- Tryptophan-related dipeptides in fermented dairy products suppress microglial activation and prevent cognitive decline. [Journal Article]
- AAging (Albany NY) 2019 May 23
- The rapid growth in aging populations has made prevention of age-related memory decline and dementia a high priority. Several epidemiological and clinical studies have concluded that fermented dairy …
The rapid growth in aging populations has made prevention of age-related memory decline and dementia a high priority. Several epidemiological and clinical studies have concluded that fermented dairy products can help prevent cognitive decline; furthermore, intake of Camembert cheese prevents microglial inflammation and Alzheimer's pathology in mouse models. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the preventive effects of fermented dairy products, we screened peptides from digested milk protein for their potential to regulate the activation of microglia. We identified dipeptides of tryptophan-tyrosine (WY) and tryptophan-methionine that suppressed the microglial inflammatory response and enhanced the phagocytosis of amyloid-β (Aβ). Various fermented dairy products and food materials contain the WY peptide. Orally administered WY peptide was smoothly absorbed into blood, delivered to the brain, and improved the cognitive decline induced by lipopolysaccharide via the suppression of inflammation. Intake of the WY peptide prevented microglial inflammation, hippocampal long-term potential deficit, and memory impairment in aged mice. In an Alzheimer's model using 5×FAD mice, intake of the WY peptide also suppressed microglial inflammation and accumulation of Aβ, which improved cognitive decline. The identified dipeptides regulating microglial activity could potentially be used to prevent cognitive decline and dementia related to inflammation.
- SNHG14 confers gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer by up-regulating ABCB1 via sponging miR-206-3p. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2019 May 20; 116:108995
- Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been widely used as a first-line agent in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, the de…
Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has been widely used as a first-line agent in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, the development of chemoresistance ultimately limited the curative effect of anti-cancer drugs. The present study aims to investigate the functions of SNHG14 in gefitinib resistance and gain insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we found that SNHG14 expression was elevated and miR-206-3p expression was decreased in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC tumor tissues and cells. Functionally, SNHG14 overexpression increased gefitinib resistance by promoting cell viability, lowering apoptosis and enhancing colony forming ability, while SNHG14 knockdown reduced gefitinib resistance in NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, SNHG14 induced ABCB1 expression via interaction with miR-206-3p. Moreover, depletion of SNHG14 enhanced the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to gefitinib in vivo. Together, SNHG14 confers gefitinib resistance in NSCLC by regulating miR-206-3p/ABCB1 pathway, contributing to a better understanding of SNHG14 in acquired resistance and elucidating a candidate target to improve treatment response of NSCLC patients.
- Local anti-angiogenic therapy by magnet-assisted downregulation of SHP2 phosphatase. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Control Release 2019 May 20
- Anti-angiogenic therapies are promising options for diseases with enhanced vessel formation such as tumors or retinopathies. In most cases, a site-specific local effect on vessel growth is required, …
Anti-angiogenic therapies are promising options for diseases with enhanced vessel formation such as tumors or retinopathies. In most cases, a site-specific local effect on vessel growth is required, while the current focus on systemic distribution of angiogenesis inhibitors may cause severe unwanted side-effects. Therefore, in the current study we have developed an approach for the local inhibition of vascularization, using complexes of lentivirus and magnetic nanoparticles in combination with magnetic fields. Using this strategy in the murine embryonic stem cell (ESC) system, we were able to site-specifically downregulate the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 by RNAi technology in areas with active vessel formation. This resulted in a reduction of vessel development, as shown by reduced vascular tube length, branching points and vascular loops. The anti-angiogenic effect could also be recapitulated in the dorsal skinfold chamber of mice in vivo. Here, site-specific downregulation of SHP2 reduced re-vascularization after wound induction. Thus, we have developed a magnet-assisted, RNAi-based strategy for the efficient local inhibition of angiogenesis in ESCs in vitro and also in vivo.
