- Risks and Outcomes of Equine Flat Bone Fractures. [Journal Article]
- VCVet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2019; 32(4):v
- Flexible, multichannel cuff electrode for selective electrical stimulation of the mouse trigeminal nerve. [Journal Article]
- BBBiosens Bioelectron 2019 Jul 05; 142:111493
- The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), along with other cranial nerves, has in recent years become a popular target for bioelectric medicine due to its direct access to neuromodulatory centers. Trig…
The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), along with other cranial nerves, has in recent years become a popular target for bioelectric medicine due to its direct access to neuromodulatory centers. Trigeminal nerve stimulation is currently being evaluated as an adjunctive treatment for various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases despite the mechanism of action being in question. In this work, we describe the development and validation of a novel neural interface for the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve utilizing a thin film (TF) nerve cuff containing multiple electrode sites allowing for more selective stimulation of the nerve. We characterized the properties of the device using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, voltage excursions, and in vivo testing. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the platinum-based electrodes possess a capacitive charge carrying mechanism suitable for stimulation of biological tissue with a safe charge injection limit of 73.13 μC/cm2. In vivo stimulation experiments show that the TF cuff can reliably stimulate nerve targets eliciting cortical responses similar to a silicone cuff electrode. Furthermore, selecting different pairs of stimulation electrodes on the TF cuff modulated the magnitude and/or spatial pattern of cortical responses suggesting that the device may be able to selectively stimulate different parts of the nerve. These results suggest that the TF cuff is a viable neural interface for stimulation of the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve that enables future research examining the therapeutic mechanisms of trigeminal nerve stimulation.
- Metal oxyanion removal from wastewater using manganese-oxidizing aerobic granular sludge. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Jul 11; 236:124353
- As, Sb, and Cr are redox-sensitive and toxic heavy metal(loid)s, and redox reactions are usually involved in the treatment of substrates containing these elements. In this study, manganese-oxidizing …
As, Sb, and Cr are redox-sensitive and toxic heavy metal(loid)s, and redox reactions are usually involved in the treatment of substrates containing these elements. In this study, manganese-oxidizing aerobic granular sludge (Mn-AGS) was obtained by continuously adding Mn(II) to the sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Morphological observations, and analyses of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), Mn valence-states, and microbial communities were performed on the resulting sludge. After 50 days of cultivation, biogenic Mn(III,IV) oxides (bio-MnOx) accumulated up to approximately 25 mg Mn/g suspended solids (SS). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the percentage of Mn(III,IV) was 87.6%. The protein (PN) component in EPS increased from 80.3 to 87.8 mg/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) during cultivation, which might be favorable for sludge granulation and heavy metal(loid) removal. Batch experiments showed that Mn-AGS was better at oxidizing As(III)/Sb(III) into less toxic As(V)/Sb(V) than traditional AGS. Remarkably, the results indicated that Mn-AGS did not oxidize Cr(III) but was able to reduce Cr(VI) into relatively harmless Cr(III). This work provided a new promising method with which to treat As(III), Sb(III), and Cr(VI) in wastewaters.
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): Molecular cloning, characterization and bioactivity analysis. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jul 15
- Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is mainly produced by CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, which is an important immunomodulatory cytokine that primarily promotes activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells.…
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is mainly produced by CD4+ T helper lymphocytes, which is an important immunomodulatory cytokine that primarily promotes activation, proliferation and differentiation of T cells. In the present study, flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) interleukin 2 homologue (poIL-2) was identified for the first time, and its expression patterns were characterized in healthy, virus- or bacteria-infected flounder. The full-length cDNA sequences of poIL-2 was 989 bp with an open reading frame of 423 bp coding a polypeptide of 140 amino acids (aa). The deduced aa sequences shared low similarities (<53%) with other known fish IL-2s. Multiple alignment of aa sequences revealed that poIL-2 own the classical IL-2 family signature of "C-X(3)-EL-X(2)-(T/V)-(V/M/L)-(K/T/R)-X-EC" and "DS-X-(F/L)Y(A/T/S)P". In healthy flounder, IL-2 mRNA was highly expressed in PBLs, spleen and hindgut, and moderately expressed in gill, trunk kidney and stomach. PHA, LPS and Con-A could effectively induce poIL-2 expression in primary cultured peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro. poIL-2 transcripts were significantly up-regulated in spleen, kidney, gill and hindgut post infections with Edwardsiella tarda and Hirame novirhabdovirus (HIRRV). The eukaryotic expression vector encoding poIL-2 (pcIL-2) was constructed and intramuscularly injected, which could be successfully expressed in flounders and induced significantly higher expressions of six immune related genes including poIL-2, β-defensin, CD4-1, CD8α, IFN-γ and TNF-α compared with the injection with control plasmid. Moreover, pretreatment with pcIL-2 could markedly increase the survival rate of flounder challenged with HIRRV. Our results demonstrated that poIL-2 plays an important role in the induction of immune responses and immune defense against bacterial and virus infection, which indicated its potential use as an immunopotentiator to prevent diseases in flounder.
