- Metal(loid)s in Cucurbita pepo in a Uranium Mining Impacted Area in Northwestern New Mexico, USA. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Jul 18; 16(14)
- More than 500 unreclaimed mines and associated waste sites exist on the Navajo Nation reservation as a result of uranium (U) mining from the 1940s through the 1980s. For this study, the impact of U-m…
More than 500 unreclaimed mines and associated waste sites exist on the Navajo Nation reservation as a result of uranium (U) mining from the 1940s through the 1980s. For this study, the impact of U-mine waste on a common, locally grown crop food was examined. The goal of this site-specific study was to determine metal(loid) concentration levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cesium (Cs), molybdenum (Mo), lead (Pb), thorium (Th), U, vanadium (V) and selenium (Se) in Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus (squash), irrigation water, and soil using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of metal(loid)s were greatest in roots > leaves > edible fruit (p < 0.05), respectively. There were significant differences between metal(loid)s in squash crop plot usage (<5 years versus >30 years) for V (p = 0.001), As (p < 0.001), U (p = 0.002), Cs (p = 0.012), Th (p = 0.040), Mo (p = 0.047), and Cd (p = 0.042). Lead and Cd crop irrigation water concentrations exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels for drinking water for those metals. Edible squash concentration levels were 0.116 mg/kg of As, 0.248 mg/kg of Pb, 0.020 mg/kg of Cd, and 0.006 mg/kg of U. Calculated human ingestion of edible squash did not exceed Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake or Tolerable Upper Limit levels from intake based solely on squash consumption. There does not appear to be a food-ingestion risk from metal(loid)s solely from consumption of squash. Safer access and emphasis on consuming regulated water was highlighted. Food intake recommendations were provided. Continued monitoring, surveillance, and further research are recommended.
- Safety and Metabolism of Long-term Administration of NIAGEN (Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride) in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of Healthy Overweight Adults. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 05; 9(1):9772
- Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a newly discovered nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor vitamin. A crystal form of NR chloride termed NIAGEN is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use…
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a newly discovered nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor vitamin. A crystal form of NR chloride termed NIAGEN is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for use in foods and the subject of two New Dietary Ingredient Notifications for use in dietary supplements. To evaluate the kinetics and dose-dependency of NR oral availability and safety in overweight, but otherwise healthy men and women, an 8-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Consumption of 100, 300 and 1000 mg NR dose-dependently and significantly increased whole blood NAD+ (i.e., 22%, 51% and 142%) and other NAD+ metabolites within 2 weeks. The increases were maintained throughout the remainder of the study. There were no reports of flushing and no significant differences in adverse events between the NR and placebo-treated groups or between groups at different NR doses. NR also did not elevate low density lipoprotein cholesterol or dysregulate 1-carbon metabolism. Together these data support the development of a tolerable upper intake limit for NR based on human data.
- Aggregate exposure modelling of vitamin A from cosmetic products, diet and food supplements. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem Toxicol 2019 May 31; 131:110549
- Realism is important in estimating consumer exposure to a substance, especially when accounting for exposure from multiple sources. Humans are exposed to vitamin A from food, dietary supplements and …
Realism is important in estimating consumer exposure to a substance, especially when accounting for exposure from multiple sources. Humans are exposed to vitamin A from food, dietary supplements and cosmetics products. A probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed for estimating exposure distributions to vitamin A (as retinol equivalents) in pre-/post-menopausal, and menopausal women in European and US populations. Data from large dietary surveys were used, together with realistic and extreme case scenarios of cosmetics product use (including occurrence data for vitamin A presence in 17 cosmetic products). Results of absorbed exposure estimates were expressed as μg/kg bw/day by incorporating dermal and oral bioavailability data. The mean and 95th percentile (P95) aggregate exposures were below the EU Tolerable Upper Intake Limit (3000 μg/day; 45 μg/kg/day internal exposure dose (IED)), providing positive assurances of safety. The major source of vitamin A exposure is the diet, with cosmetics providing only a small fraction of total exposure (2-5% at P95). In addition to providing a realistic assessment of total vitamin A exposure, this work provides a case study on how to approach future complex aggregate exposure questions.