- Cbl interacts with multiple E2s in vitro and in cells. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216967
- Many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, such as EGFR, MET) are negatively regulated by ubiquitination and degradation mediated by Cbl proteins, a family of RING finger (RF) ubiquitin ligases (E3s). Los…
Many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, such as EGFR, MET) are negatively regulated by ubiquitination and degradation mediated by Cbl proteins, a family of RING finger (RF) ubiquitin ligases (E3s). Loss of Cbl protein function is associated with malignant transformation driven by increased RTK activity. RF E3s, such as the Cbl proteins, interact with a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) to confer specificity to the ubiquitination process and direct the transfer of ubiquitin from the E2 to one or more lysines on the target proteins. Using in vitro E3 assays and yeast two-hybrid screens, we found that Ube2d, Ube2e families, Ube2n/2v1, and Ube2w catalyze autoubiquitination of the Cbl protein and Ube2d2, Ube2e1, and Ube 2n/2v1 catalyze Cbl-mediated substrate ubiquitination of the EGFR and SYK. Phosphorylation of the Cbl protein by by Src resulted in increased E3 activity compared to unphosphorylated cbl or Cbl containing a phosphomimetic Y371E mutation. Ubiquitin chain formation depended on the E2 tested with Cbl with Ube2d2 forming both K48 and K63 linked chains, Ube2n/2v1 forming only K63 linked chains, and Ube2w inducing monoubiquitination. In cells, the Ube2d family, Ube2e family, and Ube2n/2v1 contributed to EGFR ubiquitination. Our data suggest that multiple E2s can interact with Cbl and modulate its E3 activity in vitro and in cells.
- RANKL inhibition improves muscle strength and insulin sensitivity and restores bone mass. [Journal Article]
- JCIJ Clin Invest 2019 May 23; 130
- Receptor activator of Nfkb ligand (RANKL) activates, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits, osteoclastogenesis. In turn a neutralizing Ab against RANKL, denosumab improves bone strength in osteoporosi…
Receptor activator of Nfkb ligand (RANKL) activates, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits, osteoclastogenesis. In turn a neutralizing Ab against RANKL, denosumab improves bone strength in osteoporosis. OPG also improves muscle strength in mouse models of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (mdx) and denervation-induce atrophy, but its role and mechanisms of action on muscle weakness in other conditions remains to be investigated. We investigated the effects of RANKL inhibitors on muscle in osteoporotic women and mice that either overexpress RANKL (HuRANKL-Tg+), or lack Pparb and concomitantly develop sarcopenia (Pparb-/-). In women, denosumab over 3 years improved appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength compared to no treatment, whereas bisphosphonate did not. HuRANKL-Tg+ mice displayed lower limb force and maximal speed, while their leg muscle mass was diminished, with a lower number of type I and II fibers. Both OPG and denosumab increased limb force proportionally to the increase in muscle mass. They markedly improved muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and decrease anti-myogenic and inflammatory gene expression in muscle, such as myostatin and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-γ. Similarly, in Pparb-/-, OPG increased muscle volume and force, while also normalizing their insulin signaling and higher expression of inflammatory genes in skeletal muscle. In conclusions, RANKL deteriorates, while its inhibitor improves, muscle strength and insulin sensitivity in osteoporotic mice and humans. Hence denosumab could represent a novel therapeutic approach for sarcopenia.
- A new compound from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SS13M. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Asian Nat Prod Res 2019 May 23; :1-6
- As part of our efforts toward search for structurally new and bioactive natural products from marine-derived microorganisms, one new compound (1) was characterized from a marine-derived actinomycete …
As part of our efforts toward search for structurally new and bioactive natural products from marine-derived microorganisms, one new compound (1) was characterized from a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces sp. SS13M. The structure of new compound was elucidated by the analysis of HRESIMS, 1D, and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration was determined by ECD calculations.
- Midostaurin abrogates CD33-directed UniCAR and CD33-CD3 bispecific antibody therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia. [Journal Article]
- BJBr J Haematol 2019 May 23
- Combinatory therapeutic approaches of different targeted therapies in acute myeloid leukaemia are currently under preclinical/early clinical investigation. To enhance anti-tumour effects, we combined…
Combinatory therapeutic approaches of different targeted therapies in acute myeloid leukaemia are currently under preclinical/early clinical investigation. To enhance anti-tumour effects, we combined the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) midostaurin and T-cell mediated immunotherapy directed against CD33. Clinically relevant concentrations of midostaurin abrogated T-cell mediated cytotoxicity both after activation with bispecific antibodies and chimeric antigen receptor T cells. This information is of relevance for clinicians exploring T-cell mediated immunotherapy in early clinical trials. Given the profound inhibition of T-cell functionality and anti-tumour activity, we recommend specific FLT3 TKIs for further clinical testing of combinatory approaches with T-cell based immunotherapy.
