- Extemporaneous Indomethacin Oral Suspension Prepared from Injectable Ampules for Therapy in Premature Infants and Pediatric Patients. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Pharm Compd 2019 Jul-Aug; 23(4):324-331
- Indomethacin is used for off-label prescription for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. In Argentina, indomethacin is only available as a suppository, dermic cream, inject…
Indomethacin is used for off-label prescription for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. In Argentina, indomethacin is only available as a suppository, dermic cream, injectable ampules, and delayed-release capsules. Aiming to improve pediatric treatment and minimize the risk associated with improper dosage, this work focused on the development of an extemporaneous 0.2% indomethacin oral suspension, starting from the commercially injectable formulation. Two 150-mL batches of suspension were prepared using Generally Recognized as Safe excipients. The suspensions were stored for 17 days at room temperature. Physical stability, morphological analysis of suspended particles, sedimentation volume, easy re-suspension, and dynamic viscosity were studied. The indomethacin content, dissolution studies, and microbiological attributes of nonsterile pharmaceutical products were also evaluated. After 17 days of storage, the suspension was easily re-dispersed after 15 seconds of the hand-shaking technique. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, and/or flavor. The suspension showed minimal changes in pH, viscosity, shape, and mean size of the suspended indomethacin particles. The content uniformity and drug dissolution remained within the acceptable range during storage. This oral liquid suspension is an interesting alternative to be prepared by hospital pharmacy services for optimizing the pediatric treatment of patent ductus arteriosus.
- Bioprinting of high cell density constructs leads to controlled lumen formation with self-assembly of endothelial cells. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Tissue Eng Regen Med 2019 Jul 17
- Active nutrient supply and waste product removal are key requirements for the fabrication of long term viable and functional tissue constructs of considerable size. This work aims to contribute to th…
Active nutrient supply and waste product removal are key requirements for the fabrication of long term viable and functional tissue constructs of considerable size. This work aims to contribute to the fabrication of artificial perfusable networks with a bioprinting process, based on drop-on-demand (DoD) printing of primary endothelial cell (EC) suspension bioink (25 · 106 ± 3 · 106 cells/ml). The process results in prescribed lumen between two hydrogel layers, allowing its integration in common layering based bioprinting processes. Low volume bioink droplets (appr. 10 nl) as building blocks, were deposited between two fibrin or collagen I layers to realize shapeable, cell-rich aggregates. Unattainable with manual positioning, DoD printing allowed precise fabrication of various designs, such as spheroidal-, line-shaped and Y-branch cellular structures, with a mean lateral extension of 285 ± 81 μm. For basic characterization, the cell suspension building blocks were systematically compared to preformed spheroids of the same cell type, passage and number. Post printing investigations of initially loose cell arrangements showed self-assembly and formation of central lumen with a mean cross-sectional area of Ølumen = 6400 μm2 at day 3, lined by a single layer of CD31 positive ECs, as evaluated by confocal microscopy. Originating from this main lumen smaller, undirected side-branches (Øbranches = 740 μm2 ) were formed by sprouting cells, inducing a first step towards a simplistic hierarchically organized network. These lumen could prospectively help for tissue construct perfusion in vitro or, potentially, as niche for angiogenesis of host vascularization in implants.
- Does structurally-mature dengue virion matter in vaccine preparation in post-Dengvaxia era? [Journal Article]
- HVHum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Jul 17
- The unexpectedly low vaccine efficacy of Dengvaxia®, developed by Sanofi Pasteur, and a higher risk of severe diseases after vaccination among dengue naïve children or children younger than 6 years o…
The unexpectedly low vaccine efficacy of Dengvaxia®, developed by Sanofi Pasteur, and a higher risk of severe diseases after vaccination among dengue naïve children or children younger than 6 years old, have cast skepticism about the safety of dengue vaccination resulting in the suspension of school-based immunization programs in the Philippines. The absence of immune correlates of protection from dengue virus (DENV) infection hampers the development of other potential DENV vaccines. While tetravalent live-attenuated tetravalent vaccines (LATVs), which mimic natural infection by inducing both cellular and humoral immune responses, are still currently favored, developing a vaccine that provides a balanced immunity to all four DENV serotypes remains a challenge. With the recently advanced understanding of virion structure and B cell immune responses from naturally infected DENV patients, two points of view in developing a next-generation dengue vaccine emerged: one is to induce potent, type-specific neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) recognizing quaternary structure-dependent epitopes by having four components of vaccine strains replicate equivalently; the other is to induce protective and broadly NtAbs against the four serotypes of DENV with a universal vaccine. This article reviews the studies related to these issues and the current knowledge gap that needs to be filled in.
