- Ethnoveterinary Therapeutic Practices and Conservation Status of the Medicinal Flora of Chamla Valley, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. [Journal Article]
- FVFront Vet Sci 2019; 6:122
- Domestic animals play a very important role in the human civilization. Besides human being, plants are used as medicines for many domestic animals. The therapeutic practices are very common among the…
Domestic animals play a very important role in the human civilization. Besides human being, plants are used as medicines for many domestic animals. The therapeutic practices are very common among the tribes of Chamla, rich in ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. Due to poor availability of modern healthcare facilities and poverty of indigenous people, they depend on local medicinal plants for the healthcare of their domestic animals. This study is the first attempt to document the indigenous knowledge and evaluate the conservation status of medicinal plants and practices of herbal remedies by the local people of Chamla Valley in the treatment of their livestock. Semi-structured questionnaire was used and 120 local inhabitants were interviewed to note the traditional practices regarding plant species uses. Well-known statistical indices, Use Value formula and Relative Frequency Citations were used for quantification of the recorded data. It was observed that 50 medicinal plants belonging to 38 families were reported, where Poaceae was the most cited. The common livestock are goats, sheep, buffalos, cows, bulls, and donkeys. Most of the herbs, which are used in livestock treatment, are wild and few plants are cultivated. The common livestock diseases are red water, 3 days sickness, diarrhea, tympany, and indigestion among others. Most of the plants are used in fresh condition. According to the results, Brassica nigra was used for placenta retention, Butea monosperma for constipation, Calotropis procera for indigestion and 3 days sickness. Canabis sativa, Cedrella serrata, Allium sativum, and Origanum vulgare were used for fever. The traditional plant collection techniques have resulted in huge losses of these valuable plant resources. The ethnobotanical conservation assessment revealed that due to increased exploitation and un-sustainable harvesting, 49% of these economically valued medicinal plant species are decreasing in last 30 years. Some of the plants are only present on high altitudes while they had been finished in the foothills like Paeonia emodi and Berberis lycium. Lack of scientific knowledge, ignorance, poverty, and joblessness, as well as land development, construction and fires, add more pressure on flora and fauna of the area and various species are under the threat of extinction.
- [Feed refusal in fattening bulls because of maize silage contamination by Jimson weed (Datura stramonium)]. [Journal Article]
- TPTierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2019; 47(2):125-130
- A sudden decrease in feed intake (within 24 hours) without an impaired general condition occurred on a bull-rearing and -fattening farm in western Germany in December 2017. One day later, some of the…
A sudden decrease in feed intake (within 24 hours) without an impaired general condition occurred on a bull-rearing and -fattening farm in western Germany in December 2017. One day later, some of the bulls displayed signs of ruminal tympany (free gas bloat) and the reduction in feed intake became more severe. The maize silage was recognized as the cause of the observed symptoms, because clinical signs first appeared after taking the silage from a different localization within the bunker silo. Maize in this particular section was harvested from a separate area previously affected by wind damage (numerous bent maize plants), where no crop protection (herbicide application) was performed. Fruits and seeds of Jimson weed were identified in the incriminated maize silage samples. Following replacement of the contaminated parts of the maize silage with non-contaminated material and treatment of the clinically affected animals (anti-tympanic medication plus live yeast preparation), the feed intake returned to the normal level and the affected animals recovered within 6 days. The cause of the symptoms was probably the anti-nutritive properties of Datura stramonium that affect the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Clinical diseases in pet black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus): a retrospective study in 206 animals. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Small Anim Pract 2019; 60(3):153-160
- CONCLUSIONS: This listing of clinical diseases will help clinicians focus their disease investigation and increase clinical awareness of prairie dog diseases. There was a high rate of poor or unsuitable husbandry and this was often associated with clinical disease. Of the diseases seen commonly in this study, only elodontoma has been previously reported as being common.
- Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials - An increasing threat to ruminants and its impact on human health in developing countries. [Review]
- VWVet World 2018; 11(9):1307-1315
- Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials is a condition, in which indigestible plastic foreign bodies accumulate in the rumen of ruminants leading to ruminal impaction, indigestion, recurrent tympa…
Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials is a condition, in which indigestible plastic foreign bodies accumulate in the rumen of ruminants leading to ruminal impaction, indigestion, recurrent tympany, and many other adverse health effects. It is caused by the indiscriminate feeding of ruminants on indigestible plastic waste materials. The disease is primarily noticed in stray animals residing in urban areas of developing countries. Ingested plastic materials in the rumen slowly release the chemicals in rumen fluid, which intern enter the food chain through milk and meat products. These chemicals have a detrimental effect on human health. At present, exploratory rumenotomy is the only choice for both diagnosis and treatment of ruminal impaction due to plastic materials in ruminants. Control measures include good animal husbandry practices and proper disposal of plastic waste materials. The present review discusses in depth about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of ruminal impaction due to plastic materials in ruminants and also highlights its impact on human health.
- Intestinal Obstruction: Evaluation and Management. [Journal Article]
- AFAm Fam Physician 2018 Sep 15; 98(6):362-367
- Acute intestinal obstruction occurs when the forward flow of intestinal contents is interrupted or impaired by a mechanical cause. It is most commonly induced by intra-abdominal adhesions, malignancy…
Acute intestinal obstruction occurs when the forward flow of intestinal contents is interrupted or impaired by a mechanical cause. It is most commonly induced by intra-abdominal adhesions, malignancy, and herniation. The clinical presentation generally includes nausea, emesis, colicky abdominal pain, and cessation of passage of flatus and stool, although the severity of these clinical symptoms varies based on the acuity and anatomic level of obstruction. Abdominal distension, tympany to percussion, and high-pitched bowel sounds are classic findings. Laboratory evaluation should include a complete blood count, metabolic panel, and serum lactate level. Imaging with abdominal radiography or computed tomography can confirm the diagnosis and assist in decision making for therapeutic planning. Management of uncomplicated obstructions includes intravenous fluid resuscitation with correction of metabolic derangements, nasogastric decompression, and bowel rest. Patients with fever and leukocytosis should receive antibiotic coverage against gram-negative organisms and anaerobes. Evidence of vascular compromise or perforation, or failure to resolve with adequate nonoperative management is an indication for surgical intervention.
- Comparison of two techniques for transpharyngeal endoscopic auditory tube diverticulotomy in the horse. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Sci 2018 Nov 30; 19(6):835-839
- Auditory tube diverticula, also known as guttural pouches, are naturally occurring dilations of the auditory tube in horses that communicate with the nasopharynx through a small ostium. Infection and…
Auditory tube diverticula, also known as guttural pouches, are naturally occurring dilations of the auditory tube in horses that communicate with the nasopharynx through a small ostium. Infection and select other conditions can result in inflammation and narrowing of the nasopharyngeal ostium, which prevents drainage of fluid or egress of air and can lead to persistent infection or guttural pouch tympany. Auditory tube diverticulotomy allows continuous egress from the auditory tube diverticula and is a feature of disease treatment in horses, in which medical treatment alone is not successful. Transpharyngeal endoscopic auditory tube diverticulotomy was performed using a diode laser either at a single dorsal pharyngeal recess location or bilaterally caudal to the nasopharyngeal ostium in 10 horse head specimens. Both methods resulted in clear communication between the nasopharynx and auditory tube diverticula. Diverticulotomy performed in the dorsal pharyngeal recess required less laser energy and activation time and had a shorter surgical duration than diverticulotomy performed caudal to the nasopharyngeal ostium. Further study related to the clinical application of both techniques is warranted.
- Acute Abdominal Distension Due to Disseminated Peritoneal Neoplasia in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta). [Journal Article]
- CMComp Med 2018 Oct 01; 68(5):403-410
- This report describes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings in a female rhesus macaque that presented with acute abdominal distension and tympany. The macaque was euthanized after evide…
This report describes the clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings in a female rhesus macaque that presented with acute abdominal distension and tympany. The macaque was euthanized after evidence of severe colonic distension on radiography and observation of widespread peritoneal adhesions on exploratory laparotomy. Gross and histopathologic evaluation revealed extensive entrapment of gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts by serosal fibrovascular proliferative tissue containing foci of endometriosis. The diagnosis of endometrial stromal sarcoma was supported by expression of CD10, Wilm tumor 1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor and failure to express immunohistochemical markers characteristic of a range of differential diagnoses. In humans, this relatively uncommon neoplasm can arise from sites of endometriosis and often presents clinically as intestinal obstruction, similar to the presentation in this macaque.
