- Brainstem atrophy in focal epilepsy destabilizes brainstem-brain interactions: Preliminary findings. [Journal Article]
- NCNeuroimage Clin 2019 Jun 03; 23:101888
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this small pilot study suggest that impaired brainstem-cortex gray matter connectivity in FE negatively affects the brainstem's ability to control cortical activation.
- A new blind source separation framework for signal analysis and artifact rejection in functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. [Journal Article]
- NNeuroimage 2019 Jun 13
- In the analysis of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals from real-world scenarios, artifact rejection is essential. However, currently there exists no gold-standard. Although a pleni…
In the analysis of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals from real-world scenarios, artifact rejection is essential. However, currently there exists no gold-standard. Although a plenitude of methodological approaches implicitly assume the presence of latent processes in the signals, elaborate Blind-Source-Separation methods have rarely been applied. A reason are challenging characteristics such as Non-instantaneous and non-constant coupling, correlated noise and statistical dependencies between signal components. We present a novel suitable BSS framework that tackles these issues by incorporating A) Independent Component Analysis methods that exploit both higher order statistics and sample dependency, B) multimodality, i.e., fNIRS with accelerometer signals, and C) Canonical-Correlation Analysis with temporal embedding. This enables analysis of signal components and rejection of motion-induced physiological hemodynamic artifacts that would otherwise be hard to identify. We implement a method for Blind Source Separation and Accelerometer based Artifact Rejection and Detection (BLISSA2RD). It allows the analysis of a novel n-back based cognitive workload paradigm in freely moving subjects, that is also presented in this manuscript. We evaluate on the corresponding data set and simulated ground truth data, making use of metrics based on 1st and 2nd order statistics and SNR and compare with three established methods: PCA, Spline and Wavelet-based artifact removal. Across 17 subjects, the method is shown to reduce movement induced artifacts by up to two orders of magnitude, improves the SNR of continuous hemodynamic signals in single channels by up to 10dB, and significantly outperforms conventional methods in the extraction of simulated Hemodynamic Response Functions from strongly contaminated data. The framework and methods presented can serve as an introduction to a new type of multivariate methods for the analysis of fNIRS signals and as a blueprint for artifact rejection in complex environments beyond the applied paradigm.
- Temporal trends of mercury differ across three northern white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) subpopulations. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Jun 04; 687:77-86
- The spatiotemporal trends of mercury (Hg) are crucial for the understanding of this ubiquitous and toxic contaminant. However, uncertainties often arise from comparison among studies using different …
The spatiotemporal trends of mercury (Hg) are crucial for the understanding of this ubiquitous and toxic contaminant. However, uncertainties often arise from comparison among studies using different species, analytical and statistical methods. The long-term temporal trends of Hg exposure were reconstructed for a key sentinel species, the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla). Body feathers were sampled from museum collections covering 150 years in time (from 1866 to 2015) from West Greenland (n = 124), Norway (n = 102), and Sweden (n = 87). A significant non-linear trend was observed in the Norwegian subpopulation, with a 60% increase in exposure occurring from 1866 to 1957 followed by a 40% decline until 2015. In the Swedish subpopulation, studied at a later period, the Hg exposure showed a drastic decline of 70% from 1967 to 2011. In contrast, no significant trend could be observed in the Greenland subpopulation. The additional analysis of dietary proxies (δ13C and δ15N) in general increased performance of the temporal trend models, but this was dependent on the subpopulation and study period. The downward trend of Hg coincided with the decreasing δ13C and δ15N in the Norwegian subpopulation, suggesting a potential dietary mitigation of Hg contamination. Hg exposure in both the Greenland and Norwegian subpopulations was consistently below the suggested threshold for adverse health effects (40.0 μg g-1), while the maximum exposure in the Swedish subpopulation was distinctively elevated (median: 46.0 μg g-1) and still remains well above natural background concentrations (maximum 5.0 μg g-1).
