- Arsenic exposure and perception of health risk due to groundwater contamination in Majuli (river island), Assam, India. [Journal Article]
- EGEnviron Geochem Health 2019 Jul 19
- Island populations are rarely studied for risk of arsenic (As) poisoning. As poisoning, multimetal contamination and people's perceptions of health risks were assessed on India's Majuli Island, the l…
Island populations are rarely studied for risk of arsenic (As) poisoning. As poisoning, multimetal contamination and people's perceptions of health risks were assessed on India's Majuli Island, the largest inhabited river island in the world. This holistic approach illustrated the association of groundwater contamination status with consequent health risk by measuring levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in groundwater, borehole sediment and biological samples (hair, nails and urine). Piper and Gibbs's plots discerned the underlying hydrogeochemical processes in the aquifer. Demographic data and qualitative factors were evaluated to assess the risks and uncertainties of exposure. The results exhibited significant enrichment of groundwater with As, Mn and Fe along with significant body burden. Maximum Hazard Index values indicated severe non-carcinogenic health impacts as well as a significantly elevated risk of cancer for both adults and children. Most (99%) of the locally affected population did not know about the adverse health impacts of metal contamination, and only 15% understood bodily ailments and health issues. Various aspects of the island environment were used to elucidate the status of contamination and future risk of disease. A projection showed adverse health outcomes rising significantly, especially among the young population of Majuli, due to overexposure to not only As but also Ba, Mn and Fe.
- Molecular basis of the scalp-ear-nipple syndrome unraveled by the characterization of disease-causing KCTD1 mutants. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 19; 9(1):10519
- The scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp and malformations of breast, external ears, digits, and nails. Genetic analyses have …
The scalp-ear-nipple (SEN) syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by cutis aplasia of the scalp and malformations of breast, external ears, digits, and nails. Genetic analyses have shown that the disease is caused by missense mutations of the KCTD1 protein, although the functional/structural basis of SEN insurgence is hitherto unknown. With the aim of unravelling the molecular basis of the SEN syndrome associated with KCTD1 mutations we here expressed and characterized several disease causing mutants. A preliminary dissection of the protein provides insights into the role that individual domains play in KCTD1 stability. The characterization of SEN-causing mutants indicates that, although the mutation sites are located in distant regions of the BTB domain or of the pre-BTB region, all of them are unable to interact with the transcription factor AP-2α, a well-known KCTD1 biological partner. Notably, all mutations, including the one located in the pre-BTB region, produce a significant destabilization of the protein. The structural role of the pre-BTB region in KCTD1 and other proteins of the family is corroborated by its sequence conservation in orthologs and paralogs. Interestingly, SEN-causing mutations also favor the tendency of KCTD1 to adopt structural states that are characterized by the ability to bind the β-amyloid fluorescent dye thioflavin T. The formation of aggregation-prone species may have important implications for the disease etiology. Collectively, these findings provide an intriguing picture of the functional and structural alterations induced by KCTD1 mutations that ultimately lead to disease.
- SIRPα deficiency accelerates the pathologic process in models of Parkinson disease. [Journal Article]
- GLIAGlia 2019 Jul 19
- Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is a crucial pathophysiological contributor to several aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). During the process of aging …
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is a crucial pathophysiological contributor to several aging-related neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). During the process of aging or stress, microglia undergoes several transcriptional and morphological changes that contribute to aberrant immunological responses, which is known as priming. Key molecules involved in the process, however, are not clearly defined. In the present study, we have demonstrated that level of microglial signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) decreased during aging or inflammatory challenge. Functional studies suggested that downregulation of SIRPα released the brake of inflammatory response in microglia, revealing an inhibitory effect of SIRPα in microglial activation. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of SIRPα downregulation in PD pathogenesis using both cell culture and animal models. Our results showed that SIRPα deficiency resulted in abnormal inflammatory response and phagocytic activity of microglia, which in turn, further accelerated degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine or lipopolysaccharides mice models. These results collectively demonstrate that dysregulation of SIRPα signaling in microglia during aging plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurological disorders such as PD.
- Design of Improved Intertrochanteric Fracture Treatment (DRIFT) Study: Protocol for Biomechanical Testing and Finite Element Analysis of Stable and Unstable Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated With Intramedullary Nailing or Dynamic Compression Screw. [Journal Article]
- JRJMIR Res Protoc 2019 Jul 18; 8(7):e12845
- CONCLUSIONS: The optimization of the biomechanical behavior of the fracture-osteosynthesis model by the application of the ideal reduction angle and implant is expected to have a positive effect to the rate of mechanical failure and, subsequently, the healing rates, morbidity, and mortality in this fragile patient group.
- Short versus long intramedullary nails for treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures (AO 31-A1 and AO 31-A2): a systematic review. [Review]
- EJEur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2019 Jul 18
- CONCLUSIONS: No difference in complication rate leading to reoperation was found in the individual studies or in the meta-analysis [OR 0.89 (0.49; 1.16)]. There is no difference in the length of hospital stay between the two nail cohorts; a shorter operating time inserting a short nail compared to inserting a long nail was found (p < 0.0001). In the meta-analysis, we found no difference in 1-year mortality [OR 1.20 (0.80; 1.79)].
