- Comparative transcriptome analysis of translucent flesh disorder in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruits in response to different water regimes. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219976
- Translucent flash disorder (TFD) is one of the important physiological disorders in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). TFD has symptoms such as flesh arils that become firm and appear transparent s…
Translucent flash disorder (TFD) is one of the important physiological disorders in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). TFD has symptoms such as flesh arils that become firm and appear transparent similar to watercore in apple or pear. Information on the changes of gene expression in TFD-affected tissues remain limited, and investigations into the effects of different water regimes still need to be undertaken. Through an RNA sequencing approach using the Ion Proton, 183,274 contigs with length ranging from 173-13,035 bp were constructed by de novo assembly. Functional annotation was analyzed using various public databases such as non-redundant protein NCBI, SwissProt, and Gene Ontology, and KEGG pathway. Our studies compared different water regimes to incidence and differentially expressed genes of TFD-like physiological disorders. From the differentially expressed gene (DEG) between normal air and TFD-affected aril, we identified DEG-related TFD events, which 6228 DEGs in the control condition and 3327 DEGs in under water stress treatment condition remained, and confirmed these with RT-qPCR, including sucrose synthase (SUSY), endoglucanase (GUN), xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH), and polygalacturonase (PG) showed statistically significant. In addition, transcription factors also indicated changes in MYB, NAC and WRKY between tissues and different water regimes.
- Periodicity of the growth-band formation in vertebrae of juvenile scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini from the Mexican Pacific Ocean. [Journal Article]
- JFJ Fish Biol 2019 Jul 18
- The age of 296 juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini caught by several fisheries in the Mexican Pacific Ocean from March 2007 to September 2017 were estimated from growth-band counts in…
The age of 296 juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini caught by several fisheries in the Mexican Pacific Ocean from March 2007 to September 2017 were estimated from growth-band counts in thin-sectioned vertebrae. Marginal-increment analysis (MIA) and centrum-edge analysis (CEA) were used to verify the periodicity of formation of the growth bands, whereas elemental profiles obtained from LA-ICP-MS transect scans in vertebrae of 15 juveniles were used as an alternative approach to verify the age in the species for the first time. Age estimates ranged from 0 to 10+ years (42-158.7 cm total length; LT). The index of average percentage error (IAPE 3.6%), CV (5.2%), bias plots and Bowker's tests of symmetry showed precise and low-biased age estimation. Both MIA and CEA indicated that in the vertebrae of juvenile S. lewini a single translucent growth band was formed during winter (November-March) and an opaque band during summer (July-September), a period of faster growth apparently correlated with a higher sea surface temperature. Peaks in vertebral P and Mn content spatially corresponded with the annual banding pattern in most of the samples, displaying 1.19 and 0.88 peaks per opaque band, respectively, which closely matched the annual deposition rate observed in this study. Although the periodicity of growth-band formation needs to be verified for all sizes and ages representing the population of the species in the region, this demonstration of the annual formation of the growth bands in the vertebrae of juveniles should lead to re-estimation of growth parameters and productivity to ensure that the population is harvested at sustainable levels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Refinement of a clearing protocol to study crassinucellate ovules of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., Amaranthaceae). [Journal Article]
- PMPlant Methods 2019; 15:71
- CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of our method is due to the strategy combining various approaches at different stages of the procedure aiming at increasing the accessibility of the internal ovule structures to the clearing solution. The results of this study may be applied in sugar beet breeding programs, and it will provide a basis for further investigation of numerous aspects of the species' embryology. Moreover, that unique approach may be easily adapted to other species developing crassinucellate ovules.
- Median raphe cyst of the penis: a case report and review of the literature. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Case Rep 2019 Jul 14; 13(1):214
- CONCLUSIONS: Median raphe cyst is an uncommon, mostly asymptomatic condition in young patients. The cyst may occur anywhere along the midline from glans to anus. The diagnosis is clinical with histological confirmation. Excision is the treatment of choice with minimal chance of recurrence.
- Chitosan/Essential Oils Formulations for Potential Use as Wound Dressing: Physical and Antimicrobial Properties. [Journal Article]
- MMaterials (Basel) 2019 Jul 10; 12(14)
- Film-forming emulsions and films, prepared by incorporating different concentrations of clove essential oil (CEO) and melaleuca essential oil (MEO) into chitosan (CS) were obtained and their properti…
Film-forming emulsions and films, prepared by incorporating different concentrations of clove essential oil (CEO) and melaleuca essential oil (MEO) into chitosan (CS) were obtained and their properties were evaluated. Film-forming emulsions were characterized in terms of qualitative assessment, hydrogen potential and in vitro antibacterial activity, that was carried by the agar diffusion method, and the growth inhibition effects were tested on the Gram-positive microorganism of Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative microorganisms of Escherichia coli, and against isolated fungi such as Candida albicans. In order to study the impact of the incorporation of CEO and MEO into the CS matrix, the appearance and thickness of the films were evaluated. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements, a swelling test, scanning electron microscopy and a tensile test were carried out. Results showed that the film-forming emulsions had translucent aspect with cloudy milky appearance and showed antimicrobial properties. The CEO had the highest inhibition against the three strains studied. As regards the films' properties, the coloration of the films was affected by the type and concentration of bioactive used. The chitosan/CEO films showed an intense yellowish coloration while the chitosan/MEO films presented a slightly yellowish coloration, but in general, all chitosan/EOs films presented good transparency in visible light besides flexibility, mechanical resistance when touched, smaller thicknesses than the dermis and higher wettability than chitosan films, in both distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The interactions between the chitosan and EOs were confirmed by. The chitosan/EOs films presented morphologies with rough appearance and with EOs droplets in varying shapes and sizes, well distributed along the surface of the films, and the tensile properties were compatible to be applied as wound dressings. These results revealed that the CEO and MEO have a good potential to be incorporated into chitosan to make films for wound-healing applications.
