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4,752 results
  • Perineal hypospadias repair with preservation of a coincidental vagina or perineal utricle in boys with disorders of sex development. [Journal Article]
    J Pediatr Urol 2019Wolffenbuttel KP, Holmdahl G
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hypospadias repair in boys with perineal hypospadias while leaving a male vagina or perineal utricle in situ has not been reported previously, and the study's preliminary results are favorable. One of the benefits of this approach is that inadvertent injury to adjacent anatomic structures such as urethral sphincter, neurovascular bundles, ureters, vas deferens, and rectum is avoided. The main rationale for adopting this conservative approach however is to minimize genital tissue removal in children with a not yet definite gender identity, which will certainly facilitate unforeseen future gender reassignment surgery.
  • Concepts and Physiological Aspects of the Otolith Organ in Relation to Electrical Stimulation. [Review]
    Audiol Neurootol 2019; :1-10Curthoys IS
  • CONCLUSIONS: Recent anatomical and physiological results are summarized in order to introduce some of the unique issues in electrical stimulation of the otoliths. The first challenge is that each otolithic macula contains receptors with opposite polarization (opposing preferred directions of stimulation), unlike the uniform polarization of receptors in each semicircular canal crista. The puzzle is that in response to the one linear acceleration in the one macula, some otolithic afferents have an increased activation whereas others have decreased activation. Key Messages: At the vestibular nucleus this opposite receptor hair cell polarization and consequent opposite afferent input allow enhanced response to the one linear acceleration, via a "push-pull" neural mechanism in a manner analogous to the enhancement of semicircular canal responses to angular acceleration. Within each otolithic macula there is not just one uniform otolithic neural input to the brain - there are very distinctly different channels of otolithic neural inputs transferring the neural data to the brainstem. As a simplification these channels are characterized as the sustained and transient systems. Afferents in each system have different responses to stimulus onset and maintained stimulation and likely different projections, and most importantly different thresholds for activation by electrical stimulation and different adaptation rates to maintained stimulation. The implications of these differences are considered.
  • Progenitor Cells from the Adult Human Inner Ear. [Journal Article]
    Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2019Senn P, Mina A, … Heller S
  • Loss of inner ear hair cells leads to incurable balance and hearing disorders because these sensory cells do not effectively regenerate in humans. A potential starting point for therapy would be the stimulation of quiescent progenitor cells within the damaged inner ear. Inner ear progenitor/stem cells, which have been described in rodent inner ears, would be principal candidates for such an appro…
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