- Dietary Iron Intake and Anemia Are Weakly Associated, Limiting Effective Iron Fortification Strategies in India. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nutr 2019 May 01; 149(5):831-839
- CONCLUSIONS: Providing fortified iron alone may not result in substantial anemia reduction among WRA in India and could have variable benefits and risks across states. Geographically nuanced dietary strategies that include limited fortification and the intake of other beneficial nutrients should be carefully considered.
- Estimation of potential soil erosion in the Prosecco DOCG area (NE Italy), toward a soil footprint of bottled sparkling wine production in different land-management scenarios. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0210922
- Agricultural lands are the widest Human-modified ecosystems, making crop production the most extensive form of land use on Earth. However, in conventional agricultural land management, soil erosion m…
Agricultural lands are the widest Human-modified ecosystems, making crop production the most extensive form of land use on Earth. However, in conventional agricultural land management, soil erosion may be boosted up to 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the natural rates of soil production, making unproductive about the 30% of the world's arable. Nowadays in Europe, vineyards represent the most erosion-prone agricultural lands, especially in Mediterranean countries, showing the highest erosion rates in comparison to other type of land uses. Prosecco wine is produced in NE Italy by a rate of 400 M bottles per year, with the fastest growing demand in the global market at present. A production of 90 M bottles year-1 is currently running in the historical Prosecco DOCG (215 km2), in a steep hilly landscape of Veneto Region (Conegliano-Valdobbiadene). To sustain wine production, agricultural intensification is at present increasing, by re-setting of hillslopes and land use changes towards new vineyard plantations. The aim of this study is to estimate and to map potential soil erosion rate, calculating a sort of "soil footprint" for wine production in different agricultural land-management scenarios. RUSLE model was adopted to estimate potential soil erosion in Mg ha-1 year-1, by using high resolution topographic data (LiDAR), 10 years rainfall data analysis, detailed land use and local soil characteristics. For a conventional land-management scenario the estimated that total potential soil erosion in the Prosecco DOCG area is 411,266 Mg year-1, with an erosion rate of 19.5 Mg ha year-1. Modelled soil erosion is mainly clustered on steep slopes, with rates higher than 40 Mg ha-1 year-1. In Prosecco vineyards potential soil erosion could reach 300,180 Mg year-1, by a mean rate of 43.7 Mg ha-1 year-1, which is 31 times higher than the upper limit of tolerable soil erosion threshold defined for Europe. In contrast, simulation of different nature-based scenarios (hedgerows, buffer strips, and grass cover) showed soil erosion could be effectively reduced: a 100% inter-row grass cover showed a reduction of almost 3 times in vineyards (from 43.7 to 14.6 Mg ha-1 year-1), saving about 50% of soil in the whole Prosecco DOCG. The soil footprint modelled for a conventional land-management scenario is about 3.3 kg every bottle produced; in contrast it would be reduced to 1.1 kg/bottle in the completely green land-management scenario. This study, as the first estimation of potential soil erosion at Prosecco DOCG scale, suggests that an integrated and public soil erosion monitoring system is strongly needed in viticultural area, by implementing direct/indirect field measures with spatial analyses at agricultural landscape scale.
- Disentanglement of the secrets of aluminium in acidophilic tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) influenced by organic and inorganic amendments. [Journal Article]
- FRFood Res Int 2019; 120:851-864
- Field experiment was carried out for four years in mature tea (Camellia sinensis L.) growing plot to investigate the impacts of different doses of inorganic and organic fertilizers on aluminium (Al) …
Field experiment was carried out for four years in mature tea (Camellia sinensis L.) growing plot to investigate the impacts of different doses of inorganic and organic fertilizers on aluminium (Al) distribution pattern in soil and different parts of tea plant, leaf pigment concentration, gas exchange parameters, as well as the yield of tea. Results indicated that application of 6 × 103 kg compost ha-1 significantly increased the dry matter yields of tea. Pluckable shoot of tea plant were markedly stimulated in the presence of Al irrespective of treatment imposed. Furthermore, Al induced growth stimulation in tea plant was facilitated by higher photosynthesis rate as well as gas exchange parameters. For the present experiment, Tea Research Association Heavy Metal Contamination Index (TRAHMCI) decreases with increase the fertilizer dose and all the experimental soils were found non-polluted with respect to Al. Localization of Al in the root apex predominantly accumulated in the cortex. The translocation of Al from root to shoot was driven by the gradient in hydrostatic pressure and water potential. In all tea infusions influenced by different treatments, Al concentrations were within the maximum permissible limit of Al in drinking water by Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, 2 mg kg-1 bw-1) and the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) established by EFSA (European Food Safety Authority, 1 mg kg-1 bw-1). Application of stepwise multiple regression model indicates that around 75% of the variability in the yield of the crop can be expressed by the selected parameters under study. The Hierarchical cluster analysis reveals that two homogenous groups of treatment can be formed based on all the studied parameters.
