- Topoisomerase inhibition and albumin interaction studies of acridine-thiosemicarbazone derivatives. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2019 Jul 16
- In the present study, acridine-thiosemicarbazones (ATD) derivatives were tested for their interaction properties with BSA through UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Both hyperc…
In the present study, acridine-thiosemicarbazones (ATD) derivatives were tested for their interaction properties with BSA through UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated after the derivatives were added to the BSA. Values for the binding constant (Kb) ranged from 1.62 × 104 to 8.71 × 105 M-1 and quenching constant (KSV) from 3.46 × 102 to 7.83 × 103 M-1 indicating a good affinity to BSA protein. Complementary, two compounds were selected to assess their inhibition activity against topoisomerase IIα enzyme, of which derivative 3a presented the best result. Moreover, to evaluate protein-ligand interactions, as well as the antitopoisomerase potential of these compounds, tests of molecular modeling were performed between all compounds using the albumin and Topoisomerase IIα/DNA complex. Finally, in silico studies showed that all derivatives used in this research displayed good oral bioavailability potential.
- Genome-wide mutagenesis resulting from topoisomerase 1-processing of unrepaired ribonucleotides in DNA. [Journal Article]
- DRDNA Repair (Amst) 2019 Jul 03; :102641
- Ribonucleotides are the most common non-canonical nucleotides incorporated into DNA during replication, and their processing leads to mutations and genome instability. Yeast mutation reporter systems…
Ribonucleotides are the most common non-canonical nucleotides incorporated into DNA during replication, and their processing leads to mutations and genome instability. Yeast mutation reporter systems demonstrate that 2-5 base pair deletions (Δ2-5bp) in repetitive DNA are a signature of unrepaired ribonucleotides, and that these events are initiated by topoisomerase 1 (Top1) cleavage. However, a detailed understanding of the frequency and locations of ribonucleotide-dependent mutational events across the genome has been lacking. Here we present the results of genome-wide mutational analysis of yeast strains deficient in Ribonucleotide Excision Repair (RER). We identified mutations that accumulated over thousands of generations in strains expressing either wild-type or variant replicase alleles (M644G Pol ε, L612M Pol δ, L868M Pol α) that confer increased ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA. Using a custom-designed mutation-calling pipeline called muver (for mutationes verificatae), we observe a number of surprising mutagenic features. This includes a 24-fold preferential elevation of AG and AC relative to AT dinucleotide deletions in the absence of RER, suggesting specificity for Top1-initiated deletion mutagenesis. Moreover, deletion rates in di- and trinucleotide repeat tracts increase exponentially with tract length. Consistent with biochemical and reporter gene mutational analysis, these deletions are no longer observed upon deletion of TOP1. Taken together, results from these analyses demonstrate the global impact of genomic ribonucleotide processing by Top1 on genome integrity.
- Antiproliferative activity of (R)-4'-methylklavuzon on hepatocellular carcinoma cells and EpCAM+/CD133+ cancer stem cells via SIRT1 and Exportin-1 (CRM1) inhibition. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Med Chem 2019 Jul 09; 180:224-237
- Cytotoxic effects of (R)-4'-methylklavuzon were investigated on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7 and HepG2) and HuH-7 EpCAM+/CD133+ cancer stem cells. IC50 of (R)-4'-methylklavuzon was found as …
Cytotoxic effects of (R)-4'-methylklavuzon were investigated on hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH-7 and HepG2) and HuH-7 EpCAM+/CD133+ cancer stem cells. IC50 of (R)-4'-methylklavuzon was found as 1.25 μM for HuH-7 parental cells while it was found as 2.50 μM for HuH-7 EpCAM+/CD133+ cancer stem cells. (R)-4'-methylklavuzon tended to show more efficient in vitro cytotoxicity with its lower IC50 values on hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines compared to its lead molecule, goniothalamin and FDA-approved drugs, sorafenib and regorafenib. Cell-based Sirtuin/HDAC enzyme activity measurements revealed that endogenous Sirtuin/HDAC enzymes were reduced by 40% compared to control. SIRT1 protein levels were upregulated indicating triggered DNA repair mechanism. p53 was overexpressed in HepG2 cells. (R)-4'-methylklavuzon inhibited CRM1 protein providing increased retention of p53 and RIOK2 protein in the nucleus. HuH-7 parental and EpCAM+/CD133+ cancer stem cell spheroids lost intact morphology. 3D HepG2 spheroid viabilities were decreased in a correlation with upregulation in p53 protein levels.
