- Cardiac myosin activation with 2-deoxy-ATP via increased electrostatic interactions with actin. [Journal Article]
- PNProc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 May 20
- The naturally occurring nucleotide 2-deoxy-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP) can be used by cardiac muscle as an alternative energy substrate for myosin chemomechanical activity. We and others have pr…
The naturally occurring nucleotide 2-deoxy-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP) can be used by cardiac muscle as an alternative energy substrate for myosin chemomechanical activity. We and others have previously shown that dATP increases contractile force in normal hearts and models of depressed systolic function, but the structural basis of these effects has remained unresolved. In this work, we combine multiple techniques to provide structural and functional information at the angstrom-nanometer and millisecond time scales, demonstrating the ability to make both structural measurements and quantitative kinetic estimates of weak actin-myosin interactions that underpin sarcomere dynamics. Exploiting dATP as a molecular probe, we assess how small changes in myosin structure translate to electrostatic-based changes in sarcomere function to augment contractility in cardiac muscle. Through Brownian dynamics simulation and computational structural analysis, we found that deoxy-hydrolysis products [2-deoxy-adenosine 5'-diphosphate (dADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi)] bound to prepowerstroke myosin induce an allosteric restructuring of the actin-binding surface on myosin to increase the rate of cross-bridge formation. We then show experimentally that this predicted effect translates into increased electrostatic interactions between actin and cardiac myosin in vitro. Finally, using small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis of sarcomere structure, we demonstrate that the proposed increased electrostatic affinity of myosin for actin causes a disruption of the resting conformation of myosin motors, resulting in their repositioning toward the thin filament before activation. The dATP-mediated structural alterations in myosin reported here may provide insight into an improved criterion for the design or selection of small molecules to be developed as therapeutic agents to treat systolic dysfunction.
- Purification of the Dendritic Filopodia-rich Fraction. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2019 May 02; (147)
- Dendritic filopodia are thin and long protrusions based on the actin filament, and they extend and retract as if searching for a target axon. When the dendritic filopodia establish contact with a tar…
Dendritic filopodia are thin and long protrusions based on the actin filament, and they extend and retract as if searching for a target axon. When the dendritic filopodia establish contact with a target axon, they begin maturing into spines, leading to the formation of a synapse. Telencephalin (TLCN) is abundantly localized in dendritic filopodia and is gradually excluded from spines. Overexpression of TLCN in cultured hippocampal neurons induces dendritic filopodia formation. We showed that telencephalin strongly binds to an extracellular matrix molecule, vitronectin. Vitronectin-coated microbeads induced phagocytic cup formation on neuronal dendrites. In the phagocytic cup, TLCN, TLCN-binding proteins such as phosphorylated Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (phospho-ERM), and F-actin are accumulated, which suggests that components of the phagocytic cup are similar to those of dendritic filopodia. Thus, we developed a method for purifying the phagocytic cup instead of dendritic filopodia. Magnetic polystyrene beads were coated with vitronectin, which is abundantly present in the culture medium of hippocampal neurons and which induces phagocytic cup formation on neuronal dendrites. After 24 h of incubation, the phagocytic cups were mildly solubilized with detergent and collected using a magnet separator. After washing the beads, the binding proteins were eluted and analyzed by silver staining and Western blotting. In the binding fraction, TLCN and actin were abundantly present. In addition, many proteins identified from the fraction were localized to the dendritic filopodia; thus, we named the binding fraction as the dendritic filopodia-rich fraction. This article describes details regarding the purification method for the dendritic filopodia-rich fraction.
- Unraveling the Origin and Mechanism of Nanofilament Formation in Polycrystalline SrTiO3 Resistive-Switching Memories. [Journal Article]
- AMAdv Mater 2019 May 20; :e1901322
- Three central themes in the study of the phenomenon of resistive switching are the nature of the conducting phase, why it forms, and how it forms. In this study, the answers to all three questions ar…
Three central themes in the study of the phenomenon of resistive switching are the nature of the conducting phase, why it forms, and how it forms. In this study, the answers to all three questions are provided by performing switching experiments in situ in a transmission electron microscope on thin films of the model system polycrystalline SrTiO3 . On the basis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and in situ current-voltage measurements, the conducting phase is identified to be SrTi11 O20 . This phase is only observed at specific grain boundaries, and a Ruddlesden-Popper phase, Sr3 Ti2 O7 , is typically observed adjacent to the conducting phase. These results allow not only the proposal that filament formation in this system has a thermodynamic origin-it is driven by electrochemical polarization and the local oxygen activity in the film decreasing below a critical value-but also the deduction of a phase diagram for strongly reduced SrTiO3 . Furthermore, why many conducting filaments are nucleated at one electrode but only one filament wins the race to the opposite electrode is also explained. The work thus provides detailed insights into the origin and mechanisms of filament generation and rupture.
