- Double-Nerve Transfer to the Axillary Nerve in Traumatic Upper Trunk Brachial Plexus Injuries Using an Axillary Approach: Anatomical Description and Preliminary Case Series. [Journal Article]Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020ON
- CONCLUSIONS: A double-nerve transfer, based on radial and ulnar fascicles, appears to be an adequate option to reanimate both motor branches of the AN, providing satisfactory shoulder active elevations and external rotation in C5/C6 BPI patients.
- StatPearls: Median Nerve Injury [BOOK]StatPearls Publishing: Treasure Island (FL)BOOK
- The median nerve, also called the 'eye of the hand,' is a mixed nerve with a role of primary importance in the functionality of the hand. It innervates the group of flexor-pronator muscles in the forearm and most of the musculature present in the radial portion of the hand, controlling abduction of the thumb, flexion of the hand at the wrist, flexion of the digital phalanx of the fingers. Again t…
The median nerve, also called the 'eye of the hand,' is a mixed nerve with a role of primary importance in the functionality of the hand. It innervates the group of flexor-pronator muscles in the forearm and most of the musculature present in the radial portion of the hand, controlling abduction of the thumb, flexion of the hand at the wrist, flexion of the digital phalanx of the fingers. Again the nerve allows the sensory innervation to the flying face of the thumb, index, middle and radial side of the ring finger and the entire palmar region of the radial half of the hand. It also provides sensitivity to the dorsal skin of the last two phalanges of the index and middle fingers. The nerve forms in the cervical area of the spinal cord from the medial and lateral cord of the brachial plexus. These cords form from the ventral primary rami of cervical nerve roots five to eight, as well as, the first thoracic spinal segment. The median nerve descends medially to the brachial artery at the level of the humerus and enters the forearm between the two heads of pronator teres. The nerve is very superficial in the cubital fossa and lies deep to bicipital aponeurosis. In the forearm, the median nerve lies deep to the flexor digitorum superficialis and superficial to flexor digitorum profundus. It then enters the palm under the flexor retinaculum lateral to the tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis and posterior to the tendon of palmaris longus. Pathology and injury to the median nerve can occur anywhere along the length of the median nerve. Of note, in the arm, there are no muscles innervated by the median nerve. Although a branch to pronator teres is innervated proximal to the elbow joint, there are a few vascular branches of the median nerve that supply to the brachial artery and articular branches of the median nerve innervate the elbow joint. In the forearm, the median nerve innervates the flexor digitorum superficialis, pronator teres, the medial half of the pronator quadratus, the palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor carpi radialis. Furthermore, in the hand, the flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus are innervated by the anterior interossei branch of the median nerve. Articular branches of the median nerve feed the carpal joints, distal radioulnar, and radiocarpal joint. Multiple communicating branches of the median nerve connect to the ulnar nerve. The median nerve innervates the muscles of the thenar compartments of the palm, flexor pollicis longus, abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and adductor pollicis. Also, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve innervates the skin over the thenar eminences and lateral two and a half fingers on the palmar aspect of the hand and the skin over the two and a half fingers over the dorsum of the hand. The median nerve can be affected by acute traumatic, chronic micro traumatic, and compressive lesions. The nerve can also become damaged during multiple-cause degenerative processes and neuropathies. The different types of lesions can affect the median nerve at various levels along its long path from the brachial plexus and axilla to the hand. Neuropathies mainly concern the distal territory. Peripherally, the median nerve can become compressed under the fascial sheath of the flexor retinaculum, which often causes burning pain, numbness, and tingling (neuropathic pain). This condition is known as entrapment syndrome or carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel syndrome pain is explainable as a needle and pin sensation, along with the distribution of the median nerve. The condition is idiopathic and is also associated with hypothyroidism, pregnancy, and diabetes. Decreased sensation over a patient's thenar eminence is an indication of a medial nerve injury that is proximal to the carpal tunnel. The sensation of the thenar eminence receives its nerve supply by a branch of the median nerve, which is proximal to the carpal tunnel, the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve. Clinically, symptoms can be intermittent with flares and remissions.
- Spontaneous inflammation and necrosis of the falciform and round ligaments: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]J Med Case Rep 2020; 14(1):17JM
- CONCLUSIONS: Isolated falciform and round-ligament inflammation and necrosis is a rare condition that is difficult to diagnose because it can present mimicking a wide variety of intra-abdominal pathologies, particularly gallbladder pathologies. It is often best treated by laparoscopic resection. Unlike prior reports, our review of the literature, which is the largest that we know of to date, shows that males and females are equally affected. Greater awareness of this entity will aid in future diagnosis.
- Factors Affecting Local and Intra Hepatic Distant Recurrence After Surgery for Hcc: An Alternative Perspective on Microvascular Invasion and Satellitosis - A Western European Multicentre Study. [Journal Article]J Gastrointest Surg 2020JG
- CONCLUSIONS: MVI and satellitosis are predictive factors of intrahepatic distant recurrence, configuring a probable hallmark of advanced systemic disease, regardless of the treatment. LR has to be considered the expression of surgical failure.