- A UGT1A1 genotype-guided dosing study of modified FOLFIRINOX in previously untreated patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. [Journal Article]
- CCancer 2019 May 15; 125(10):1629-1636
- CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our prespecified criteria, tolerability of UGT1A1 genotype-guided mFOLFIRINOX was not established in pancreatic and biliary tract cancers. However, this regimen was effective.
- Excess Dietary Zinc Intake in Neonatal Mice Causes Oxidative Stress and Alters Intestinal Host-Microbe Interactions. [Journal Article]
- MNMol Nutr Food Res 2019; 63(3):e1800947
- CONCLUSIONS: Excess dietary Zn may have unforeseen influences on epithelial signaling pathways, barrier function, and luminal ecology in the intestine that may have long-term consequences on intestinal health.
- Clinically relevant doses of vitamin A decrease cortical bone mass in mice [Journal Article]
- JEJ Endocrinol 2018 Oct 31; 239(3):389-402
- Excess vitamin A has been associated with decreased cortical bone thickness and increased fracture risk. While most studies in rodents have employed high dosages of vitamin A for short periods of tim…
Excess vitamin A has been associated with decreased cortical bone thickness and increased fracture risk. While most studies in rodents have employed high dosages of vitamin A for short periods of time, we investigated the bone phenotype in mice after longer exposure to more clinically relevant doses. For 1, 4 and 10 weeks, mice were fed a control diet (4.5 µg retinyl acetate/g chow), a diet modeled from the human upper tolerable limit (UTL; 20 µg retinyl acetate/g chow) and a diet three times UTL (supplemented; 60 µg retinyl acetate/g chow). Time-dependent decreases in periosteal circumference and bone mineral content were noted with the supplemented dose. These reductions in cortical bone resulted in a significant time-dependent decrease of predicted strength and a non-significant trend toward reduced bone strength as analyzed by three-point bending. Trabecular bone in tibiae and vertebrae remained unaffected when vitamin A was increased in the diet. Dynamic histomorphometry demonstrated that bone formation was substantially decreased after 1 week of treatment at the periosteal site with the supplemental dose. Increasing amount of vitamin A decreased endocortical circumference, resulting in decreased marrow area, a response associated with enhanced endocortical bone formation. In the presence of bisphosphonate, vitamin A had no effect on cortical bone, suggesting that osteoclasts are important, even if effects on bone resorption were not detected by osteoclast counting, genes in cortical bone or analysis of serum TRAP5b and CTX. In conclusion, our results indicate that even clinically relevant doses of vitamin A have a negative impact on the amount of cortical bone.
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- Heavy metal content of edible plants collected close to an area of intense mining activity (southern Portugal). [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Monit Assess 2018 Jul 23; 190(8):484
- The Neves-Corvo mining complex (MC) situated in southern Portugal exploits one of the most world's important copper deposits. Agricultural soils surrounding the MC, used by the inhabitants for crop p…
The Neves-Corvo mining complex (MC) situated in southern Portugal exploits one of the most world's important copper deposits. Agricultural soils surrounding the MC, used by the inhabitants for crop production, contain excessive amounts of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Thus, a potential risk to human consumption exists if edible plants grow on these substrata. Arsenic and Pb were not detected in edible samples collected near the MC and 5 km away, but in the leaves-structural or adsorbed onto the surface. In general, Zn was the most mobile element in both contaminated and reference areas as seen by the bioaccumulation factors (BAF). The tolerable upper intake (TUI) values for Cu are a reason of concern, since in 57.1% of the cases, the TUI values are above the recommended upper limit of 5 mg/day, in the case of Ficus carica, Cucurbita pepo, and Phaseolus vulgaris, whereas in 28.6% of the cases, the TUI values are near this limit (C. pepo and Citrus x sinensis). The consumption of such vegetables from these areas must be banned or strongly reduced, since long-term accumulation of Cu can cause a chronic toxicity in humans.