- New N-phenyl-4,5-dibromopyrrolamides as DNA gyrase B inhibitors. [Journal Article]
- MMedchemcomm 2019 Jun 01; 10(6):1007-1017
- Due to the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance, the discovery of new antibacterials is essential in the fight against potentially lethal infections. The DNA gyrase B (GyrB) subunit of bacte…
Due to the rapid development of antimicrobial resistance, the discovery of new antibacterials is essential in the fight against potentially lethal infections. The DNA gyrase B (GyrB) subunit of bacterial DNA gyrase is an excellent target for the design of antibacterials, as it has been clinically validated by novobiocin. However, there are currently no drugs in clinical use that target GyrB. We prepared a new series of N-phenyl-4,5-dibromopyrrolamides and evaluated them against DNA gyrase and against the structurally and functionally similar enzyme, topoisomerase IV. The most active compound, 28, had an IC50 of 20 nM against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase. The IC50 values of 28 against Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, and E. coli and S. aureus topoisomerase IV were in the low micromolar range. However, the compounds evaluated did not show significant antibacterial activities against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our results indicate that for potent inhibition of DNA gyrase, a combination of polar groups on the carboxylic end of the molecule and substituents that reach into the 'lipophilic floor' of the enzyme is required.
- DNA Topoisomerase Inhibitors: Trapping a DNA-Cleaving Machine in Motion. [Review]
- JMJ Mol Biol 2019 Jul 10
- Type II topoisomerases regulate DNA topology by making a double-stranded break (DSB) in one DNA duplex, transporting another DNA segment through this break and then resealing it. Bacterial type IIA t…
Type II topoisomerases regulate DNA topology by making a double-stranded break (DSB) in one DNA duplex, transporting another DNA segment through this break and then resealing it. Bacterial type IIA topoisomerase inhibitors, such as fluoroquinolones and Novel Bacterial Topoisomerases Inhibitors (NBTIs), can trap DNA cleavage complexes with double- or single-stranded cleaved DNA. To study the mode of action of such compounds, 21 crystal structures of a 'gyraseCORE' fusion truncate of S. aureus DNA gyrase complexed with DNA and diverse inhibitors, have been published, and 4 structures lacking inhibitors. These structures have the DNA in various cleavage states and appear to track trajectories along the catalytic paths of the DNA-cleavage/religation steps. The various conformations sampled by these multiple 'gyraseCORE' structures show rigid body movements of the catalytic GyrA WHD and GyrB TOPRIM domains across the dimer interface. Conformational changes common to all compound-bound structures suggest common mechanisms for DNA cleavage-stabilising compounds. The structures suggest that S. aureus gyrase uses a single moving-metal ion for cleavage and that the central four base pairs need to be stretched between the two catalytic sites, in order for a scissile phosphate to attract a metal ion to the A-site to catalyse cleavage, and is then "stored" in another coordination configuration (B-site) in the vicinity. We present a simplified model for the catalytic cycle in which capture of the Transported-DNA segment (T-DNA) causes conformational changes in the ATPase domain that push the DNA gate open, resulting in stretching and cleaving the Gate-DNA (G-DNA) in two steps.
- Molecular Markers of Prognosis in Canine Cortisol-Secreting Adrenocortical Tumours. [Journal Article]
- VCVet Comp Oncol 2019 Jul 13
- Hypercortisolism is caused by a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumour (ACT) in approximately 15-20% of cases in dogs. Little is known about which molecular markers are associated with malignant be…
Hypercortisolism is caused by a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumour (ACT) in approximately 15-20% of cases in dogs. Little is known about which molecular markers are associated with malignant behaviour of canine ACTs. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers of prognosis, which could be useful to refine prognostic prediction and to identify potential treatment targets. Cortisol-secreting ACTs were included from 40 dogs, of which follow-up information was available. The ACTs were classified as low risk of recurrence tumours (LRT; n = 14) or moderate-high risk of recurrence tumours (MHRT; n = 26), based on the novel histopathological Utrecht score. Normal adrenals (NAs) were included from 11 healthy dogs as reference material. The mRNA expression of 14 candidate genes was analysed in the 40 ACTs and in 11 NAs with quantitative RT-PCR. The genes' expression levels were statistically compared between NAs, LRTs and MHRTs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of the genes' expression levels with survival. Seven genes were differentially expressed between NAs and ACTs, of which pituitary tumour-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) were also differentially expressed between LRTs and MHRTs. In survival analyses, high expression levels of Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), PTTG1 and TOP2A were significantly associated with poor survival. In conclusion, we have identified several genes that are part of the molecular signature of malignancy in canine ACTs. These findings can be used to refine prognostic prediction, but also offer insights for future studies on druggable targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Pd(II) complexes with N-heteroaromatic hydrazone ligands: Anticancer activity, in silico and experimental target identification. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Inorg Biochem 2019 Jun 26; 199:110758
- Anticancer activity of Pd complexes 1-5 with bidentate N-heteroaromatic hydrazone ligands was investigated on human acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1; cells in a suspension) and human mammary adenocarc…
Anticancer activity of Pd complexes 1-5 with bidentate N-heteroaromatic hydrazone ligands was investigated on human acute monocytic leukemia (THP-1; cells in a suspension) and human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7; two-dimensional layer and three-dimensional spheroid tumor model) cell lines. For the Pd(II) complexes with condensation products of ethyl hydrazainoacetate and quinoline-8-carboxaldehyde (complex 1) and 2-formylpyridine (complex 3), for which apoptosis was determined as a mechanism of anticancer activity, further investigation revealed that they arrest the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase, induce generation of reactive oxygen species and inhibit Topoisomerase I in vitro. In silico studies corroborate experimental findings that these complexes show topoisomerase inhibition activity in the micromolar range and indicate binding to a DNA's minor groove as another potential target. Based on the results obtained by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, the most active complexes are suitable to be delivered to a blood stream via human serum albumin.
