- Essential Oils as a Feed Additives: Pharmacokinetics and Potential Toxicity in Monogastric Animals. [Review]
- AAnimals (Basel) 2019 Jun 13; 9(6)
- Essential oils (EOs) are now a hot topic in finding modern substitutes for antibiotics. Many studies have shown positive results and confirmed their high antibacterial activity both in vitro and in v…
Essential oils (EOs) are now a hot topic in finding modern substitutes for antibiotics. Many studies have shown positive results and confirmed their high antibacterial activity both in vitro and in vivo. Deservedly, there is an attempt to use EOs as a substitute for antibiotics, which are currently limited by legislation in animal breeding. Given the potential of EOs, studies on their fate in the body need to be summarized. The content of EO's active substances varies depending on growing conditions and consequently on processing and storage. Their content also changes dynamically during the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and their effective concentration can be noticeably diluted at their place of action (small intestine and colon). Based on the solubility of the individual EO's active substances, they are eliminated from the body at different rates. Despite a strong antimicrobial effect, some oils can be toxic to the body and cause damage to the liver, kidneys, or gastrointestinal tissues. Reproductive toxicity has been reported for Origanum vulgare and Mentha arvensis. Several publications also address the effect on the genome. It has been observed that EOs can show both genoprotective effects (Syzygium aromaticum) and genotoxicity, as is the case of Cinnamomum camphor. This review shows that although oils are mainly studied as promising antimicrobials, it is also important to assess animal safety.
- Antibacterial activity and mode of action of acetone crude leaf extracts of under-investigated Syzygium and Eugenia (Myrtaceae) species on multidrug resistant porcine diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli. [Journal Article]
- BVBMC Vet Res 2019 May 22; 15(1):162
- CONCLUSIONS: The extracts of the plants had good antibacterial activity as well as a protective role on intestinal epithelial cells against enterotoxigenic E. coli bacterial adhesion. This supports the potential use of these species in limiting infection causes by E. coli. Some of these plants or extracts may be useful as phytogenic feed additives but it has to be investigated by animal feed trials.
- Inhibitory effects of Syzygium aromaticum and Camellia sinensis methanolic extracts on the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites. [Journal Article]
- TTTicks Tick Borne Dis 2019 Apr 28
- Currently, chemotherapeutics against piroplasmosis are also associated with toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. Therefore, the discovery of new drug compounds is necessary for the…
Currently, chemotherapeutics against piroplasmosis are also associated with toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. Therefore, the discovery of new drug compounds is necessary for the effective control of bovine and equine piroplasms. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Camellia sinensis (green tea) have several documented medicinal properties. In the present study, the growth-inhibiting effects of S. aromaticum and C. sinensis methanolic extracts were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for methanolic S. aromaticum against Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and Theileria equi were 109.8 ± 3.8, 8.7 ± 0.09, 76.4 ± 4.5, 19.6 ± 2.2, and 60 ± 7.3 μg/ml, respectively. Methanolic C. sinensis exhibited IC50 values of 114 ± 6.1, 71.3 ± 3.7, 35.9 ± 6.8, 32.7 ± 20.3, and 60.8 ± 7.9 μg/ml against B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi, respectively. The toxicity assay on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cell lines showed that methanolic S. aromaticum and methanolic C. sinensis affected only the viability of the MDBK cell line with half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) of 894.7 ± 4.9 and 473.7 ± 7.4 μg/ml, respectively, while the viability of NIH/3T3 and HFF cell lines was not affected even at 1000 μg/ml. In the in vivo experiment, methanolic S. aromaticum and methanolic C. sinensis oral treatments at 150 mg/kg inhibited the growth of Babesia microti in mice by 69.2% and 42.4%, respectively. These findings suggest that methanolic S. aromaticum and methanolic C. sinensis extracts have the potential as alternative remedies for treating piroplasmosis.
- Evaluation of the volatile profile of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) wines fermented with different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. [Journal Article]
- FSFood Sci Biotechnol 2019; 28(3):657-667
- The effect of four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (D254, VIC, BV818, and RV100) on the volatile profile of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) wine was investigated in this study. Alcohols…
The effect of four commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (D254, VIC, BV818, and RV100) on the volatile profile of wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) wine was investigated in this study. Alcohols and esters were the most two abundant groups of identified volatiles in wax apple wines. However, different S. cerevisiae strains possess various capacities in releasing/synthesizing volatiles with varied mRNA levels of genes involved in volatiles metabolism during wax apple wine fermentation. VIC, which yielded the highest total concentration of volatiles and largest number of volatiles with odor activity value (OAV) > 1, could be used as a starter culture to produce wax apple wine characterized with intense aroma. D254 and RV100, which produced the greatest variety of volatiles and scored the highest in global aroma, respectively, could be used to enhance the wine complexity. Four wax apple wines could be differentiated by their main volatile compounds.
- Isolation of Myricitrin and 3,5-di-O-Methyl Gossypetin from Syzygium samarangense and Evaluation of their Involvement in Protecting Keratinocytes against Oxidative Stress via Activation of the Nrf-2 Pathway. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 May 13; 24(9)
- The wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) is traditionally employed as an antibacterial and immunostimulant drug in traditional medicine. This plant is rich in different flavonoids and tannins. In this s…
The wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) is traditionally employed as an antibacterial and immunostimulant drug in traditional medicine. This plant is rich in different flavonoids and tannins. In this study, we isolated two compounds from S. samarangense leaves: myricitrin and 3,5-di-O-methyl gossypetin. Then, we investigated the mechanisms of action of the two compounds against oxidative stress (induced by sodium arsenite) and inflammation (induced by UV light) on human keratinocytes. We could clearly demonstrate that the pre-treatment of cells with both compounds was able to mitigate the negative effects induced by oxidative stress, as no alteration in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, or protein oxidation was observed. Additionally, both compounds were able to modulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways to counteract oxidative stress activation. Finally, we showed that 3,5-di-O-methyl gossypetin exerted its antioxidant activity through the nuclear transcription factor-2 (Nrf-2) pathway, stimulating the expression of antioxidant proteins, such as HO-1 and Mn-SOD-3.