- Omecamtiv Mecarbil Slows Myosin Kinetics in Skinned Rat Myocardium at Physiological Temperature. [Journal Article]
- BJBiophys J 2019 Apr 25
- Heart failure is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the heart muscle becomes weakened and cannot adequately circulate blood and nutrients around the body. Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a comp…
Heart failure is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the heart muscle becomes weakened and cannot adequately circulate blood and nutrients around the body. Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a compound that has been developed to treat systolic heart failure via targeting the cardiac myosin heavy chain to increase myocardial contractility. Biophysical and biochemical studies have found that OM increases calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity of contraction by prolonging the myosin working stroke and increasing the actin-myosin cross-bridge duty ratio. Most in vitro studies probing the effects of OM on cross-bridge kinetics and muscle force production have been conducted at subphysiological temperature, even though temperature plays a critical role in enzyme activity and cross-bridge function. Herein, we used skinned, ventricular papillary muscle strips from rats to investigate the effects of [OM] on Ca2+-activated force production, cross-bridge kinetics, and myocardial viscoelasticity at physiological temperature (37°C). We find that OM only increases myocardial contractility at submaximal Ca2+ activation levels and not maximal Ca2+ activation levels. As [OM] increased, the kinetic rate constants for cross-bridge recruitment and detachment slowed for both submaximal and maximal Ca2+-activated conditions. These findings support a mechanism by which OM increases cardiac contractility at physiological temperature via increasing cross-bridge contributions to thin-filament activation as cross-bridge kinetics slow and the duration of cross-bridge attachment increases. Thus, force only increases at submaximal Ca2+ activation due to cooperative recruitment of neighboring cross-bridges, because thin-filament activation is not already saturated. In contrast, OM does not increase myocardial force production for maximal Ca2+-activated conditions at physiological temperature because cooperative activation of thin filaments may already be saturated.
- Therapeutic Aspects in Congenital Myopathies. [Journal Article]
- SPSemin Pediatr Neurol 2019; 29:71-82
- The congenital myopathies are a genetically heterogeneous and diverse group of early-onset, nondystrophic neuromuscular disorders. While the originally reported "classical" entities within this group…
The congenital myopathies are a genetically heterogeneous and diverse group of early-onset, nondystrophic neuromuscular disorders. While the originally reported "classical" entities within this group - Central Core Disease, Multiminicore Disease, Nemaline Myopathy, and Centronuclear Myopathy - were defined by the predominant finding on muscle biopsy, "novel" forms with multiple, subtle, and unusual histopathologic features have been described more recently, reflective of an expanding phenotypical spectrum. The main disease mechanisms concern excitation-contraction coupling, intracellular calcium homeostasis, and thin/thick filament interactions. Management to date has been mainly supportive. Therapeutic strategies currently at various stages of exploration include genetic interventions aimed at direct correction of the underlying genetic defect, enzyme replacement therapy, and pharmacologic approaches, either specifically targeting the principal effect of the underlying gene mutation, or addressing its downstream consequences more generally. Clinical trial development is accelerating but will require more robust natural history data and tailored outcome measures.
- Expression of troponin subunits in the rat renal afferent arteriole. [Journal Article]
- ILIUBMB Life 2019 May 02
- Vascular smooth muscle cells of the renal afferent arteriole are unusual in that they must be able to contract very rapidly in response to a sudden increase in systemic blood pressure in order to pro…
Vascular smooth muscle cells of the renal afferent arteriole are unusual in that they must be able to contract very rapidly in response to a sudden increase in systemic blood pressure in order to protect the downstream glomerular capillaries from catastrophic damage. We showed that this could be accounted for, in part, by exclusive expression, at the protein level, of the "fast" (B) isoforms of smooth muscle myosin II heavy chains in the afferent arteriole, in contrast to other vascular smooth muscle cells such as the rat aorta and efferent arteriole which express exclusively the "slow" (A) isoforms (Shiraishi et al. (2003) FASEB. J. 17, 2284-2286). As contraction of the more rapidly contracting striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscles is regulated by the thin filament-associated troponin (Tn) system, we hypothesized that Tn or a Tn-like system may exist in afferent arteriolar cells and contribute to the unusually rapid contraction of this tissue in response to increased intraluminal pressure. We examined the expression of TnC (Ca2+ -binding subunit), TnI (inhibitory subunit), and TnT (tropomyosin-binding subunit) in vascular smooth muscle cells of the rat renal afferent arteriole at the mRNA level. Fast-twitch skeletal muscle and slow-twitch skeletal muscle/cardiac TnC isoforms and slow-twitch skeletal muscle and cardiac TnI isoforms were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and confirmed by cDNA sequencing. Furthermore, cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle TnI isoforms, but not fast-twitch skeletal muscle TnI, were detected in isolated afferent arterioles at the protein level by proximity ligation assay. Finally, striated muscle myosin II heavy chain expression was identified in isolated rat afferent arterioles by RT-PCR. We conclude that, in addition to Ca2+ -mediated phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chains, contraction of the afferent arteriole may be regulated by a mechanism normally associated with the much more rapidly contracting cardiac and skeletal muscles, which involves Ca2+ binding to TnC, leading to alleviation of inhibition of the actomyosin MgATPase by TnI and tropomyosin and rapid contraction of the vessel.
