- Nanoparticulate delivery of potent microtubule inhibitor for metastatic melanoma treatment. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Control Release 2019 Jul 19
- Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, which readily metastasizes through lymph nodes to the lungs, liver, and brain. Since the repeated administration of most chemotherapeutic drugs de…
Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, which readily metastasizes through lymph nodes to the lungs, liver, and brain. Since the repeated administration of most chemotherapeutic drugs develops chemoresistance and severe systemic toxicities, herein we synthesized 2-(4-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) methanone (abbreviated as QW-296), a novel tubulin destabilizing agent with little susceptible to transporter-mediated drug resistance. QW-296 disturbed the microtubule dynamics at the nanomolar concentration in A375 and B16F10 melanoma cells. QW-296 binding to colchicine-binding site on tubulin protein was confirmed by molecular modeling and tubulin polymerization assay. QW-296 significantly inhibited A375 and B16F10 cell proliferation, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and led to apoptosis and cell death. To improve its aqueous solubility, QW-296 was encapsulated into methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-b-poly(carbonate-co-lactide) [mPEG-b-P(CB-co-LA)] polymeric nanoparticles by solvent evaporation, with the mean particle size of 122.0 ± 2.28 nm and drug loading of 3.70% (w/w). Systemic administration of QW-296 loaded nanoparticles into C57/BL6 albino mice bearing lung metastatic melanoma at the dose of 20 mg/kg 4 times a week for 1.5 weeks resulted in significant tumor regression and prolonged mouse median survival without significant change in mouse body weight. In conclusion, QW-296 loaded nanoparticles have the potential to treat metastatic melanoma.
- Chromoblastomycosis in the Amazon region, Brazil, caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Fonsecaea nubica, and Rhinocladiella similis: Clinicopathology, susceptibility, and molecular identification. [Journal Article]
- MMMed Mycol 2019 Apr 24
- Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous disease caused by human contact with melanized fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. This study assessed 12 patients with c…
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous disease caused by human contact with melanized fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. This study assessed 12 patients with chromoblastomycosis from Rondônia, Brazil, Amazon region. In sum, 83.3% were men, 41.6% were from Monte Negro city, median age was 52.9 years, and median time to disease progression was 12.2 years. Lesions were located on the lower limbs (75%), and verruciform was prevalent form (66.6%). After 3 years of treatment with itraconazole, two patients were considered cured. The etiological agents were identified by the molecular sequence of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2 region and β-tubulin genes. Eight strains were identified as Fonsecaea pedrosoi, two were F. nubica, and two were Rhinocladiella similis. The antifungal activity of five drugs was evaluated, and the most active drug was terbinafine (range minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] 0.015-0.12 μg/ml), itraconazole (range MIC 0.03-0.5 μg/ml) and voriconazole (range MIC 0.06-0.5 μg/ml). The highest MIC was 5-fluorocytosine (range MIC 2-32 μg/ml), and amphotericin B (range MIC 0.25-2 μg/ml). In conclusion, the present study expanded the epidemiological disease database and described for the first time F. nubica and R. similis as chromoblastomycosis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region. Our results confirmed the importance of using molecular methods to identify the melanized fungi and stimulate the recognition of the disease in other places where no cases have been reported.
- A Val-202-Phe α-tubulin mutation and enhanced metabolism confer dinitroaniline resistance in a single Lolium rigidum population. [Journal Article]
- PMPest Manag Sci 2019 Jul 22
- A Lolium rigidum population collected from Western Australia was previously reported as highly resistant to dinitroaniline herbicides mainly due to a Val-202-Phe substitution in the target site α-tub…
A Lolium rigidum population collected from Western Australia was previously reported as highly resistant to dinitroaniline herbicides mainly due to a Val-202-Phe substitution in the target site α-tubulin protein. To further determine the contribution of the 202 mutation to resistance, two sub-populations, respectively comprising the 202 mutant and wild type (WT) individuals, were isolated from within the same resistant population and subject to dinitroaniline herbicide doses. A rice transgenic study was conducted to demonstrate whether the amino acid substitution at the 202 residue confers resistance. In addition, as indicated in the phenotyping and genotyping study, non-target enhanced trifluralin metabolism was further examined in the same population.
- UNC-45A is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells and binds to and co-localizes with interphase MTs. [Journal Article]
- CBCancer Biol Ther 2019 Jul 22; :1-10
- UNC-45A is an ubiquitously expressed protein highly conserved throughout evolution. Most of what we currently know about UNC-45A pertains to its role as a regulator of the actomyosin system. However,…
UNC-45A is an ubiquitously expressed protein highly conserved throughout evolution. Most of what we currently know about UNC-45A pertains to its role as a regulator of the actomyosin system. However, emerging studies from both our and other laboratories support a role of UNC-45A outside of actomyosin regulation. This includes studies showing that UNC-45A: regulates gene transcription, co-localizes and biochemically co-fractionates with gamma tubulin and regulates centrosomal positioning, is found in the same subcellular fractions where MT-associated proteins are, and is a mitotic spindle-associated protein with MT-destabilizing activity in absence of the actomyosin system. Here, we extended our previous findings and show that UNC45A is variably expressed across a spectrum of cell lines with the highest level being found in HeLa cells and in ovarian cancer cells inherently paclitaxel-resistant. Furthermore, we show that UNC-45A is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells, localizes to mitotic spindles in clinical tumor specimens of cancer and co-localizes and co-fractionates with MTs in interphase cells independent of actin or myosin. In sum, we report alteration of UNC45A localization in the setting of chemotherapeutic treatment of cells with paclitaxel, and localization of UNC45A to MTs both in vitro and in vivo. These findings will be important to ongoing and future studies in the field that further identify the important role of UNC45A in cancer and other cellular processes.
