- Inhibition of microRNA-429 in the renal medulla increased salt sensitivity of blood pressure in Sprague Dawley rats. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hypertens 2017 Apr 25
- CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that miR-429 is an important upstream mediator in PHD2/HIF-1α-associated renal adaptation to high salt intake and that deficiency in miR-429-mediated PHD2 inhibition in response to high salt in the renal medulla may represent a pathogenic mechanism for salt-sensitive hypertension.
- The role of male slings in post prostatectomy incontinence: ICI-RS 2015. [Review]
- NUNeurourol Urodyn 2017; 36(4):927-934
- CONCLUSIONS: It is important to understand how male slings work and by doing so we are more reliably able to choose the appropriate sling, predict outcomes, and as a result counsel patients. Suggestions for future research are proposed.
- Renal water conservation determines the increase in body weight after surgery: A randomized, controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- SJSaudi J Anaesth 2017 Apr-Jun; 11(2):144-151
- CONCLUSIONS: How strongly the kidneys excrete or retain fluid, which can be assessed by urine sampling, was the strongest indicator of the increase in body weight during the day of surgery. The amount of fluid alone did not correlate with the gain in body weight.
- Postoperative pain and patient-controlled epidural analgesia-related adverse effects in young and elderly patients: a retrospective analysis of 2,435 patients. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pain Res 2017; 10:897-904
- In this retrospective study, data of 2,435 patients who received fentanyl and ropivacaine-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for pain relief after elective surgery under general or sp...
In this retrospective study, data of 2,435 patients who received fentanyl and ropivacaine-based patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) for pain relief after elective surgery under general or spinal anesthesia were reviewed. Differences in postoperative pain, incidence of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)-related adverse effects, and risk factors for the need for rescue analgesics for 48 hours postsurgery in young (age 20-39 years) and elderly (age ≥70 years) patients were evaluated. Although there were no significant differences in postoperative pain intensity between the two groups until 6 hours postsurgery, younger patients experienced greater postoperative pain intensity compared with older patients 6-48 hours postsurgery. While younger patients exhibited greater incidence of numbness, motor weakness, and discontinuation of PCA postsurgery, elderly patients exhibited greater incidence of hypotension, nausea/vomiting, rescue analgesia, and antiemetic administration. Upon multivariate analysis, low fentanyl dosage and history of smoking were found to be associated with an increased need for rescue analgesia among younger patients, while physical status classification III/IV and thoracic surgery were associated with a decreased need for rescue analgesia among the elderly. Discontinuation of PCA was more frequent among younger patients than the elderly (18.5% vs 13.5%, P=0.001). Reasons for discontinuation of PCA among young and elderly patients, respectively, were nausea and vomiting (6.8% vs 26.6%), numbness or motor weakness (67.8% vs 11.5%), urinary retention (7.4% vs 8.7%), dizziness (2.2% vs 5.2%), and hypotension (3.1% vs 20.3%). In conclusion, PCEA was more frequently associated with numbness, motor weakness, and discontinuation of PCA in younger patients and with hypotension, nausea/vomiting, and a greater need for rescue analgesics/antiemetics among elderly patients. Therefore, in order to minimize the adverse effects of PCEA and enhance pain relief, different PCEA regimens and administration/prevention strategies should be considered for young and elderly patients.
- Behavior of Americium in Simulated Wounds in Nonhuman Primates. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2017; 112(6):544-549
- An americium solution injected intramuscularly into several nonhuman primates (NHPs) was found to behave differently than predicted by the wound models described in the NCRP Report 156. This was beca...
An americium solution injected intramuscularly into several nonhuman primates (NHPs) was found to behave differently than predicted by the wound models described in the NCRP Report 156. This was because the injection was made along with a citrate solution, which is known to be more soluble than chlorides, oxides, or nitrates on which the NCRP Report was based. A multi-exponential wound model specific to the injected americium solution was developed based on the retention in the intramuscular sites. The model was coupled with the americium systemic model to interpret the urinary excretion data and assess the intake, and it was determined that the models were adequate to predict early urinary excretion in most cases but unable to predict late urinary excretion. This was attributed to the differences in the systemic handling of americium between humans and nonhuman primates. Information on the type of wounds, solubility, particle size, mass, chemical form, etc., should always be considered when performing wound dosimetry.
- Anorectal malformation as a cause of recurring perineal abscesses - value of anorectal endosonography and magnetic resonance imaging: a case report. [Case Reports]
- MUMed Ultrason 2017 Apr 22; 19(2):228-231
- Malformations of the rectum and urinary tract frequently coexist, and the prevalence of urogenital defects in patients with a rectal defect ranges from 20 to 54%. In most patients, anorectal malforma...
Malformations of the rectum and urinary tract frequently coexist, and the prevalence of urogenital defects in patients with a rectal defect ranges from 20 to 54%. In most patients, anorectal malformations are diagnosed and treated surgically in early childhood. In this report, we present a case of a 52-year-old male with a history of urological operations in infancy due to a congenital urethral malformation and multiple recurrent episodes of perineal abscesses with urinary retention. Anorectal endosonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a large cystic lesion adjacent to the rectal wall which became smaller at the level of the puborectalis. The walls of the lesion had a layered structure identical to the wall of the rectum. In addition, the examinations showed hypotrophy of the left lobe of the prostate and lack of left semnal vesicles. Thus, the lesion was diagnosed as duplication of the rectum or rectal diverticulum. Surgery was performed by an interdisciplinary team of colorectal surgeons and urologist. The lesion was removed laparoscopically. The pathological report revealed that the cystic wall was typical of the intestinal wall, consistent with a diagnosis of rectal duplication.
