- Role of endoscopic vacuum therapy in the management of gastrointestinal transmural defects. [Review]
- WJWorld J Gastrointest Endosc 2019 May 16; 11(5):329-344
- A gastrointestinal (GI) transmural defect is defined as total rupture of the GI wall, and these defects can be divided into three categories: perforations, leaks, and fistulas. Surgical management of…
A gastrointestinal (GI) transmural defect is defined as total rupture of the GI wall, and these defects can be divided into three categories: perforations, leaks, and fistulas. Surgical management of these defects is usually challenging and may be associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, several novel endoscopic techniques have been developed, and endoscopy has become a first-line approach for therapy of these conditions. The use of endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) is increasing with favorable results. This technique involves endoscopic placement of a sponge connected to a nasogastric tube into the defect cavity or lumen. This promotes healing via five mechanisms, including macrodeformation, microdeformation, changes in perfusion, exudate control, and bacterial clearance, which is similar to the mechanisms in which skin wounds are treated with commonly employed wound vacuums. EVT can be used in the upper GI tract, small bowel, biliopancreatic regions, and lower GI tract, with variable success rates and a satisfactory safety profile. In this article, we review and discuss the mechanism of action, materials, techniques, efficacy, and safety of EVT in the management of patients with GI transmural defects.
- Residual Negative Pressure in Vacuum Blood-Collection Tube and Hemolysis in Pediatric Blood Specimens. [Journal Article]
- LMLab Med 2019 Jun 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Eliminating the residual negative pressure of vacuum blood-collection tubes was effective at reducing the macrohemolysis and/or microhemolysis rate.
- Intrauterine fallopian tube incarceration after vacuum aspiration for pregnancy termination causes infertility. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Minim Invasive Gynecol 2019 Jun 07
- Development and performance evaluation of a novel dynamic headspace vacuum transfer "In Trap" extraction method for volatile compounds and comparison with headspace solid-phase microextraction and headspace in-tube extraction. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr A 2019 May 22
- Headspace in-tube extraction (HS-ITEX) and solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) sampling, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are widely used to analyze volatile compounds in v…
Headspace in-tube extraction (HS-ITEX) and solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) sampling, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are widely used to analyze volatile compounds in various food matrices. While the extraction efficiency of volatile compounds from foodstuffs is crucial for obtaining relevant results, these efficiency of these extraction methods limited by their long extraction times and requirements for large sample quantity. This study reports on the development and application of a new extraction technique based on HS-ITEX hardware, which improves the extraction rate and capacity by operating under reduced pressure, called Dynamic Headspace Vacuum Transfer In-Trap Extraction (DHS-VTT). The results of the study indicate that DHS-VTT improves the extraction of the target compounds. The area of the mass spectrometer signal for each compound can be up to 450 times more intense than the HS-SPME and HS-ITEX techniques performed in the same experimental conditions of extraction temperature and time. DHS-VTT runs in automated mode, making it possible to work with smaller sample quantity and also favors the HS extraction of all volatile compounds. In addition, the necessary modifications to the installation were cheap and the life of an ITEX trap is up to 10 times longer than an SPME fibre.
- Additive Manufacturing of Devices Used for Collection and Application of Cereal Rust Urediniospores. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2019; 10:639
- Optimized inoculation procedures are an important consideration in achieving repeatable plant infection when working with biotrophic rust fungi. Several plant pathology laboratories specializing in r…
Optimized inoculation procedures are an important consideration in achieving repeatable plant infection when working with biotrophic rust fungi. Several plant pathology laboratories specializing in rust research employ a system where the collection and application of fungal spores are accomplished using an exchangeable gelatin capsule. Urediniospores are collected from erumpent pustules on plant surfaces into a capsule fitted to a cyclone collector controlled by a vacuum pump. By adding light mineral oil to the same capsule, the spore suspension is then sprayed onto plants by means of a dedicated atomizer (inoculator) connected to an air pressure source. Although devices are not commercially available, modern day technologies provide an opportunity to efficiently design and manufacture collectors and inoculators. Using a process called Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as "3D printing," the bodies of a collector and inoculator were digitally designed and then laser-sintered in nylon. Depending on availability, copper or aluminum tubes were fitted to the bodies of both devices afterward to either facilitate directed collection of spores from rust pustules on plant surfaces or act as a siphon tube to deliver the spore suspension contained in the capsule. No statistical differences were found between AM and metal inoculators for spray delivery time or spore deposition per unit area. In replicated collection and inoculation tests of wheat seedlings with urediniospore bulks or single pustule collections of Puccinia triticina and P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal organisms of leaf rust and stem rust, consistent and satisfactory infection levels were achieved. Immersing used devices in acetone for 60 s followed by a 2 h heat treatment at 75°C produced no contaminant infection in follow-up tests.