- Consensus recommendations on the classification, definition and diagnostic criteria of hip-related pain in young and middle-aged active adults from the International Hip-related Pain Research Network, Zurich 2018. [Journal Article]Br J Sports Med 2020BJ
- There is no agreement on how to classify, define or diagnose hip-related pain-a common cause of hip and groin pain in young and middle-aged active adults. This complicates the work of clinicians and researchers. The International Hip-related Pain Research Network consensus group met in November 2018 in Zurich aiming to make recommendations on how to classify, define and diagnose hip disease in yo…
There is no agreement on how to classify, define or diagnose hip-related pain-a common cause of hip and groin pain in young and middle-aged active adults. This complicates the work of clinicians and researchers. The International Hip-related Pain Research Network consensus group met in November 2018 in Zurich aiming to make recommendations on how to classify, define and diagnose hip disease in young and middle-aged active adults with hip-related pain as the main symptom. Prior to the meeting we performed a scoping review of electronic databases in June 2018 to determine the definition, epidemiology and diagnosis of hip conditions in young and middle-aged active adults presenting with hip-related pain. We developed and presented evidence-based statements for these to a panel of 37 experts for discussion and consensus agreement. Both non-musculoskeletal and serious hip pathological conditions (eg, tumours, infections, stress fractures, slipped capital femoral epiphysis), as well as competing musculoskeletal conditions (eg, lumbar spine) should be excluded when diagnosing hip-related pain in young and middle-aged active adults. The most common hip conditions in young and middle-aged active adults presenting with hip-related pain are: (1) femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome, (2) acetabular dysplasia and/or hip instability and (3) other conditions without a distinct osseous morphology (labral, chondral and/or ligamentum teres conditions), and that these terms are used in research and clinical practice. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging have limited diagnostic utility; a comprehensive approach is therefore essential. A negative flexion-adduction-internal rotation test helps rule out hip-related pain although its clinical utility is limited. Anteroposterior pelvis and lateral femoral head-neck radiographs are the initial diagnostic imaging of choice-advanced imaging should be performed only when requiring additional detail of bony or soft-tissue morphology (eg, for definitive diagnosis, research setting or when planning surgery). We recommend clear, detailed and consistent methodology of bony morphology outcome measures (definition, measurement and statistical reporting) in research. Future research on conditions with hip-related pain as the main symptom should include high-quality prospective studies on aetiology and prognosis. The most common hip conditions in active adults presenting with hip-related pain are: (1) FAI syndrome, (2) acetabular dysplasia and/or hip instability and (3) other conditions without distinct osseous morphology including labral, chondral and/or ligamentum teres conditions. The last category should not be confused with the incidental imaging findings of labral, chondral and/or ligamentum teres pathology in asymptomatic people. Future research should refine our current recommendations by determining the clinical utility of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging in prospective studies.
- [Internal fixation of lateral and medial borders for displaced scapular body fractures via minimally invasive approach:results of 23 cases]. [Journal Article]Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019; 48(6):651-656ZD
- CONCLUSIONS: The lateral-medial combined fixation through minimally invasive surgical approach for the scapula body fractures allows visualization of fracture reduction without extensive muscular or subcutaneous flaps, and is associated with successful fracture healing and high functional scores of the shoulder.
- Residual rotation of forearm amputation: cadaveric study. [Journal Article]BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020; 21(1):40BM
- CONCLUSIONS: Close proximity of the amputation site to the elbow decreased the residual rotation significantly compared to residual rotation of wrist disarticulation. The preservation of pronosupination was 80% at 18 cm forearm stump. Although the pronator teres and the pronator quadratus could make a full residual pronation separately, the supinator was essential to a residual supination.
- Distal pronator teres motor branch transfer for wrist extension restoration in radial nerve paralysis. [Journal Article]J Neurosurg 2020; :1-7JN
- CONCLUSIONS: The distal PT motor branch is suitable for reinnervation of the ECRB in radial nerve paralysis, for as long as 7-12 months postinjury.
- Influence of baseline QRS on the left ventricular ejection fraction recovery after frequent premature ventricular complex ablation. [Journal Article]Europace 2020E
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LV systolic dysfunction, intrinsic QRS duration is inversely related to the probability and the degree of echocardiographic response after frequent PVC ablation. Patients with a QRS duration >130 ms at baseline have the poorer response after ablation.
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- MRI Is Better Than CT Scan for Detection of Structural Pathologies After Traumatic Posterior Hip Dislocations in Children and Adolescents. [Journal Article]J Pediatr Orthop 2020; 40(2):86-92JP
- CONCLUSIONS: MRI is superior to CT scan for detection of structural injuries in children and adolescents with traumatic hip dislocation. The unique structural injuries included entrapment of posterior labrum and posterior unossified acetabular fractures could be seen only at MRI. These findings will impact surgical decision making of these injuries.