- Tubulin response to intense nanosecond-scale electric field in molecular dynamics simulation. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 19; 9(1):10477
- Intense pulsed electric fields are known to act at the cell membrane level and are already being exploited in biomedical and biotechnological applications. However, it is not clear if electric pulses…
Intense pulsed electric fields are known to act at the cell membrane level and are already being exploited in biomedical and biotechnological applications. However, it is not clear if electric pulses within biomedically-attainable parameters could directly influence intra-cellular components such as cytoskeletal proteins. If so, a molecular mechanism of action could be uncovered for therapeutic applications of such electric fields. To help clarify this question, we first identified that a tubulin heterodimer is a natural biological target for intense electric fields due to its exceptional electric properties and crucial roles played in cell division. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we then demonstrated that an intense - yet experimentally attainable - electric field of nanosecond duration can affect the bβ-tubulin's C-terminus conformations and also influence local electrostatic properties at the GTPase as well as the binding sites of major tubulin drugs site. Our results suggest that intense nanosecond electric pulses could be used for physical modulation of microtubule dynamics. Since a nanosecond pulsed electric field can penetrate the tissues and cellular membranes due to its broadband spectrum, our results are also potentially significant for the development of new therapeutic protocols.
- Structural basis of tubulin detyrosination by VASH2/SVBP heterodimer. [Journal Article]
- NCNat Commun 2019 Jul 19; 10(1):3212
- The C-terminus of α-tubulin undergoes a detyrosination/tyrosination cycle and dysregulation of this cycle is associated with cancer and other diseases. The molecular mechanisms of tubulin tyrosinatio…
The C-terminus of α-tubulin undergoes a detyrosination/tyrosination cycle and dysregulation of this cycle is associated with cancer and other diseases. The molecular mechanisms of tubulin tyrosination are well studied, however it has remained unknown how tyrosine is cleaved from the tubulin tail. Here, we report the crystal structure of the long-sought detyrosination enzyme, the VASH2/SVBP heterodimer at 2.2 Å resolution and the structure of the tail/VASH2/SVBP complex at 2.5 Å resolution. VASH2 possesses a non-canonical Cys-His-Ser catalytic architecture for tyrosine cleavage. The dynamics of the α1- and α2- helices of VASH2 are related to the insolubility of VASH2. SVBP plays a chaperone-like role by extensively interacting with VASH2 and stabilizing these dynamic helices. A positively charged groove around the catalytic pocket and the α1- and α2- helices of VASH2 targets the tubulin tail for detyrosination. We provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the cycle of tubulin tyrosine cleavage and religation.
- Protein Quality Control Activation and Microtubule Remodeling in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. [Journal Article]
- CCells 2019 Jul 18; 8(7)
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disorder. It is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. Mutant forms of these highly abundant proteins …
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inherited cardiac disorder. It is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. Mutant forms of these highly abundant proteins likely stress the protein quality control (PQC) system of cardiomyocytes. The PQC system, together with a functional microtubule network, maintains proteostasis. We compared left ventricular (LV) tissue of nine donors (controls) with 38 sarcomere mutation-positive (HCMSMP) and 14 sarcomere mutation-negative (HCMSMN) patients to define HCM and mutation-specific changes in PQC. Mutations in HCMSMP result in poison polypeptides or reduced protein levels (haploinsufficiency, HI). The main findings were 1) several key PQC players were more abundant in HCM compared to controls, 2) after correction for sex and age, stabilizing heat shock protein (HSP)B1, and refolding, HSPD1 and HSPA2 were increased in HCMSMP compared to controls, 3) α-tubulin and acetylated α-tubulin levels were higher in HCM compared to controls, especially in HCMHI, 4) myosin-binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) levels were inversely correlated with α-tubulin, and 5) α-tubulin levels correlated with acetylated α-tubulin and HSPs. Overall, carrying a mutation affects PQC and α-tubulin acetylation. The haploinsufficiency of cMyBP-C may trigger HSPs and α-tubulin acetylation. Our study indicates that proliferation of the microtubular network may represent a novel pathomechanism in cMyBP-C haploinsufficiency-mediated HCM.