- Screening and identification of hub genes in pancreatic cancer by integrated bioinformatics analysis. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cell Biochem 2019 Jul 11
- Pancreatic cancer (Pa) is a malignant tumor of the digestive tract with high degree of malignancy, this study aimed to obtain the hub genes in the tumorigenesis of Pa. Microarray datasets GSE15471, G…
Pancreatic cancer (Pa) is a malignant tumor of the digestive tract with high degree of malignancy, this study aimed to obtain the hub genes in the tumorigenesis of Pa. Microarray datasets GSE15471, GSE16515, and GSE62452 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, GEO2R was conducted to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and functional enrichment analyses were carried out by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING), and the hub genes were identified by Cytoscape. Totally 205 DEGs were identified, consisting of 51 downregulated genes and 154 upregulated genes enriched in Gene Ontology terms including extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, collagen binding, cell adhesion, and pathways associated with ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and protein digestion. Two modules in the PPI were chosen and biological process analyses showed that the module genes were mainly enriched in ECM and cell adhesion. Twenty-four hub genes were confirmed, the survival analyses from the cBioPortal online platform revealed that topoisomerase (DNA) II α (TOP2A), periostin (POSTN), plasminogen activator, urokinase (PLAU), and versican (VCAN) may be involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of Pa, and the receiver-operating characteristic curves indicated their diagnostic value for Pa. Among them, TOP2A, POSTN, and PLAU have been previously reported as biomarkers for Pa, and far too little attention has been paid to VCAN. Analysis from R2 online platform showed that Pa patients with high VCAN expression were more sensitive to gemcitabine than those with low level, suggesting that VCAN may be an indicator to guide the use of the chemotherapeutic drug. In vitro experiments also showed that the sensitivity of the VCAN siRNA group to gemcitabine was lower than that of the control group. In conclusion, this study discerned hub genes and pathways related to the development of Pa, and VCAN was identified as a novel biomarker for the diagnose and therapy of Pa.
- Correction: The topoisomerase I- and p53-binding protein topors is differentially expressed in normal and malignant human tissues and may function as a tumor suppressor. [Published Erratum]
- OOncogene 2019 Jul 11
- An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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- PARP1 regulates DNA damage-induced nucleolar-nucleoplasmic shuttling of WRN and XRCC1 in a toxicant and protein-specific manner. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 11; 9(1):10075
- The prime function of nucleoli is ribogenesis, however, several other, non-canonical functions have recently been identified, including a role in genotoxic stress response. Upon DNA damage, numerous …
The prime function of nucleoli is ribogenesis, however, several other, non-canonical functions have recently been identified, including a role in genotoxic stress response. Upon DNA damage, numerous proteins shuttle dynamically between the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that PARP1 and PARylation contribute to genotoxic stress-induced nucleolar-nucleoplasmic shuttling of key genome maintenance factors in HeLa cells. Our work revealed that the RECQ helicase, WRN, translocates from nucleoli to the nucleoplasm upon treatment with the oxidizing agent H2O2, the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), and the topoisomerase inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). We show that after treatment with H2O2 and CEES, but not CPT, WRN translocation was dependent on PARP1 protein, yet independent of its enzymatic activity. In contrast, nucleolar-nucleoplasmic translocation of the base excision repair protein, XRCC1, was dependent on both PARP1 protein and its enzymatic activity. Furthermore, gossypol, which inhibits PARP1 activity by disruption of PARP1-protein interactions, abolishes nucleolar-nucleoplasmic shuttling of WRN, XRCC1 and PARP1, indicating the involvement of further upstream factors. In conclusion, this study highlights a prominent role of PARP1 in the DNA damage-induced nucleolar-nucleoplasmic shuttling of genome maintenance factors in HeLa cells in a toxicant and protein-specific manner.