- Cinnamon and its Metabolite Protect the Nigrostriatum in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease Via Astrocytic GDNF. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2019 May 22
- Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent neurotrophic effects and is known to promote the dopaminergic (DA) neuronal survival in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease…
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has potent neurotrophic effects and is known to promote the dopaminergic (DA) neuronal survival in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term ectopic GDNF delivery is associated with long lasting adverse side effects in PD patients. Therefore, finding safer and effective ways to elevate endogenous GDNF levels is an active area of research. This study underlines the importance of sodium benzoate (NaB), a metabolite of commonly-used spice cinnamon, a food-additive and an FDA-approved drug against hyperammonemia, in stimulating GDNF in primary mouse and human astrocytes. Presence of cAMP response element (CRE) in the Gdnf gene promoter, recruitment of CREB to the Gdnf promoter by NaB and abrogation of NaB-mediated GDNF expression by siRNA knockdown of CREB suggest that NaB induces the transcription of Gdnf via CREB. Finally, oral administration of NaB and cinnamon itself increased the level of GDNF in vivo in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of normal as well as MPTP-intoxicated mice. Accordingly, cinnamon and NaB treatment protected tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the SNpc and fibers in the striatum, normalized striatal neurotransmitters, and improved locomotor activities in MPTP-intoxicated Gfapcre mice, but not GdnfΔastro mice lacking GDNF in astrocytes. These findings highlight the importance of astroglial GDNF in cinnamon- and NaB-mediated protection of the nigrostriatum in MPTP mouse model of PD and suggest possible therapeutic potential of cinnamon and NaB in PD patients. Graphical abstract Cinnamon metabolite sodium benzoate (NaB) activates cAMP-response element-binding (CREB) via protein kinase A (PKA) in astrocytes. Activated CREB then binds to cAMP-response element (CRE) present in GDNF gene promoter to stimulate the transcription of GDNF in astrocytes. This astrocytic GDNF leads to nigral trophism and protects dopaminergic neurons from MPTP insult.
- In-hospital metabolite changes in infective endocarditis-a longitudinal 1H NMR-based study. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 May 22
- Treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is a 4-6-week provided course of intravenously administered antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum metabolites as measured by proton …
Treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is a 4-6-week provided course of intravenously administered antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum metabolites as measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy are changing over time during the active phase of IE, and to see whether these metabolite changes might be used to monitor recovery in these patients. Patients hospitalized with first-time IE at Herlev Hospital, Denmark, from September 2015 to June 2017 were included. Longitudinal blood sampling was performed and serum was analyzed using 1H NMR. Orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to separate sample groups and analyze differences in metabolite profiles. Thirteen patients were included in the study (77% men, median age 62 years (IQR 53-77)). All patients were cured during the hospitalization without any relapse during 6 months of follow-up. We analyzed 61 serum samples (median 5 samples, range 2-8 per person) drawn in the treatment period after IE diagnosis. The main changes during the in-hospital period were decreased levels of glucose, mannose, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and signals from polyols and N-acetylated protein. The metabolomic changes could in contrast to the routinely used parameters CRP and leucocyte levels distinguish between the early and late stages of disease treatment. We present the first longitudinal study of 1H NMR metabolomics in patients with infective endocarditis. The metabolomic changes show a promising strength compared to routinely used clinical parameters.
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- Real-Life Efficacy of Osimertinib in Pretreated Octogenarian Patients with T790M-Mutated Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. [Journal Article]
- TOTarget Oncol 2019 May 22
- CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of osimertinib as second-line treatment or more in octogenarian pretreated patients with EGFR T790M-mutated advanced NSCLC in a real-life setting was similar to that in randomized controlled trials.