- Structures of TOG1 and TOG2 from the human microtubule dynamics regulator CLASP1. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(7):e0219823
- Tubulin-binding TOG domains are found arrayed in a number of proteins that regulate microtubule dynamics. While much is known about the structure and function of TOG domains from the XMAP215 microtub…
Tubulin-binding TOG domains are found arrayed in a number of proteins that regulate microtubule dynamics. While much is known about the structure and function of TOG domains from the XMAP215 microtubule polymerase family, less in known about the TOG domain array found in animal CLASP family members. The animal CLASP TOG array promotes microtubule pause, potentiates rescue, and limits catastrophe. How structurally distinct the TOG domains of animal CLASP are from one another, from XMAP215 family TOG domains, and whether a specific order of structurally distinct TOG domains in the TOG array is conserved across animal CLASP family members is poorly understood. We present the x-ray crystal structures of Homo sapiens (H.s.) CLASP1 TOG1 and TOG2. The structures of H.s. CLASP1 TOG1 and TOG2 are distinct from each other and from the previously determined structure of Mus musculus (M.m.) CLASP2 TOG3. Comparative analyses of CLASP family TOG domain structures determined to date across species and paralogs supports a conserved CLASP TOG array paradigm in which structurally distinct TOG domains are arrayed in a specific order. H.s. CLASP1 TOG1 bears structural similarity to the free-tubulin binding TOG domains of the XMAP215 family but lacks many of the key tubulin-binding determinants found in XMAP215 family TOG domains. This aligns with studies that report that animal CLASP family TOG1 domains cannot bind free tubulin or microtubules. In contrast, animal CLASP family TOG2 and TOG3 domains have reported microtubule-binding activity but are structurally distinct from the free-tubulin binding TOG domains of the XMAP215 family. H.s. CLASP1 TOG2 has a convex architecture, predicted to engage a hyper-curved tubulin state that may underlie its ability to limit microtubule catastrophe and promote rescue. M.m. CLASP2 TOG3 has unique structural elements in the C-terminal half of its α-solenoid domain that our modeling studies implicate in binding to laterally-associated tubulin subunits in the microtubule lattice in a mode similar to, yet distinct from those predicted for the XMAP215 family TOG4 domain. The potential ability of the animal CLASP family TOG3 domain to engage lateral tubulin subunits may underlie the microtubule rescue activity ascribed to the domain. These findings highlight the structural diversity of TOG domains within the CLASP family TOG array and provide a molecular foundation for understanding CLASP-dependent effects on microtubule dynamics.
- Identification and Pathogenicity of Fungal Species Associated with Canker Diseases of Pistachio in California. [Journal Article]
- PDPlant Dis 2019 Jul 19; :PDIS10181717RE
- A survey was conducted during 2015 and 2016 in pistachio orchards throughout the San Joaquin Valley of California to investigate the occurrence of canker diseases and identify the pathogens involved.…
A survey was conducted during 2015 and 2016 in pistachio orchards throughout the San Joaquin Valley of California to investigate the occurrence of canker diseases and identify the pathogens involved. Cankers and dieback symptoms were observed mainly in orchards aged >15 years. Symptoms of canker diseases included brown to dark brown discoloration of vascular tissues, wood necrosis, and branch dieback. In total, 58 fungal isolates were obtained from cankers and identified based on multilocus phylogenetic analyses (internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-tubulin, calmodulin, actin 1, and translation elongation factor 1α) representing 11 fungal species: Colletotrichum karsti, Cytospora californica, Cytospora joaquinensis, Cytospora parapistaciae, Cytospora pistaciae, Diaporthe ambigua, Didymella glomerata, Diplodia mutila, Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, Phaeoacremonium canadense, and Schizophyllum commune. Pathogenicity tests conducted in the main pistachio cultivars Kerman, Golden Hills, and Lost Hills using the mycelium-plug method indicated that all fungal species were pathogenic to Pistacia vera. All species tested caused cankers in pistachio branches, although virulence among species varied from high to moderate. Overall, N. mediterraneum and Cytospora spp. were the most widespread and virulent species associated with canker diseases of pistachio in California.
New Search Next
- Methodologies and applications of Proteomics for study of Yeast Strains: An update. [Journal Article]
- CPCurr Protein Pept Sci 2019 Jul 15
- Yeasts are one of the mostly used microorganisms as models in several studies. A wide range of applications in different processes can be attributed to their intrinsic characteristics. They are eukar…
Yeasts are one of the mostly used microorganisms as models in several studies. A wide range of applications in different processes can be attributed to their intrinsic characteristics. They are eukaryotes and therefore valuable expression hosts that require elaborate post-translational modifications. Their arsenal of proteins has become a valuable biochemical tool for the catalysis of several reactions of great value to the food (beverages), pharmaceutical and energy industries. Currently, the main challenge in systemic yeast biology is the understanding of the expression, function and regulation of the protein pool encoded by such microorganisms. In this review, we will provide an overview of the proteomic methodologies used in the analysis of yeasts. This research focuses on the advantages and improvements in their most recent applications with an understanding of the functionality of the proteins of these microorganisms, as well as an update of the advances of methodologies employed in mass spectrometry.