- Differences in structure of northern Australian hypolithic communities according to location, rock type, and gross morphology. [Journal Article]
- AMAIMS Microbiol 2018; 4(3):469-481
- Hypolithic communities (under translucent rocks) were compared between a semi-arid site (Wave Hill) and a site with considerably higher rainfall (Lake Bennett) to test the hypothesis that the communi…
Hypolithic communities (under translucent rocks) were compared between a semi-arid site (Wave Hill) and a site with considerably higher rainfall (Lake Bennett) to test the hypothesis that the communities at the higher rainfall site would be more diverse. A total of 153 cyanobacteria operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, and only 50 of those were found at both sites. Of these, only two were core OTUs, as defined as being present in ≥90% of samples, highlighting the extreme differences in the cyanobacterial communities at the two sites. At Wave Hill, we compared the composition of the cyanobacterial components under two different rock types (quartz and prehnite) to determine if the different minerals would result in different hypolithic communities, but no differences were found. Of the 42 core OTUs found at Wave Hill, 22 (52%) were shared between the two rock types. As hypothesised, the diversity of both cyanobacteria and eukaryotes in the hypolithic communities was significantly higher at Lake Bennett. Some hypolithic communities were thin and tightly adhered to the rock surface, but others were thicker and could be peeled off the rock in sheets. However, the two types were not significantly different in OTU composition. Metazoans, primarily nematodes, were ubiquitous, raising the possibility that nematodes may act as vectors to transport the components of hypolithic communities from rock to rock as a mechanism of colonization.
- Difficulties in the diagnosis of periapical translucencies and in the classification of cemento-osseous dysplasia. [Journal Article]
- BOBMC Oral Health 2019 Jul 10; 19(1):139
- CONCLUSIONS: Differentiation of endodontic and non-endodontic origin of radiolucency and distinguishing it from anatomical landmarks by appropriate clinical evaluation and using vitality testing can give an opportunity to prevent unnecessary endodontic treatment. The current categories of cemento-osseous dysplasia classification do not cover the early stage of a hereditary florid form of cemento-osseous dysplasia. Instead of anatomical location of the lesion, clinical and genetic features may be recommended as parameters of cemento-osseous dysplasia classification.
- Current status on lithium disilicate and zirconia: a narrative review. [Journal Article]
- BOBMC Oral Health 2019 Jul 04; 19(1):134
- CONCLUSIONS: The noticeable properties and versatility make lithium disilicate and zirconia materials of choice for modern prosthetic dentistry, requiring high esthetic and mechanical performances combined with a minimal invasive approach, so that the utilization of such metal-free ceramics has become more and more widespread over time.
- High-accuracy 3D shape measurement of translucent objects by fringe projection profilometry. [Journal Article]
- OEOpt Express 2019 Jun 24; 27(13):18421-18434
- Acquiring complete and accurate 3D shape measurement results of translucent objects by fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is difficult because of the subsurface scattering effect. The phase offset …
Acquiring complete and accurate 3D shape measurement results of translucent objects by fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is difficult because of the subsurface scattering effect. The phase offset introduces geometric errors, and the degraded image contrast leads to incomplete measurement results and random errors. In this research, a high-accuracy 3D shape measurement method for translucent objects based on phase-shifting FPP is proposed. The relationship between fringe period and phase error is investigated to determine the fringe periods. Random errors are suppressed by temporal noise reduction, and the robustness of multi-frequency heterodyne phase unwrapping is improved by increasing the interval of fringe periods along with temporal noise reduction. Geometric errors are compensated for by projecting multi-frequency fringe patterns to establish the relationship between fringe period and depth offset. Experimental results show that the proposed method can acquire complete measurement results and significantly reduce the overall error for measuring translucent objects.
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- Chronic psychological stress during adolescence induces sex-dependent adulthood inflammation, increased adiposity, and abnormal behaviors that are ameliorated by selective inhibition of soluble tumor necrosis factor with XPro1595. [Journal Article]
- BBBrain Behav Immun 2019 Jun 25
- Physical and psychosocial maltreatment experienced before the age of 18, termed early life adversity (ELA), affects an estimated 39% of the world's population, and has long-term detrimental health an…
Physical and psychosocial maltreatment experienced before the age of 18, termed early life adversity (ELA), affects an estimated 39% of the world's population, and has long-term detrimental health and psychological outcomes. While adult phenotypes vary following ELA, inflammation and altered stress responsivity are pervasive. Cytokines, most notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are elevated in adults with a history of ELA. While soluble TNF (solTNF) drives chronic inflammatory disease, transmembrane TNF facilitates innate immunity. Here, we test whether solTNF mediates the behavioral and molecular outcomes of adolescent psychological stress by administering a brain permeable, selective inhibitor of solTNF, XPro1595. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to an aggressive rat through a perforated translucent ball ('predatory stress') or transported to an empty room for 30 min for 30 days starting on postnatal day 34. Mice were given XPro1595 or vehicle treatment across the last 15 days. Social interaction, sucrose preference, and plasma inflammation were measured at 2 and 4 weeks, and open field behavior, adiposity, and neuroinflammation were measured at 4 weeks. Chronic adolescent stress resulted in increased peripheral inflammation and dysregulated neuroinflammation in adulthood in a sex-specific manner. Abnormal social and open field behavior, fat pad weight, and fecal boli deposition were noted after 30 days; solTNF antagonism ameliorated the effects of stress. Together, these data support our hypothesis, and suggest that targeting solTNF with XPro1595 may improve quality of life for individuals with a history of adolescent stress.