- Mechanical washing of pet food bowls is effective for Microsporum canis decontamination. [Journal Article]
- VDVet Dermatol 2019 Jul 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical washing alone can decontaminate pet food bowls exposed to naturally infective material. Dishes should be soaked in hot sudsy water to loosen organic debris, scrubbed until visibly clean and then rinsed. Owners should wear dishwashing gloves for personal protection.
- NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with PM2.5 -induced cardiac functional and pathological injury in mice. [Journal Article]
- ETEnviron Toxicol 2019 Jul 16
- Growing evidences indicate that inflammation induced by PM2.5 exposure has been considered as a major driving force for the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying …
Growing evidences indicate that inflammation induced by PM2.5 exposure has been considered as a major driving force for the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying PM2.5 -induced cardiac injury remain unclear. This study aims to investigate the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in PM2.5 -induced cardiac functional and pathological injury in mice. In this study, BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with PM2.5 suspension (4.0 mg/kg BW) for 5 days to set up a cardiac injury model, which was evaluated by electrocardiogram monitoring, HE and Masson staining. Then, the effects of PM2.5 on the expression of α-SMA, NLRP3, IL-1β, and IL-18 proteins and the activation of caspase-1 and IL-1β were investigated. The results showed that PM2.5 exposure induced characteristic abnormal ECG changes such as the abnormality of heart rhythm, tachycardia, and T-wave reduction. Inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis were observed in the heart tissues of PM2.5 -exposed mice. Meanwhile, PM2.5 exposure increased the expression of α-SMA. And, NLRP3 activation-associated proteins of NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-18, Cleaved caspase-1 p10, and Cleaved IL-1β were upregulated in heart tissue of PM2.5 -induced mice. In summary, PM2.5 exposure could induce cardiac functional and pathological injury, which may be associated with the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome.
- Characterization of Albanian water frog, Pelophylax shqipericus, sperm traits and morphology, by using phase contrast microscopy. [Journal Article]
- MRMicrosc Res Tech 2019 Jul 16
- Mature spermatozoa traits and morphology of endangered Albanian water frog, Pelophylax shqipericus, have been characterized for the first time through phase contrast microscopy, as part of successful…
Mature spermatozoa traits and morphology of endangered Albanian water frog, Pelophylax shqipericus, have been characterized for the first time through phase contrast microscopy, as part of successful implementation of in vitro fertilization technique for this species. The basic morphology of P. shqipericus spermatozoa consists of an elongated, thick, smooth-edged, and solid-staining head, continuing with a thin and long tail which usually extends 2.48 times the head length. The acrosome was not clearly discernible so the measurements were done on the head as a whole, while the middle section was better visible. Average length of head, including the acrosome and midsection was estimated to be 11.78 μm ± 0.32, while the tail length resulted 29.24 ± 1.75 μm. The average thickness of the head was shown to be 3.45 μm. The total sperm length resulted to be 41.02 ± 1.83 μm. The average sperm concentration was estimated of 25.5 × 106 /ml. Sperm amount, survival rate and motility were also measured. The sperm survival rate was maximal immediately after preparation of the suspension and tended to decrease over time of storage, reaching 50% after 72 hr. Decreased sperm motility seemed to follow the same trend as sperm viability. Sperm traits resulted to be very similar both in size and in shape with those of "Lessonae" frog group, one of the lineages of Western Palearctic species complex, suggesting a strong phylogenetic relationship among these species.