- Metabolomics and marker-based stability studies of methanol extract of seeds of Syzygium cumini L. [Journal Article]
- PJPak J Pharm Sci 2019; 32(2):499-504
- Though, herbal medicines are prone to deterioration upon storage due to their complex nature, but less attention has been paid to investigating stability of such products to assign shelf-life. Theref…
Though, herbal medicines are prone to deterioration upon storage due to their complex nature, but less attention has been paid to investigating stability of such products to assign shelf-life. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the accelerated stability of methanolic extract of seeds of Syzygium cumini. The extract was kept at three different storage conditions (30oC/60% RH, 40oC/75% RH and 60oC/85% RH) for a period of 6 months. The samples withdrawn at 0 (before starting the study), 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months were analyzed to get UV-Visible metabolomics fingerprints and determine caffeic acid contents using RP-HPLC. The comparison of metabolomics fingerprints indicated that the extract was stable for 1 month at all the three storage conditions. However, caffeic acid contents were found to be intact for a longer period of time. Following the zero order degradation, caffeic acid was predicted to be stable for more than 3 years, if kept at 25oC. The results of the present study indicate that metabolomes of methanol extract of seeds of Syzygium cumini change very fast, suggesting the development of stable formulations.
- Water-soluble polyphenol-rich clove extract lowers pre- and post-prandial blood glucose levels in healthy and prediabetic volunteers: an open label pilot study. [Journal Article]
- BCBMC Complement Altern Med 2019 May 07; 19(1):99
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the therapeutic utility of PCE for maintaining healthy glucose metabolism and warrant further larger-scale clinical trials.
- Silver nanoparticles fabricated using medicinal plant extracts show enhanced antimicrobial and selective cytotoxic propensities. [Journal Article]
- INIET Nanobiotechnol 2019; 13(2):193-201
- Nanoparticles fabricated using medicinal plant extract have great potential in the area of nanomedicine. High surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticle enhances the local active biomolecules concentrat…
Nanoparticles fabricated using medicinal plant extract have great potential in the area of nanomedicine. High surface-to-volume ratio of nanoparticle enhances the local active biomolecules concentration, leading to many fold increase in the medicinal potentials. The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) fabricated using indigenous medicinal plants of India, Azadirachta indica and Syzygium cumini, have shown a significant effect on the viability of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Biofabrication of AgNP was confirmed using different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Extraction and purification of AgNP from non-conjugated plant moieties are done using centrifugation and size exclusion chromatography. The cytotoxic propensity of AgNP formulations was screened against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis), Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria, cancerous (HT1080) and non-cancerous (HEK293) cell lines. The nanoparticle formulations showed a relatively higher cytotoxic propensity against Gram-positive bacteria and cancerous cell lines. In addition, the surface roughness and reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements indicated that AgNP formulations mediate the cell activity predominantly by ROS-mediated disruptive change in membrane morphology upon direct interaction with the membrane. Hence, the nanoparticle formulations show an enhanced selective cytotoxic propensity towards Gram-positive bacteria and cancerous cell lines.
- Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the Syzygium polyanthum leaf extract from Malaysia. [Journal Article]
- VWVet World 2019; 12(2):236-242
- CONCLUSIONS: S. polyanthum exerts weak antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect to mammary carcinoma cells. The extract does not toxic to cells. However, further study is recommended, especially, this plant should be tested for in vivo.
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- In vitro assessment of synergistic combinations of essential oils against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). [Journal Article]
- EPExp Parasitol 2019; 201:42-48
- Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle, responsible for causing severe economic losses in the tropical and subtropical regions of t…
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae), is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle, responsible for causing severe economic losses in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The development of resistance to most of the commonly used chemical acaricides has stimulated the search for new herbal products as an eco-friendly tick control alternative. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro acaricidal activity of essential oils (EOs) of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) against unfed larvae of R. (B.)microplus by larval packet test. Also, various combinations were prepared by mixing of equal concentrations of any two and all three EOs and used to study the effects of interactions of mixtures against larvae of R. (B.) microplus. The lethal concentrations at 50% (LC50), 90% (LC90) and 99% (LC99) with 95% confidence limits (CL) were estimated by Probit analysis using PoloPlus. The computer software, CompuSyn, was used for determining the effects of interactions (synergistic, additive or antagonistic) of EO mixtures by calculation of Combination index (CI) and Dose-reduction index (DRI). Among the individual and mixture of two EOs, cinnamon EO and cinnamon EO + lemon grass EO combination showed highest acaricidal activity against R. (B.) microplus larvae. Further, the combination of cinnamon EO + lemon grass EO showed high synergism with CI value of 0.381, followed by cinnamon EO + clove EO showing moderate synergism whereas, clove EO + lemon grass EO showed only additive effect, with favorable dose reduction for each constituent drug in all three combinations. The combination of all three EOs (1:1:1) showed high synergism (CI value of 0.376) and favorable dose reduction (DRI index of 8.19, 25.64 and 4.64 for clove, cinnamon and lemon grass EOs, respectively) against R. (B.) microplus larvae.