- Identification and molecular characterization of peroxiredoxin 2 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 13
- Peroxiredoxin (Prx), also named thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), is a selenium independent antioxidant enzyme that can protect organisms from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and…
Peroxiredoxin (Prx), also named thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), is a selenium independent antioxidant enzyme that can protect organisms from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is important for immune responses. In this study, the molecular cloning and characterization of a Prx2 homologue (CiPrx2) were described from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length cDNA of CiPrx2 was 1163 bp containing 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 52 bp, a 3'-UTR of 517 bp with the putative polyadenylation consensus signal (AATAAA), an open reading frame (ORF) of 594 bp encoding polypeptides of 197 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 21.84 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 5.93. The analysis results of multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree confirmed that CiPrx2 belong to the typical 2-Cys Prx subfamily. The CiPrx2 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues. The temporal expression of CiPrx2 were differentially induced infected with grass carp reovirus (GCRV), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in liver and spleen. Subcellular localization of CiPrx2-GFP fusion proteins were only distributed in the cytoplasm. The purified recombinant CiPrx2 possessed an apparent antioxidant activity and could protect DNA against oxidative damage. Finally, CiPrx2 proteins could obviously inhibit H2O2 and heavy metal toxicity. However, further researches are needed to better understand the regulation of CiPrx2 under oxidative stresses.
- Discovery and validation of temporal patterns involved in human brain ketometabolism in cerebral microdialysis fluids of traumatic brain injury patients. [Journal Article]
- EEBioMedicine 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: We identified two specific cerebral metabolic patterns that are closely linked to ketometabolism and were associated with both TIL and GOS. Our findings support the view that advanced metabolomics approaches combined with CMD may be applied in real-time to predict short-term treatment intensity and long-term patient outcome.
- Vitreous haemorrhage a rare manifestation of retinal astrocytic hamartoma: a paediatric case report. [Journal Article]
- ASArch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Vitreous haemorrhage is a rare complication of Retinal astrocytic hamartoma and funduscopic exploration is difficult. Systemic involvement should be ruled out.
- The Spectrum of Change in the Elite Athlete's Heart. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Soc Echocardiogr 2019 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Australian football is a sport that involves both strength and aerobic training. This study, unique in its length and detail, demonstrates that remodeling in the athlete's heart is a continuous spectrum of change. This remodeling occurs over time in response to high levels of exercise, with proportional increase in LV mass and LV dimensions.
- Temporal associations between medication adherence for patients with schizophrenia and opioid dependence: A 17-year Canadian Cohort Study. [Journal Article]
- SRSchizophr Res 2019 Jun 12
- The current study investigated whether a previously reported beneficial effect of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on antiretroviral adherence is also present in relation to antipsychotic treatmen…
The current study investigated whether a previously reported beneficial effect of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) on antiretroviral adherence is also present in relation to antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia. Administrative data were linked over a 17-year period for 1996 people who were dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and opioid dependence and, as an indicator of further marginalization, experienced at least one episode of correctional supervision in British Columbia. Adherence was estimated using the medication possession ratio (MPR ≥ 0.80), calculated in each 120-day period beginning with the first date of concurrent use of MMT and antipsychotic medication. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the association between independent and dependent variables. The probability of antipsychotic adherence doubled in periods that were preceded by a period of MMT adherence (AOR: P: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.90-2.26). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses yielded results similar to those derived through the primary analysis, examining: conviction history; length of follow-up; initiation of MMT prior to antipsychotic induction; excluding participants who died during the study period; and restricted to participants who received methadone exclusively as part of a MMT program. Despite a strong temporal association between MMT and antipsychotic adherence, overall MPRs for both prescriptions remained <0.50 throughout the study period. Antipsychotic adherence was more than twice as likely following periods of adherence to MMT among dually-diagnosed patients. Research is needed to identify the conditions responsible for MMT adherence, and to further clarify the relationship between opioid agonist treatment and antipsychotic pharmacotherapy in this vulnerable and under-studied population.