- Microgravity disturbance analysis on Chinese space laboratory. [Journal Article]
- NMNPJ Microgravity 2019; 5:18
- Many scientific experiments are conducted in space; therefore, it is critical to understand the microgravity environment of a space laboratory. The first Chinese cargo ship, Tianzhou-1 (TZ-1), entere…
Many scientific experiments are conducted in space; therefore, it is critical to understand the microgravity environment of a space laboratory. The first Chinese cargo ship, Tianzhou-1 (TZ-1), entered space on 20 April, 2017 and later joined with the Tiangong-2 (TG-2) Chinese space laboratory. TZ-1 carried a high-precision electrostatic suspension accelerometer system (ES-ACC) for measuring the microgravity acceleration on the spacecraft and a microgravity-active vibration system (MAIS), which contained flexible quartz accelerometers (Q-ACC). The ES-ACC was able to provide a reduced-disturbance environment for the MAIS. The purpose of these two instruments was to validate novel technologies and as an opportunity to record the microgravity acceleration of TZ-1 and TG-2 in detail during spacecraft operation in different flight modes, with or without vibration isolation. The acceleration data were analyzed comprehensively in a time-frequency-amplitude spectrogram. Some periodical disturbances with orbital period and irregular signals related to certain in-orbit events were observed. After reducing those disturbances, the microgravity levels on TZ-1 and TG-2 could be resolved to better than 10-6 m/s2 in the root mean square in the frequency of 0.01-10 Hz. These accurate measurements aboard the Chinese space laboratory will provide valuable information to optimize working conditions for scientific experiments.
- Advanced method for fabrication of molecularly imprinted mesoporous organosilica with highly sensitive and selective recognition of glyphosate. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 16; 9(1):10293
- In this study, we synthesized molecularly imprinted mesoporous organosilica (MIMO) in the presence of a new precursor having a zwitterionic functional group and an imprint molecule, namely, glyphosat…
In this study, we synthesized molecularly imprinted mesoporous organosilica (MIMO) in the presence of a new precursor having a zwitterionic functional group and an imprint molecule, namely, glyphosate (MIMO-z). The precursor-glyphosate complex engaged in a typical base-catalyzed sol-gel reaction and the introduced zwitterion group remained intact in the framework after the extraction process had been completed. To test the rebinding performance of the target molecule, graphene quantum dots were encapsulated (MIMO-zQ) into pores and the fluorescence intensity change was monitored according to the concentration of glyphosate. When the MIMO-zQ suspension was diluted into the glyphosate solutions, notable fluorescence quenching occurred, right down to sub-nanomolar levels of concentration; 9.2 ± 0.18% quenching at 0.1 nM (0.017 ppb, 17 pg/mL). This result is one of the best reported to date for sensing using MIMO. The synthesized probe also exhibited a distinct signal compared to a series of competing compounds, aminomethylphosphonic acid and glycine; 4.3 ± 0.019% and 3.7 ± 0.041% quenching at 100 nM.
- Atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expression is regulated by histone deacetylase 1 in rat soleus muscle under hindlimb unloading. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 16; 9(1):10263
- It is known that MuRF-1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expression is increased in rat soleus muscle under unloading conditions. We aimed to determine the role of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the activa…
It is known that MuRF-1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA expression is increased in rat soleus muscle under unloading conditions. We aimed to determine the role of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in the activation of MuRF-1 and MAFbx expression in rat soleus muscle at the early stage of hindlimb suspension (HS). To this end, male Wistar rats (195-215 g) were divided into 3 groups (n = 8/group): control (C), 3-day HS (HS) and 3-day HS + HDAC1 inhibitor CI-994 (1 mg/kg/day) (HS + CI). Protein content and mRNA expression levels of regulatory molecules were determined by Western-blotting and RT-PCR. CI-994 treatment prevented HS-induced increase in HDAC1 nuclear content. As expected, 3-day HS induced a significant upregulation in MAFbx, MuRF-1 and ubiquitin. CI-994 administration resulted in an attenuation of HS-mediated increase in MAFbx and ubiquitin expression levels but did not affect MuRF-1 expression. A decrease in histone acetyltransferase p300 nuclear content in the HS group was prevented by CI-994 administration. There were no significant differences in the content of phosphorylated anabolic signaling molecules between HS group and HS + CI group. Thus, inhibition of HDAC1 prevented a HS-mediated increase in MAFbx and ubiquitin expression, but did not affect MuRF-1 gene expression.
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- Transoral Tubed Supraglottoplasty: A New Minimally Invasive Procedure for Aspiration. [Journal Article]
- AOAnn Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2019 Jul 17; :3489419862581
- CONCLUSIONS: TS is a minimally invasive procedure that can improve swallowing and reduce aspiration.