- [Cholinergic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of genetically-caused absence epilepsy]. [Journal Article]
- UFUsp Fiziol Nauk 2003 Jan-Mar; 34(1):20-30
- Frontoparietal cortex and the thalamocortical circuit comprising reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) and relay nuclei of the ventrolateral thalamus (VLT) are critical structures in the generation of spi…
Frontoparietal cortex and the thalamocortical circuit comprising reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) and relay nuclei of the ventrolateral thalamus (VLT) are critical structures in the generation of spike-wave discharges (SWD) during absence seizures. The activity of these nuclei is under the control of the ascending cholinergic projections of nucleus basalis of Meynert. The aim of our study is to make an attempt to change the pattern of SWD in WAG/Rij rats by injecting of cholinotoxine AF64A to the area of RTN. Spontaneous SWD were registered in cortex of WAG/Rij rats with genetically determined absences. The spectral content of SWD was analyzed by means of the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) procedure. Unilateral injections of AF64A (1 nmol) to RTN led the decrease in duration and number of SWD comparing to the basal EEG recordings 2 days after the lesion. The FFT analysis showed the disappearance of 17-18 Hz spike on the side of the lesion compared with the intact side. The immunohistochemical study for acetylcholinetransferase (ChaT)-containing neurons showed the loss of ChaT-positive cells in the nucleus basalis area on the side of the lesion. The removal of cholinergic afferentation of RTN and cortex from nucleus basalis inhibits the SWD developing most likely due to the decrease of cortical excitability. Moreover, possibly cholinergic transmission is involved in the transforation of the synchronized phenomena (SWD) to another with close mechanism of generation.
- The HMG I proteins: dynamic roles in gene activation, development, and tumorigenesis. [Review]
- IRImmunol Res 2001; 24(1):13-29
- The high mobility group I, Y, and I-C proteins are low-molecular-weight, nonhistone chromosomal proteins that play a general role modulating gene expression during development and the immune response…
The high mobility group I, Y, and I-C proteins are low-molecular-weight, nonhistone chromosomal proteins that play a general role modulating gene expression during development and the immune response. Consistent with their role in early development, all three proteins are expressed at high levels during embryogenesis, and their expression is markedly diminished in differentiated cells. Exceptions to the general repression of these genes in adult tissues involve (1) A burst of synthesis of the HMG I protein during the immune response (during lymphocyte activation and preceding cytokine/adhesion molecule gene expression), (2) A constitutive expression of the HMG I and Y proteins in photoreceptor cells, and (3) Derepression of HMG I, Y, and often I-C expression in neoplastic cells. Work from several laboratories has now uncovered how these proteins participate in gene activation: (1) By altering the chromatin structure around an inducible gene-and thus influencing accessibility of the locus to regulatory proteins-(2) By facilitating the loading of transcription factors onto the promoters, and (3) By bridging adjacent transcription factors on a promoter via protein/protein interactions. Despite the similar structures and biochemical properties of the three proteins, the work has also provided clues to a division of labor between these proteins. HMG I and Y have demonstrable roles in enhanceosome formation, whereas HMG I-C has a specific role in adipogenesis. C-terminal truncations of HMG I-C and wild-type HMG Y appear to function in a manner analogous to oncogenes, as assessed by cellular transforation assays and transgenic mice. Future work should clearly define the similarities and differences in the biological roles of the three proteins, and should evolve to include attempts at pharmaceutical intervention in disease, based upon structural information concerning HMG I interactions with DNA and with regulatory proteins.