- Natural lymphatic ("atypical") actinobacillosis in cattle caused by Actinobacillus lignieresii. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vet Diagn Invest 2018; 30(2):218-225
- Bovine actinobacillosis is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous glossitis (wooden tongue). The involvement of other tissues, generally the skin or lymph nodes, has been regarded as atypical or…
Bovine actinobacillosis is typically characterized by pyogranulomatous glossitis (wooden tongue). The involvement of other tissues, generally the skin or lymph nodes, has been regarded as atypical or cutaneous. We describe herein 2 outbreaks of actinobacillosis affecting primarily the lymph nodes of the head and neck. The disease affected 40 of 540 lactating cows in a dairy herd, and 5 of 335 two-y-old steers in a beef herd. Multiple or single, occasionally ulcerated nodules were observed in the region of the mandible, neck, and shoulder, including the parotid, submandibular, retropharyngeal, and prescapular lymph nodes. The histologic lesions were multifocal pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis, dermatitis, and cellulitis with Splendore-Hoeppli material. One steer had an exophytic pyogranuloma in the gingiva and another died because of ruminal tympany secondary to oropharyngeal and esophageal obstruction by a pyogranulomatous mass. Actinobacillus lignieresii was isolated from the lesions and identified by amplification, sequencing, and analysis of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA gene. Seven of 8 cows recovered after treatment with sodium iodide. Lymphatic actinobacillosis is a frequent disease in Uruguay, southern Brazil, and Argentina. Morbidity is 1-50%; mortality is <1%. A. lignieresii apparently penetrates the intact oral and pharyngeal mucosa, infecting primarily the regional lymph nodes. Later, lesions may extend to the subcutaneous tissue and the skin, causing ulceration. Affected cattle with draining pyogranulomas contaminate the environment, favoring disease transmission, and should be treated with sodium iodide or antibiotics and isolated from the herd in order to control the disease.
- Endotracheal Intubation of Rabbits Using a Polypropylene Guide Catheter. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Vis Exp 2017 11 13; (129)
- Endotracheal intubation in rabbits can be challenging due to their unusual anatomy. Achieving a patent airway during anesthesia is critical for the avoidance of airway obstruction, prevention of gast…
Endotracheal intubation in rabbits can be challenging due to their unusual anatomy. Achieving a patent airway during anesthesia is critical for the avoidance of airway obstruction, prevention of gastric tympany, and to allow ventilatory support. Due to the difficulty of intubation, alternative methods such as the use of laryngeal mask airways or laryngeal tubes have been explored. However, these methods do not result in direct access to the trachea and thus may present a risk for development of complications. In addition, lack of direct intubation of the trachea can result in personnel exposure to waste anesthetic gases. Numerous methods for endotracheal intubation have been described, including blind placement, use of a fiberoptic laryngoscope or endoscope, and cricoid placement. Despite these numerous publications, many still struggle to achieve success. Here we provide a detailed description of an intubation technique that can be taught with minimal training with a short time to proficiency. Briefly, after administration of injectable anesthesia and proper positioning of the rabbit, a polypropylene catheter is placed into the trachea by direct visualization using a laryngoscope. The catheter is then used as a guide to direct the endotracheal tube into the trachea. This method allows for intubation without the need for expensive equipment and can be performed by a single individual without the need for an assistant. In conclusion, this technique can be easily taught and performed at very little cost in any clinical or research setting.
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- Temporary Rumenostomy for the Treatment of Forestomach Diseases and Enteral Nutrition. [Review]
- VCVet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2017; 33(3):525-537
- Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chroni…
Temporary rumenostomy is a useful procedure for the treatment, management, and support of patients with forestomach disease of various types. The rumenostomy provides a mechanism for relief of chronic rumen tympany or distention, removal of rumen contents and lavage of the rumen, removal of some rumen foreign bodies, administration of rumen fluid transfaunation, and administration of enteral nutrition or other medications. When the rumenostomy is no longer necessary, it can be allowed to close by second intention or by surgical resection.