- Hip Fractures: Relevant Anatomy, Classification, and Biomechanics of Fracture and Fixation. [Journal Article]
- GOGeriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2019; 10:2151459319859139
- CONCLUSIONS: The goal of surgical treatment of hip fractures is surgical treatment that allows for early mobilization and weight bearing. A full understanding of the anatomy and fracture characteristics will allow the surgeon to correctly apply the right implant to allow for uneventful healing. Surgeons need to be aware, however, of complications that can arise when using specific implants. Further research is ongoing to further determine the treatments that will allow optimal cost-effective care for the geriatric patient with hip fracture.
- Nail Lichen Planus in a Patient with Cogan Syndrome: Report of a Case and Discussion. [Case Reports]
- CRCase Rep Dermatol 2019 May-Aug; 11(2):175-179
- Cogan syndrome and lichen planus represent two autoimmune disorders. Cogan syndrome is a very rare type of ANCA-negative vasculitis affecting the eyes and vestibulocochlear system. It has been associ…
Cogan syndrome and lichen planus represent two autoimmune disorders. Cogan syndrome is a very rare type of ANCA-negative vasculitis affecting the eyes and vestibulocochlear system. It has been associated with other autoimmune disorders, none of them showing any lichenoid inflammation. We herein report the first case of a patient that suffered from Cogan disease and developed isolated lichen planus on all nails a few years after the first diagnosis. The combination of two autoimmune disorders is not unusual and raises the question of common immunogenetic pathomechanisms.
- Using human hair and nails as biomarkers to assess exposure of potentially harmful elements to populations living near mine waste dumps. [Journal Article]
- EGEnviron Geochem Health 2019 Jul 17
- Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were measured in human hair/nails, staple crops and drinking water to ascertain the …
Potentially harmful elements (PHEs) manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were measured in human hair/nails, staple crops and drinking water to ascertain the level of exposure to dust transference via wind and rain erosion for members of the Mugala community living near a mine waste dump in the Zambian Copperbelt. The mean PHE concentrations of hair in decreasing order were Zn (137 ± 21 mg/kg), Cu (38 ± 7 mg/kg), Mn (16 ± 2 mg/kg), Pb (4.3 ± 1.9 mg/kg), Ni (1.3 ± 0.2 mg/kg) and Cr (1.2 ± 0.2 mg/kg), Co (0.9 ± 0.2 mg/kg) and Cd (0.30 ± 0.02 mg/kg). Whilst for toenails the decreasing order of mean concentrations was Zn (172 ± 27 mg/kg), Cu (30 ± 5 mg/kg), Mn (12 ± 2 mg/kg), Pb (4.8 ± 0.5 mg/kg), Ni (1.7 ± 0.14 mg/kg) and Co (1.0 ± 0.02 mg/kg), Cr (0.6 ± 0.1 mg/kg) and Cd (0.1 ± 0.002 mg/kg). The concentration of these potentially harmful elements (PHEs) varied greatly among different age groups. The results showed that Mn, Co, Pb, Cd and Zn were above the interval values (Biolab in Nutritional and environmental medicine, Hair Mineral Analysis, London, 2012) at 0.2-2.0 mg/kg for Mn, 0.01-0.20 mg/kg for Co, < 2.00 mg/kg for Pb, < 0.10 mg/kg for Cd and 0.2-2.00 mg/kg for Zn, whilst Ni, Cu and Cr concentrations were within the normal range concentrations of < 1.40 mg/kg, 10-100 mg/kg and 0.1-1.5 mg/kg, respectively. Dietary intake of PHEs was assessed from the ingestion of vegetables grown in Mugala village, with estimated PHE intakes expressed on a daily basis calculated for Mn (255), Pb (48), Ni (149) and Cd (33) µg/kg bw/day. For these metals, DI via vegetables was above the proposed limits of the provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) (WHO in Evaluation of certain food additive and contaminants, Seventy-third report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, 2011) for Mn at 70 µg/kg bw/day, Pb at 3 µg/kg bw/day, Ni and Cd 5 µg/kg bw/day and 1 µg/kg bw/day, respectively. The rest of the PHEs listed were within the PTDIs limits. Therefore, Mugala inhabitants are at imminent health risk due to lead, nickel and cadmium ingestion of vegetables and drinking water at this location.
- Efficacy of Two-Stage Treatment of Onychomycosis Using a Long-Pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm Laser. [Journal Article]
- EBEvid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019; 2019:3647519
- CONCLUSIONS: Long-pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser two-stage treatment was effective for onychomycosis, with significantly improved mycological clearance and clinical efficacy. This trial is registered with ChiCTR 1900021669.
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- Biomechanical comparison of fracture site stabilities of femur nails after fracture site resorption. [Journal Article]
- AOActa Orthop Belg 2019; 85(2):218-223
- Instability increases after fracture site resorption. This study aimed to compare the fracture site stabilities of different femoral nails after fracture site resorption. Thirty composite femurs were…
Instability increases after fracture site resorption. This study aimed to compare the fracture site stabilities of different femoral nails after fracture site resorption. Thirty composite femurs were divided into three groups of 10 interlocking nails. Using axial compression-distraction machines and a custom-made torsion device, the fracture site rotational and axial stabilities after 1 mm fracture site resorption were determined. Between 6 Nm external and 6 Nm internal rotation torques, the means of the maximum fracture site rotation arc of motion were 5.94 mm for compression nails, 5.9 mm for interlocking nails and 3.5 mm for CAROT nails. Between 2300 N compression and 150 N distraction forces, the means of the fracture site axial motion were 3.15 mm for interlocking nails, 1.26 mm for compression nails and 1.26 mm for CAROT nails. CAROT nails are superior to compression and interlocking nails in fracture site rotational and axial stabilities after 1 mm fracture site resorption.