- Site-resolved imaging of beryllium ion crystals in a high-optical-access Penning trap with inbore optomechanics. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Sci Instrum 2019; 90(5):053103
- We present the design, construction, and characterization of an experimental system capable of supporting a broad class of quantum simulation experiments with hundreds of spin qubits using 9Be+ ions …
We present the design, construction, and characterization of an experimental system capable of supporting a broad class of quantum simulation experiments with hundreds of spin qubits using 9Be+ ions in a Penning trap. This article provides a detailed overview of the core optical and trapping subsystems and their integration. We begin with a description of a dual-trap design separating loading and experimental zones and associated vacuum infrastructure design. The experimental-zone trap electrodes are designed for wide-angle optical access (e.g., for lasers used to engineer spin-motional coupling across large ion crystals) while simultaneously providing a harmonic trapping potential. We describe a near-zero-loss liquid-cryogen-based superconducting magnet, employed in both trapping and establishing a quantization field for ion spin-states and equipped with a dual-stage remote-motor LN2/LHe recondenser. Experimental measurements using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe demonstrate part-per-million homogeneity over 7 mm-diameter cylindrical volume, with no discernible effect on the measured NMR linewidth from pulse-tube operation. Next, we describe a custom-engineered inbore optomechanical system which delivers ultraviolet (UV) laser light to the trap and supports multiple aligned optical objectives for topview and sideview imaging in the experimental trap region. We describe design choices including the use of nonmagnetic goniometers and translation stages for precision alignment. Furthermore, the optomechanical system integrates UV-compatible fiber optics which decouple the system's alignment from remote light sources. Using this system, we present site-resolved images of ion crystals and demonstrate the ability to realize both planar and three-dimensional ion arrays via control of rotating wall electrodes and radial laser beams. Looking to future work, we include interferometric vibration measurements demonstrating root-mean-square trap motion of ∼33 nm (∼117 nm) in the axial (transverse) direction; both values can be reduced when operating the magnet in free-running mode. The paper concludes with an outlook toward extensions of the experimental setup, areas for improvement, and future experimental studies.
- Direct observation of electrons in microwave vacuum components. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Sci Instrum 2019; 90(5):054702
- Apparatus which is used to directly observe electrons in microwave vacuum components was designed and implemented into a WR-284 like waveguide operated at 2.85 GHz with up to approx. 1 MW power. To g…
Apparatus which is used to directly observe electrons in microwave vacuum components was designed and implemented into a WR-284 like waveguide operated at 2.85 GHz with up to approx. 1 MW power. To generate desired electric field levels for driving secondary emission, the waveguide structure is manipulated by reducing the test section height to 6 mm from the standard WR-284 rectangular waveguide height of 34 mm. Both test and standard sections were operated in the dominant TE10 mode. A 1 mm aperture was cut into the broadside wall of the waveguide section enabling a portion of electrons in the waveguide to enter a properly biased electron multiplier tube mounted atop of the test section. Waveforms are presented showing the direct measurement of electrons, providing a local detection method with nanosecond temporal resolution. Future work will incorporate the test setup for multipactor studies.
- Topical tranexamic acid in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty: efficacy and safety? - a case-control study. [Journal Article]
- BMBMC Musculoskelet Disord 2019 May 17; 20(1):228
- CONCLUSIONS: Topical TXA administration appears to be a simple and effective option for reducing blood loss, transfusion requirements, and medical complications after hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures.
- High-Efficiency Superheated Steam Generation for Portable Sterilization under Ambient Pressure and Low Solar Flux. [Journal Article]
- AAACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 May 22; 11(20):18466-18474
- Superheated solar steam generation above 100 °C is critical for many important applications such as sterilization but is challenging to achieve under natural fluctuating low-flux solar illumination a…
Superheated solar steam generation above 100 °C is critical for many important applications such as sterilization but is challenging to achieve under natural fluctuating low-flux solar illumination and often requires pressurization and the usage of expensive optical concentrators. Herein, we demonstrate generation of superheated steam under ambient pressure and low-flux solar illumination by integrating a recently emerged interfacial evaporation design into a solar vacuum tube. Within the tube, the water vapor, which is generated by a high-efficiency localized heating-based evaporator, is further heated by a heat exchanger into superheated steam without pressurization. The steam generator has shown tunable steam temperature from 102 to 165 °C and solar-to-steam conversion efficiency from 26 to 49% under 1 sun illumination. Owing to the minimized heat loss from the solar vacuum tube and the interfacial evaporation design, it enables stable generation of steam above 121 °C under ambient fluctuating solar illumination with an averaged solar flux of ∼600 W/m2. Effective sterilization is verified using both the Geobacillus stearothermophilus biological indicator and Escherichia coli bacteria, making portable solar steam sterilization and other steam-related applications feasible under ambient solar illumination.
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- Development of a confocal scanning microscope for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy at variable temperatures. [Journal Article]
- RSRev Sci Instrum 2019; 90(4):043702
- We developed and tested a confocal scanning optical microscope that fits into a thermally controlled, commercial research cryostat designed for operation from ambient temperature down to below 4 K. T…
We developed and tested a confocal scanning optical microscope that fits into a thermally controlled, commercial research cryostat designed for operation from ambient temperature down to below 4 K. The home-built microscope is a fiber-coupled, self-contained instrument based on readily available mechanical and optical components. Its sample module is sealed in a protective stainless steel tube that minimizes vibrations caused by the flow of cryogenic gas. A high numerical aperture microscope objective specifically designed for cryogenic and high-vacuum applications focuses the excitation light onto the sample, while the core of an optical fiber attached to an avalanche photodiode acts as the confocal detection pinhole. The sample is displaced using a piezotube scanner mounted on top of a three-axis, low-temperature nanopositioner assembly for coarse sample positioning. A broadband polarizing cube beam splitter in the emission path allows for polarization-resolved imaging and spectroscopy. Fluorescence excitation scans are acquired with custom-written software that correlates fluorescence photon counts with the output from a high precision wavelength meter, which is part of a narrow-band, tunable dye laser setup. The imaging and spectral data acquisition capabilities of the microscope were confirmed using a variety of samples and excitation wavelengths at temperatures ranging from 5 K to room temperature.