- Troponin structure and function: a view of recent progress. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Muscle Res Cell Motil 2019 Apr 27
- The molecular mechanism by which Ca2+ binding and phosphorylation regulate muscle contraction through Troponin is not yet fully understood. Revealing the differences between the relaxed and active st…
The molecular mechanism by which Ca2+ binding and phosphorylation regulate muscle contraction through Troponin is not yet fully understood. Revealing the differences between the relaxed and active structure of cTn, as well as the conformational changes that follow phosphorylation has remained a challenge for structural biologists over the years. Here we review the current understanding of how Ca2+, phosphorylation and disease-causing mutations affect the structure and dynamics of troponin to regulate the thin filament based on electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, NMR and molecular dynamics methodologies.
- Microscopic heat pulses activate cardiac thin filaments. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gen Physiol 2019 Apr 22
- During the excitation-contraction coupling of the heart, sarcomeres are activated via thin filament structural changes (i.e., from the "off" state to the "on" state) in response to a release of Ca2+ …
During the excitation-contraction coupling of the heart, sarcomeres are activated via thin filament structural changes (i.e., from the "off" state to the "on" state) in response to a release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This process involves chemical reactions that are highly dependent on ambient temperature; for example, catalytic activity of the actomyosin ATPase rises with increasing temperature. Here, we investigate the effects of rapid heating by focused infrared (IR) laser irradiation on the sliding of thin filaments reconstituted with human α-tropomyosin and bovine ventricular troponin in an in vitro motility assay. We perform high-precision analyses measuring temperature by the fluorescence intensity of rhodamine-phalloidin-labeled F-actin coupled with a fluorescent thermosensor sheet containing the temperature-sensitive dye Europium (III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate trihydrate. This approach enables a shift in temperature from 25°C to ∼46°C within 0.2 s. We find that in the absence of Ca2+ and presence of ATP, IR laser irradiation elicits sliding movements of reconstituted thin filaments with a sliding velocity that increases as a function of temperature. The heating-induced acceleration of thin filament sliding likewise occurs in the presence of Ca2+ and ATP; however, the temperature dependence is more than twofold less pronounced. These findings could indicate that in the mammalian heart, the on-off equilibrium of the cardiac thin filament state is partially shifted toward the on state in diastole at physiological body temperature, enabling rapid and efficient myocardial dynamics in systole.
- Evolution of instabilities in filament buckling processes. [Journal Article]
- PRPhys Rev E 2019; 99(3-1):033004
- In this work we study the dynamical buckling process of a thin filament immersed in a highly viscous medium. We perform an experimental study to track the shape evolution of the filament during a con…
In this work we study the dynamical buckling process of a thin filament immersed in a highly viscous medium. We perform an experimental study to track the shape evolution of the filament during a constant velocity compression. Numerical simulations reproduce the dynamical features observed from the experimental data and allow quantifying the filament's load. We observe that both the filament's load and the wave number evolve in a stepwise manner. In order to achieve a physical insight of the process, we apply a theoretical model to describe the buckling of a filament in a viscous medium. We solve a hydrodynamic equation in terms of normal modes for clamped-clamped boundary conditions and constant applied load. We find a good agreement between experimental data and simulations, suggesting that the proposed mechanistic model captures the essential features underlying the dynamical buckling process.
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- Type IV pili: dynamics, biophysics and functional consequences. [Review]
- NRNat Rev Microbiol 2019 Apr 15
- The surfaces of many bacteria are decorated with long, exquisitely thin appendages called type IV pili (T4P), dynamic filaments that are rapidly polymerized and depolymerized from a pool of pilin sub…
The surfaces of many bacteria are decorated with long, exquisitely thin appendages called type IV pili (T4P), dynamic filaments that are rapidly polymerized and depolymerized from a pool of pilin subunits. Cycles of pilus extension, binding and retraction enable T4P to perform a phenomenally diverse array of functions, including twitching motility, DNA uptake and microcolony formation. On the basis of recent developments, a comprehensive understanding is emerging of the molecular architecture of the T4P machinery and the filament it builds, providing mechanistic insights into the assembly and retraction processes. Combined microbiological and biophysical approaches have revealed how T4P dynamics influence self-organization of bacteria, how bacteria respond to external stimuli to regulate T4P activity for directed movement, and the role of T4P retraction in surface sensing. In this Review, we discuss the T4P machine architecture and filament structure and present current molecular models for T4P dynamics, with a particular focus on recent insights into T4P retraction. We also discuss the functional consequences of T4P dynamics, which have important implications for bacterial lifestyle and pathogenesis.