- Consistent within-group covariance of septal and temporal hippocampal neurogenesis with behavioral phenotypes for exploration and memory retention across wild and laboratory small rodents. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Res 2019 Jun 12; :112034
- Striking differences in the septo-temporal distribution of neurogenesis are found in different small rodents. Here, we assessed the association of adult hippocampal neurogenesis with behavioral respo…
Striking differences in the septo-temporal distribution of neurogenesis are found in different small rodents. Here, we assessed the association of adult hippocampal neurogenesis with behavioral responses to novelty, temporal and spatial sequence and reversal learning in wild, wild-derived and laboratory rodents using an automated testing apparatus, the IntelliCage. Behaviorally, DBA/2 and wild-derived house mice were quickest to explore a novel environment, wild wood mice and bank voles were slowest, and C57BL/6 intermediate. Rule learning (temporal and spatial) was fastest in wood mice and bank voles, while DBA/2 and house mice performed poorer. C57BL/6 performed similar to the house mice in the temporal task and similar to wild rodents in the spatial task. Using the number of DCX-positive neurons and proliferating, Ki67-positive cells in the septal, intermediate and temporal hippocampus as a proxy, an ANCOVA was used to test for within-group relations between neurogenesis and behavior. We found that higher numbers of DCX-positive cells in the temporal hippocampus were associated with an increased latency and a lower frequency to explore a novel environment. Temporal and spatial sequence learning was not associated with neurogenesis. In the spatial reversal task however, animals with higher septal neurogenesis showed a persevering phenotype and slower re-learning. Our findings provide strong evidence of septo-temporally segregated neurogenesis effects on behavior across five rodent strains and species. While temporal neurogenesis covaries with behavioral responses to novelty, septal neurogenesis relates to perseverance of a successfully learned spatial rule. Importantly, these associations were independent of species or strain and can be found in both wild and domesticated rodents.
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- Enhanced EGF receptor-signaling potentiates TGFβ-induced lens epithelial-mesenchymal transition. [Journal Article]
- EEExp Eye Res 2019 Jun 12; :107693
- The ocular lens is exposed to numerous growth factors that influence its behavior in diverse ways. While many of these, such as FGF and EGF promote normal cell behavior, TGFβ is unique in that it can…
The ocular lens is exposed to numerous growth factors that influence its behavior in diverse ways. While many of these, such as FGF and EGF promote normal cell behavior, TGFβ is unique in that it can also induce lens cell pathology, namely, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) leading to fibrotic cataract formation. The present study explores how EGF impacts on TGFβ-induced EMT in the lens. LECs in explants prepared from 21-day-old Wistar rats were treated with either 200 pg/ml TGFβ2, 5 ng/ml EGF, or a combination of these, with or without a 2-h pre-treatment of an EGFR inhibitor (PD153035), MEK inhibitor (U0126) or Smad3 inhibitor (SIS3). Co-treatment of LECs with TGFβ2 and EGF, compared with TGFβ2 alone, resulted in a more pronounced elongation and transdifferentiation of the LECs into myofibroblastic cells, with higher protein levels of mesenchymal cell markers (α-SMA and tropomyosin). Combining EGF with a less potent lower dose of TGFβ2 (50 pg/ml) induced LECs to undergo EMT equivalent to treatment with a higher dose of TGFβ2 (200 pg/ml) within 5 days of culture. EGF alone, nor the lower dose of TGFβ2, were able to induce EMT in LECs within 5 days. Co-treatment of LECs with EGF and TGFβ2 induced a temporal shift in the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3, ERK1/2 and EGFR and changed the expression patterns of downstream EMT target genes, compared to treatment of LECs with either growth factor alone. Inhibition of EGFR-signaling with PD153035 blocked the EMT response induced by co-treatment with EGF and TGFβ2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EGF can potentiate TGFβ2 activity to enhance EMT in LECs, further highlighting the importance of EGFR-signaling in cataract formation. By directly blocking EGFR signaling, the activity of both EGF and TGFβ2 can be simultaneously reduced, thereby serving as a potential target for cataract prevention.