- Colistin-containing cement spacer for treatment of experimental carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae prosthetic joint infection. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Antimicrob Agents 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: Colistin-loaded cement spacer in combination with systemic treatment were the most active regimens in this model of CPE PJI.
- Central serous chorioretinopathy: Towards an evidence-based treatment guideline. [Review]
- PRProg Retin Eye Res 2019 Jul 15
- Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common cause of central vision loss, primarily affecting men 20-60 years of age. To date, no consensus has been reached regarding the classification of CSC…
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is a common cause of central vision loss, primarily affecting men 20-60 years of age. To date, no consensus has been reached regarding the classification of CSC, and a wide variety of interventions have been proposed, reflecting the controversy associated with treating this disease. The recent publication of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials such as the PLACE trial, as well as large retrospective, non-randomised treatment studies regarding the treatment of CSC suggest the feasibility of a more evidence-based approach when considering treatment options. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current rationale and evidence with respect to the variety of interventions available for treating CSC, including pharmacology, laser treatment, and photodynamic therapy. In addition, we describe the complexity of CSC, the challenges associated with treating CSC, and currently ongoing studies. Many treatment strategies such as photodynamic therapy using verteporfin, oral mineralocorticoid antagonists, and micropulse laser treatment have been reported as being effective. Currently, however, the available evidence suggests that half-dose (or half-fluence) photodynamic therapy should be the treatment of choice in chronic CSC, whereas observation may be the preferred approach in acute CSC. Nevertheless, exceptions can be considered based upon patient-specific characteristics.
- Parallel G-triplexes and G-hairpins as potential transitory ensembles in the folding of parallel-stranded DNA G-Quadruplexes. [Journal Article]
- NANucleic Acids Res 2019 Jul 18
- Guanine quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical nucleic acids structures common in important genomic regions. Parallel-stranded G4 folds are the most abundant, but their folding mechanism is not fully u…
Guanine quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical nucleic acids structures common in important genomic regions. Parallel-stranded G4 folds are the most abundant, but their folding mechanism is not fully understood. Recent research highlighted that G4 DNA molecules fold via kinetic partitioning mechanism dominated by competition amongst diverse long-living G4 folds. The role of other intermediate species such as parallel G-triplexes and G-hairpins in the folding process has been a matter of debate. Here, we use standard and enhanced-sampling molecular dynamics simulations (total length of ∼0.9 ms) to study these potential folding intermediates. We suggest that parallel G-triplex per se is rather an unstable species that is in local equilibrium with a broad ensemble of triplex-like structures. The equilibrium is shifted to well-structured G-triplex by stacked aromatic ligand and to a lesser extent by flanking duplexes or nucleotides. Next, we study propeller loop formation in GGGAGGGAGGG, GGGAGGG and GGGTTAGGG sequences. We identify multiple folding pathways from different unfolded and misfolded structures leading towards an ensemble of intermediates called cross-like structures (cross-hairpins), thus providing atomistic level of description of the single-molecule folding events. In summary, the parallel G-triplex is a possible, but not mandatory short-living (transitory) intermediate in the folding of parallel-stranded G4.
- A SENSITIVE LC-MS/MS ASSAY FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF METHADONE AND ITS METABOLITES IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS: COMPARISON WITH PLASMA. [Journal Article]
- TDTher Drug Monit 2019 Jul 15
- CONCLUSIONS: This assay allows for the measurement of small volume blood samples without the need for an intravenous blood draw and thus, it is suitable for pharmacokinetics studies and therapeutic drug monitoring in pediatric patients.
- Definition of Successful Infection Management and Guidelines for Reporting of Outcomes After Surgical Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: From the Workgroup of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS). [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Jul 17; 101(14):e69
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- A Novel Treatment for Anterior Shoulder Instability: A Biomechanical Comparison Between a Patient-Specific Implant and the Latarjet Procedure. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Jul 17; 101(14):e68
- CONCLUSIONS: The mean translational peak force needed to dislocate the humerus 10 mm anteriorly on the glenoid was higher after glenoid restoration with the 3D-printed anatomic-specific implant compared with when the glenoid had a 20% surface defect but also compared with when the glenoid was intact. No differences in mean translational peak force were found between the 3D-printed anatomic-specific glenoid implant and the Latarjet procedure, although there was less variability in the 3D-implant condition.Novel 3D-printing technology could provide a reliable patient-specific alternative to solve problems related to traditional treatment methods for shoulder instability.