- Mutant uromodulin expression leads to altered homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum and activates the unfolded protein response. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(4):e0175970
- Uromodulin is the most abundant urinary protein in physiological conditions. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) and it plays ke...
Uromodulin is the most abundant urinary protein in physiological conditions. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) and it plays key roles in kidney function and disease. Mutations in UMOD, the gene encoding uromodulin, cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease uromodulin-related (ADTKD-UMOD), characterised by hyperuricemia, gout and progressive loss of renal function. While the primary effect of UMOD mutations, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is well established, its downstream effects are still largely unknown. To gain insight into ADTKD-UMOD pathogenesis, we performed transcriptional profiling and biochemical characterisation of cellular models (immortalised mouse TAL cells) of robust expression of wild type or mutant GFP-tagged uromodulin. In this model mutant uromodulin accumulation in the ER does not impact on cell viability and proliferation. Transcriptional profiling identified 109 genes that are differentially expressed in mutant cells relative to wild type ones. Up-regulated genes include several ER resident chaperones and protein disulphide isomerases. Consistently, pathway enrichment analysis indicates that mutant uromodulin expression affects ER function and protein homeostasis. Interestingly, mutant uromodulin expression induces the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), and specifically the IRE1 branch, as shown by an increased splicing of XBP1. Consistent with UPR induction, we show increased interaction of mutant uromodulin with ER chaperones Bip, calnexin and PDI. Using metabolic labelling, we also demonstrate that while autophagy plays no role, mutant protein is partially degraded by the proteasome through ER-associated degradation. Our work demonstrates that ER stress could play a central role in ADTKD-UMOD pathogenesis. This sets the bases for future work to develop novel therapeutic strategies through modulation of ER homeostasis and associated protein degradation pathways.
- Treating male retention patients with temporary prostatic stent in a large urology group practice. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Urol 2017; 24(2):8776-8781
- Men with either chronic or temporary urinary retention symptoms are common patients treated in a urology practice. Both indwelling and intermittent catheterization are widely used to treat this condi...
Men with either chronic or temporary urinary retention symptoms are common patients treated in a urology practice. Both indwelling and intermittent catheterization are widely used to treat this condition. These approaches are associated with significant complications including infection and reduced quality-of-life. Infection is a target for quality improvement and cost reduction strategies in most care settings today. We use a temporary prostatic stent (TPS) to address these issues in our practice. In this report, we describe our approach to patient selection, sizing, placement and follow up of 214 TPS placed in 56 men with chronic or temporary urinary retention in an office setting. With the first stent placement, average indwelling time was 27 days. Thirty-two patients had multiple stents placed. Replacement was performed routinely and was generally required because underlying comorbidities precluded surgery. In these patients, an average of six stents were placed (range 2-18) with average dwell times of 31 days. Symptomatic urinary tract infections (SUTI) occurred in only 6 of 214 TPS placements (2.8%), resulting in an incident rate of 0.93 SUTI per 1,000 TPS days. TPS is a safe and efficacious means of alleviating symptoms of urinary retention. TPS does not share the same infection risk profile or quality-of-life drawbacks associated with urinary catheters; this makes TPS use relevant as a urinary catheter alternative or when a urinary catheter is not recommended.
- Quantification of risk factors in 500 patients with postoperative urinary retention. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Urol 2017; 24(2):8705-8707
- CONCLUSIONS: Multiple perioperative risk factors are present in the vast majority of patients with POUR. Many of the risk factors are modifiable and represent an opportunity for intervention. This could ultimately lead to a risk profile which could be used to optimize timing of postoperative voiding trials, thus improving patient care (improve PSIs and patient comfort, reduce trauma) while maintaining low rates of CAUTI.
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- Spinal subdural hematoma: a rare case of spinal subdural hematoma complicating routine, minimally invasive lumbar discectomy and decompression and relevant literature review. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Spine Surg 2017; 3(1):112-118
- We present a case of apparently uncomplicated lumbar decompression and discectomy with delayed postoperative neurological deterioration secondary to subdural hematoma at the thoracolumbar level of th...
We present a case of apparently uncomplicated lumbar decompression and discectomy with delayed postoperative neurological deterioration secondary to subdural hematoma at the thoracolumbar level of the spinal cord. Previously described subdural hematomas have occurred spontaneously or related to iatrogenic injury. Hitherto, no case of acute postoperative subdural hematoma has been reported in the postoperative setting in the absence of known iatrogenic dural injury. A 76-year-old male with central and lateral recess spinal stenosis underwent apparently uncomplicated bilateral L3-4 and left sided L4-5 decompressive partial laminectomies and discectomy. No incidental dural injury or cerebrospinal fluid leak was detected. On postoperative day two, he developed progressive, profound weakness, sensory changes and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a compressive subdural fluid collection extending between T11-L2, which was confirmed to be xanthochromic and under pressure superficial to an undisturbed arachnoid at emergent surgical exploration and evacuation. The mechanism of this complication is unknown. The patient went on to a complete recovery following surgical evacuation of the fluid via durotomy. While this is a very rare event, it reminds that a high index of suspicion is required with a low threshold for urgent imaging and intervention in the postoperative period upon development of unexpected, progressive and/or profound neurological findings regardless of intraoperative course.