlled intervention studies. Additional articles were handsearched, risk of bias assessed, and narrative syntheses outlined. Thirteen studies met inclusion criteria. Findings demonstrate unclear effectiveness for peer-led self-management interventions improving ART adherence; however evidence was limited with only seven studies measuring this outcome and some risk of bias. Many PROs were measured, with limited consistent findings. Future research is needed to strengthen the evidence regarding effects of peer-led self-management interventions on adherence and PROs among PLWH.
- Investigating the Feasibility of Child Mortality Surveillance With Postmortem Tissue Sampling: Generating Constructs and Variables to Strengthen Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research. [Journal Article]Clin Infect Dis 2019; 69(Supplement_4):S291-S301CI
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings helped formulate program priorities, guided site-specific adaptations in surveillance procedures, and verified inferences drawn from CHAMPS epidemiological and formative research data. Results informed appropriate community sensitization and engagement activities for introducing and sustaining mortality surveillance, including MITS.
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- The impact on early diagnosis and survival outcome of M-protein screening-driven diagnostic approach to multiple myeloma in China: a cohort study. [Journal Article]J Cancer 2019; 10(20):4807-4813JC
- CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the actual MM incidence in China may have been underestimated and M-protein screening in hospital population by SPEP is an effective approach to improve early diagnosis rate and outcome.